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"Ladies would have left off patching on the Whig or Tory side of their face, though Mr. Addison had not written his excellent Spectator."

Query. Which was the Whig and which the Tory side of the face?

The above extract is from Walpoliana, p. 31. Who compiled this "little lounging miscellany," as it is termed in the preface? N. H. Ř.

[From the amusing paper on the political patch by Addison in The Spectator, No. 81, we can simply conjecture that the Whig belles patched on the right, and the Tories on the left side of their faces. He says, "About the middle of last winter [1710-11] I went to see an opera at the theatre in the Haymarket, where I could not but take notice of two parties of very fine women, that had placed themselves in the opposite side boxes, and seemed drawn up in a kind of battle array one against another. After a short survey of them, I found they were patched differently; the faces on one hand being spotted on the right side of the forehead, and those upon the other on the left. I quickly perceived that they cast hostile glances upon one another; and that their patches were placed in those different situations as party-signals to distinguish friends from foes. Upon inquiry I found that the body of Amazons on my right hand were Whigs, and those on my left Tories." Another writer of the day describes the unpleasant discovery made by a lady at a ball in a nobleman's house, who had in her hurry placed a patch on the Whig side of her face when she was a stanch Tory, and wished so to appear. Walpoliana, in 2 vols., is by that prolific but eccentric writer, John Pinkerton.]


- Poems by this gentleman were recently published by Messrs. Longman & Co. It appears from their Notes on Books (ii. 394), that his early death cut short a career of great promise. The date of his decease and other particulars respecting him will be acceptable. S. Y. R.

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[Thomas Throckmorton, the author of the Metrical Legend, was the nephew of Sir Nicholas, and only surviving son and heir of Sir Robert Throckmorton. See the pedigree of the family in Dugdale's Warwickshire, ii. 749; Lipscomb's Bucks, iv. 399; and Betham's Baronetage, i. 486. The life of Thomas Throckmorton was a continued scene of trouble, on account of his religious principles, his estate being frequently under sequestration. He was buried at Weston Underwood, Bucks, with the following inscription on a white marble tablet: "Hic jacet Thomas Throckmorton, armiger, qui obiit 13 die Martii Anno Domini 1614, ætatis suæ 81." It is remarkable that Lipscomb (as well as Wotton) should attribute this Metrical Life to Sir Nicholas himself, as the five stanzas quoted from it in his Bucks, iv. 400, are copied from the Gentleman's Magazine for Dec. 1793, p. 1089, where the poem is stated to be by Thomas Throckmorton.]

RICHARD LASSELS, GENT.-Will one of your correspondents be so kind as to tell me who he was? The Voyage of Italy, &c., a posthumous publication under the editorship of his friend S. Wilson, printed in Paris in 1670, is a quaint, witty, and learned volume. He had travelled much" as tutor to several of the English nobility and gentry;" to one of whom, Richard, Lord Lumley, Viscount Waterford, the very amusing volume is dedicated. He was, I believe, a Roman Catholic. Was he of the Nottinghamshire Lassels? R. C. H. HOTCHKIN.

Thimbleby Rectory, Horncastle.

[Richard Lassels was born at Brokenborough, co. York; resided for a short time in the University of Oxford; admitted student in the English College at Doway, Septem

[Francis Charles Weedon was educated at King's College, London, and for a short period continued his studies at Christ College, Cambridge, which he was compelled to relinquish through severe illness. When in his eigh-ber 6, 1623, and ordained priest on March 6, 1632. He teenth year he enclosed a specimen of his poetry, with a note, to Lord Macaulay, soliciting his aid to get it inserted in some periodical. The piece sent was entitled "A Sketch of the Peloponnesian War," and it elicited a reply couched in the following flattering terms:

"Albany, Nov. 13, 1849. "Sir,-You can have no difficulty in finding a magazine in which such verses as those you have sent me will be inserted with joy and gratitude. I am, however, unable to be of any use to you in that way, as I have no connection with any periodical work that admits poetry, nor do I know the editor of any such work. I have the honour to be, Sir, your most obedient servant,


Mr. Weedon died of consumption at his father's residence on January 10, 1861, in the thirtieth year of his age. These particulars are taken from a brief Memoir prefixed to the recently published volume of his Poems.] THOMAS THROCKMORTON (3rd S. iv. 455.)-Was not the nephew of Sir Nicholas Throckmorton, to

much delighted in seeing foreign countries, and travelled through Italy five times as tutor to several of the English nobility. He died at Montpellier in France in September, 1668, and was buried in the church of the barefooted Carmelites in the suburb of that city. There is a second edition of his Italian Voyage with large Additions by a Modern Hand, 8vo, 1698; and an unpublished MS. by him in the British Museum (Add. MS. 4217), entitled nall from Brussels to Italy in 1650." Consult for other "An Account of the Journey of Lady Catherine Whete304; and Wood's Athena, by Bliss, iii. 818.] particulars of him Dodd's Church History, fol. edition, iii.

JOSEPH WASHINGTON, of the Middle Temple, Esq., had an elegy written upon him by Nahum Tate, in 1694. I should be glad to learn who he was? C. J. R.

[Joseph Washington was the son of Robert Washington, for some time a merchant at Rotterdam. Joseph was House, near Doncaster. He was a great friend of Lord a lawyer of Gray's Inn, and occasionally resided at Car

Somers, and author of various pieces, An Abridgement of the Statutes, 1689, 8vo; Observations on the Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction of the Kings of England, 1689, &c. He died February 26, 1693, and is buried in the Temple Church. By his wife Ursula, daughter of John Rawson of Pickburn, he had a daughter Mary, baptised at Doncaster, 1683; and John, baptised at Doncaster, 1686. For the pedigree of his family, see Hunter's South Yorkshire, i. 353. A translation of Milton's Defensio by a Washington, is supposed to be by this Joseph, though Warton says by Richard Washington of the Middle Temple. Vide "N. & Q." 1st S. i. 164; vi. 602.]



(3rd S. iv. 403.)

A correspondent, H. W., considers it "very evident" from Lactantius, that "it was not the sign of the cross, but the symbol of the name of Christ that was seen by Constantine;" adding, too much in the style of the infidel Gibbon, "if indeed there was a celestial vision at all." Eusebius describes the apparition, and declares that the Emperor Constantine himself related it to him, and confirmed it with a solemn oath: pkos TE TIOTWσaμévov Toy λóyov; after which he asks, who shall hesitate to believe it? rig av aupißáno μὴ οὐχὶ πιστεῦσαι τῷ διηγήματι; and more especially as the time since elapsed has afforded additional testimony in confirmation of the narrative: uário' ore καὶ ὁ μετὰ ταῦτα χρόνος ἀληθῆ τῷ λόγῳ παρέσχε τὴν μαρτυρίαν. Eusebius then relates that Constantine saw one day a little after noon, with his own eyes, a luminous cross in the sky above the sun, with this inscription By this conquer. Abтoîs oplaλuoîs ἰδεῖν ἔφη ἐν αὐτῷ οὐρανῷ ὑπερκειμενον τοῦ ἡλίου σταυ ροῦ τρόπαιον, ἐκ φωτὸς συνιστάμενον, γραφήν τε αὐτῷ συνῆφθαι, λέγουσαν, τούτῳ νίκα. He adds that it was seen also by all his soldiers, who were astonished at the wonderful occurrence.

Eusebius carefully distinguishes this appearance of the luminous cross in the day, from the vision in which Christ himself appeared to Constantine the night following. He distinctly says that our Saviour appeared to him in his sleep with that same sign which had been shown to him in the sky σὺν τῷ φανέντι κατ ̓ οὐρανὸν σημείῳ ὀφθῆναι τε: and commanded him to make a military standard like that sign, and use it in battle as a salutary protection, μίμημα ποιησάμενον τοῦ κατ' οὐρανὸν ὀφθέντος σημείου, κ. τ. λ. He then tells us that the emperor rose early the next morning, and disclosed the vision to his friends, and then assembling his goldsmiths and jewellers, he seated himself in the midst of them, and described to them the form of the sign: Kal Toù onμelov Thy elkóva opáte, ordering them to make the likeness of it in gold and precious stones.

Next, Eusebius describes what they did make

by the emperor's command: a long staff covered with gold, having a transverse piece, in the form of a cross: Képas exev ¿yxápolov, σтаνρoù σxhμатι TETOμévov: that on the top of the staff was a crown, or wreath, of gold and jewels, surrounding the well-known monogram. From this de scription of Eusebius, it is evident that the intention of the emperor was to represent the sign of the cross. He did this first, by the cross-staff of the standard; and, secondly, by the cruciform letter X of the monogram. That this was meant as a representation of the cross is clear from the words which he uses further on, where, describing the situation of the figures of the emperor and his two sons on the banner of the labarum, he expressly tells us, that they were on the upper part of the veil, immediately under the sign of the cross : ἄνω μετέωρον ὑπὸ τῷ τοῦ σταυροῦ τροπαίῳ.

It is, moreover, abundantly evident from the repeated mention of the sign of the cross in the Oration of the same Eusebius, De laudibus Constantini, that the symbol intended to be represented was always understood and spoken of as that of the cross. Thus he informs us that Constantine, in his gratitude to God, who had been the author of his victory, did, both by voice and by public monuments, proclaim to all men the triumphal sign: τὸ νικοποιὸν σημεῖον. And that by this was meant the sign of the cross is clear from the words of Eusebius, who goes on for a long time proclaiming the power of that sacred sign, calling it in places also the saving sign: σωτήριῳ σημείῳ; and from his account in the Life of Constantine, book 1. chap. xl., of the statue of the emperor erected in the centre of Rome itself, bearing a tall staff in the form of a cross, αὐτίκα δ ̓ οὖν ὑψηλὸν δόρυ σταυροῦ σχήματι ὑπὸ χεῖρα ἰδίας εἰκόνος, in reference to which he uses the very same expression, saying that thereby Constantine proclaimed to all men the saving sign, τὸ σωτήριον σημεῖον.

We have then the plain declaration of the historian Eusebius, whose informant was Constantine himself, that a luminous cross was seen in the heavens in broad daylight, above the sun, and not only by himself but by all his soldiers, most of whom, probably, were pagans; and yet H. W. appears to doubt " if there was a celestial vision at all"! But he thinks to disprove the assertion of Eusebius by a passage from Lactantius, who speaks only of one of the visions with which the emperor was favoured, that of the following night. The words of Lactantius, however, prove nothing against the testimony of Eusebius. Lactantius states that Constantine was warned in a dream to mark the celestial sign of God upon the shields of his soldiers, evidently alluding to the sign which he had seen in the heavens. He did so by the wellknown monogram, using, as Lactantius ex

pressly says, the "transverse letter" or cross letter X, by which was represented the cross, and adding to it the P to make it symbolize also the name of Christ. Really, if so clear and credible a testimony as that of Eusebius is to be thus unceremoniously called in question, no historical record will be secure from scepticism. F. C. H.

(3rd S. iv. 371.)

The statement in Mr. G. A. Sala's novel of Captain John Dangerous is copied verbatim from Carr's Tour in Holland, published in 4to in 1807.

Sir John Carr visited the workhouse at Amster

dam in 1806, and gives a detailed description of

the establishment. He was not permitted to visit that part of the building in which the young ladies were confined, as he states that strangers were never allowed to see them, but he derived his information on the spot from the authorities of the workhouse, and there can be no reason to doubt it. Other travellers have confirmed his account. Vide Sir John Carr's Tour in Holland in 1806, p. 300.

These rigorous modes of discipline, which startle our sensitive feelings now, seem to have been prevalent in many parts of the continent formerly, and perhaps are not entirely obsolete.

The Rev. Joseph Townsend, an author of high reputation, whose journey through Spain in 1786 ranks among the best standard works on that country, has the following curious account of a house of correction at Barcelona very similar to the workhouse at Amsterdam:

"There is one House of Correction at Barcelona, which is too remarkable to be passed over in silence. It embraces two objects; the first, the reformation of prostitutes and female thieves; the second, the correction of women who fail in their obligation to their husbands, &c., who either neglect or disgrace their families. The house for these purposes is divided into distinct portions, without any communication between them; the one is called Real Časa de Galera; the other Real Casa de Correc


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"The relation at whose suit they are taken into custody pays three sueldos, or fourpence-halfpenny, a day for their maintenance, and with this scanty provision they must be contented. Here they are compelled to work, and the produce of their labour is deposited for them till the time of their confinement is expired.

"The whole building will contain five hundred women, but at present there are only one hundred and thirteen. Among these are some ladies of condition, who are supposed to be visiting some distant friends.

"Here they receive bodily correction when it is judged necessary for their reformation. The establishment is

under the direction and government of the Regents de la Audiencia, the two senior criminal judges, with the Alcayde, and his attendants. One of these judges conducted me through the several apartments, and from him I received my information. Among other particulars he told me that they had then under discipline a lady of fashion accused of drunkenness, and of being imprudent in her conduct. As she was a widow, the party accusing was her brother-in-law, the Marquis of The judges

of this court are universally acknowledged to be men of probity, and worthy of the high degree of confidence thus placed in them."-Townsend's Journey through Spain, 1786, vol. i. p. 126.

It is rather remarkable that Mr. Townsend, a grave and intelligent traveller, expresses no disapprobation of this institution, but rather speaks of it with respect, and even indulges in a little quiet irony at the expense of the fair offenders who are undergoing its sharp discipline. C. M.


(3rd S. iv. 432.)

Your correspondent P. O. refers to a former reply concerning Carthagena, in South America, as suggesting to him an inquiry regarding a Spanish expedition against Algiers, that, in 1775, sailed from Carthagena, the swampy town and excellent harbour on the Spanish coast of the Mediterranean.

"The Spanish General, Count O'Reilly, That Byron's Julia treated vilely," was, as may by inferred from his patronymic, a gentleman of Milesian extraction in the Spanish service. It would be easy to multiply examples to show that, where there is a fair prospect of fighting, towards that place Irishmen gravitate. General O'Donnell occupies a prominent place in later Spanish history: to descend in the scale, we have Meagher of the Sword, a Federal American Brigadier, about the sole survivor of his late Irish Brigade "it's a sore fight when all are slain;" and the other day there was the Pope's Irish Brigade, that, by reason of its own fiery spirit, was consumed by a spontaneous combustion. It was led, if I mistake not, by another O'Reilly. The Genethe Spanish court, but for long he had been very ral Count O'Reilly, it appears, was a favourite of unpopular. He was governor of Madrid; and after his unfortunate Algerine expedition he was removed to the government of Andalusia, because he was so odious to the people of Madrid that they threatened vengeance upon his person. The Spaniards attacked the Algerines; for these infidels, being about as tolerant as their Christian neighbours, had assailed the Spanish African settlements with a view to turn all Christians out of the Algerine coast. The Spanish expeditionary force consisted of fifty-one ships of war, well found, carrying some 28,000 land troops, and a powerful

artillery. Don Pedro de Castigon was the admiral; by favour more than from merit, Count O'Reilly was generalissimo. After the dissensions usual amongst chiefs on such occasions, the Spaniards landed July 8, 1775, and were warmly received by the determined Algerines. Enthusiasm, according to Sir Charles Napier, always runs away. The Spanish troops that first landed | were enthusiastic, and so the head rushed into action long before the tail was ashore. After some fighting it has been said thirteen hours (?) -the determination of these barbarian infidels so put about the troops of his Catholic Majesty, that they broke, and under cover of the guns of the fleet, re-embarked. They left behind some 800 slain, and a considerable portion of their 2000 wounded; all that fell into their hands the Algerines massacred. A certain General Vaughan was there. Is he the English baronet referred to by P. O. in his query? I find Robert Howell Vaughan, Esq., was created a baronet just sixteen years after the period in question. It is possible the general and the new baronet may be the same. The baronetcy still exists.

General Vaughan wanted the Spaniards to fight again next day, but they had no stomach for it; so they held a council of war, and, proverbially, councils of war never fight. Thus I have endeavoured to show why it is that historically Don Juan's Donna Julia was wrong when she asked — "Is it for this that General Count O'Reilly,

WHO TOOK ALGIERS, declares I used him vilely?”

This Spanish expedition under the command of Gen. Count Alexander O'Reilly, and Don Riccardos, Anglicè, Sir Philip Richards, Bart., of Brambletye House, sailed full of enthusiasm and hope from the port of Carthagena in 1775, to humiliate, if not to conquer, that nest of pirates, Algiers. The expedition consisted of 19,820 foot and 1,368 horse, with 47 king's ships, of different rates, and 346 transports. The affair was a pet project with the Spanish people and their King, Charles III. On June 15, 1775, the procession of Corpus Christi passed along the mole of Carthagena, and the fleet received a solemn benediction, and saluted the Host with a triple discharge of all their artillery. Three weeks after, the fleet departed from the harbour in proud array, amid the cheers of thousands - a goodly sight. Alas! that so showy an undertaking should end

in such utter vexation.

Donna Julia, in Lord Byron's Don Juan, when naming to her husband the admirers she had for his sake slighted, says,

"Is it for this that General Count O'Reilly,

Who took Algiers, declares I used him vilely?" "Donna Julia," observes Lord Byron in a note, "here made a mistake. Count O'Reilly did not take Algiers

but Algiers very nearly took him: he and his army and fleet retreated with great loss and not much credit from before that city in 1775."

The result was, indeed, pretty near as Lord Byron mentions, fors l'honneur. Whether it was, as some would have it, that the Spaniards out of jealousy at being led by two foreigners, did not at first act with the energy they ought to have done, or whether the force of the enemy was far beyond what was anticipated, the expedition made little progress after landing on the Algerine territory, and was soon opposed by an overwhelming number of Moors and Turks led by Beys, the Bey of Constantine alone bringing to bear 15,000 well horsed and well armed cavalry. The gallantry of O'Reilly and Richards and the neverfailing chivalry of Spain did wonders against the odds; the enemy became twenty to one, yet the ground to the sea was fought inch by inch, and the last battle, in which the Dey's forces were repulsed so as to enable the Spaniards to reembark, cost the latter 4000 men. Once again on board, the expedition sailed for Spain, and arrived quite chap-fallen at Barcelona, Aug. 20, 1775, leaving Algiers to the future more effective attack of Lord Exmouth, and the final stroke of France, when the conquest of the piratical stronghold was the only great act the French allowed poor Charles X. -a really good and gallant monarch to accomplish. The people of Spain were furious at O'Reilly's discomfiture, but wise King Charles III. saw how the whole had occurred, and bore the disappointment meekly. Nor did he cease to retain in his good graces both O'Reilly and Richards, and to continue their promotion. I must add a word about each of them before I conclude. Count Alexander O'Reilly was a cadet of the highly respectable Irish family of O'Reilly of Baltrasna, co. Meath. He was born in 1722, and entered the Spanish service as a sub-lieutenant in the regiment of Hibernia. He went, with leave of Spain, for a short time into the French army in Germany. On his return, he rose very high in the Spanish army, under the marked favour of Charles III. He was a Lieut.-Gen. and a Count at the time of the unfortunate expedition from Carthagena, and he died in 1794, a Generalissimo, Commander of the Order of Calatrava, and a Grandee of Spain of the first class. His grandson, Don Manuel, is now Duke of Baylen, and his great-grand-nephew is the present Anthony O'Reilly, Esq., of Baltrasna, J. P. and D. I. (See Burke's Landed Gentry.)


Of Don Riccardos, otherwise Sir Philip Richards, fourth Bart. of Brambletye House place made famous by Horace Smith's romancethe history is rather obscure. The Richards, originally a foreign family, succeeded the Comptons at Brambletye; of whom and of the place

the learned Mr. John Timbs, F.S.A., gives a charming account in his pleasant volume Something for Everybody. Sir James Richards, of Brambletye, was created a baronet by Charles II. in 1684, and his fourth son, Sir Philip Richards, fourth Bart., was the companion in arms of O'Reilly in the Algerine expedition. He was a general in the Spanish service, and married a daughter of the Duke of Montemar, Spanish commander-in-chief; but when he died is not recorded, nor is it known whether or not he left issue. Burke's Extinct Baronetage reports the Baronetcy dormant, and possibly there may now be some Spaniard fully entitled to the old baronetcy of romantic Brambletye House.

45 ft.


(3rd S. iv. 69, 119, 318, 432.)


16 ft., this fell during a storm in 1718; it ex-
tended 90 ft. from the trunk, and contained a
little over five tons of timber. In 1772 another
large branch fell, 80 ft. in length, with almost five
tons of wood. The leading or top branch fell
about 180 years ago; the manner of its fall is
known, and is remarkable: the main trunk being
hollow, the perpendicular shaft slipped down,
wedged itself inside, and could not be removed;
probably it would strengthen the body of the tree.
In 1776 the height of the tree was 85 ft. The
principal branches are supported by wooden props,
and measures for its preservation seem to have
been taken by the last three proprietors. R. Foun-
tayne Wilson, Esq., of Ingmanthorpe and Melton,
near Doncaster, bought the estate of the Hon. E.
Petre, of Stapleton, near Pontefract, and his son,
the present proprietor, took the name of Mon-
tague. Mr. Petre cut up one of the large fallen
branches for dining tables; all portions have since
been carefully preserved and furniture made from
them. The soil on which the oak stands is a deep
rich light loam, resting on fine clay. Within a
mile of Cowthorpe, in the grounds at Ribstone
Hall, grew the first apple tree afterwards cele-
brated by the name of Ribstone pippin. All the
principal writers on remarkable trees, Hunter's
Evelyn's Sylva, Strutt, W. Gilpin in his Forest
Scenery, edited by Sir Thos. Dick Lauder, Loudon,
and others, agree in pronouncing the Cowthorpe
oak by far the largest in the country. An account
of remarkable oak and other trees would form an
interesting paper, and the pages of "N. & Q.” a
valuable repository of information respecting these
fast-decaying magnates.*
H. L.

No. 701, for January 10, 1835, concluded a very in-
A paper in that useful periodical, The Mirror,
teresting account of the Cowthorpe Oak, by stat-
ing its circumference at that date to be twenty-two
yards, and that its principal limb extended forty-
eight feet from the bole.
F. C. H.

In reply to the query of T. M. B., November 28, perhaps the following further particulars may be of interest and of service to those wishing to compare its proportions with other large trees. The circumference at five feet from the ground is 36 ft. 3 in. measured from the present level, which is not its natural base. About eighty years ago a fence was placed round the tree as a protection, which, being found to interfere with its vigour, was afterwards removed; a quantity of earth, taken from a trench about ten yards from the roots, was heaped around the foot and in the hollow: after this the oak recovered, and throve as usual. The position of this fence may be distinctly traced, as well as the elevation of the adjacent ground. Previous to this the circumference close to the ground was 78 ft., at one yard from the ground, 48 ft.; the present corresponding dimensions are 60 ft. and The following are the present proportions:-Circumference close to the ground, 60 ft.; 12 in. from the ground, 56 ft.; 3 ft. from the ground, 45 ft.; 4 ft. from the ground, 38 ft. 6 in.; 5 ft. from the ground, 36 ft. 3 in.; 8 ft. 6 in. from the ground, 34 ft. 6 in.; extent of principal branch, THE FIRST BOOK PRINTED IN BIRMINGHAM. 50 ft. 6 in.; girth of the branch close to the trunk, 10 ft.; three feet from the trunk, 8 ft. 4 in.; 9 ft. from the trunk, 6 ft. 9 in.; 17 ft. from trunk to minor branches, 5 ft. 3 in.; height of tree, including decayed wood, 43 ft.; height of tree having vigorous wood, 33 ft. 6 in.; extent of second principal branch, 30 ft.; girth of stem 8 ft. from the trunk to minor branches, 5 ft.; diameter of the hollow close to ground, 11 ft.; average of the hollow 8 ft. from ground, 7 ft. 8 in.; average of hollow 12 ft. from ground, 7 ft.; cubic contents of the hollow, 855 ft.; estimated quantity of timber, 73 tons, or 2,800 cubic feet; estimated age (Professor Burnett), 1600 years. The circumference of the largest branch, close to the trunk, was about

(3rd S. iv. 388.)

Since my communication of the title of the Loyal Oration with a few particulars of its author, the Rev. James Parkinson, I have been made acquainted, through the kindness of a reader of "N. & Q." whom I take this opportunity of thanking, with another of these "Orations" delivered in old times, on certain occasions, by the masters or students of King Edward's School in Birmingham. The one in question appears to have been spoken by the son of the "chief master," and we may gather from its title that the

[* Vide the General Indexes to our First and Second Series, art. “Oaks.”—ED.]

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