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taining an actual relish for human flesh. The pottery of the Feejees is among the most remarkable of their manufactures, as this art is not known to the Polynesian races. Collections equally curious were obtained at other places, but we must pass them by without remark.
The portfolios of the artists are rich in scenes of every kind, illustrating the islands or regions visited, and their inhabitants. The scenery of the islands, their mountains and forests, their villages, with interior and exterior views of huts and public houses—their spirit-houses or temples—fortificationshousehold utensils—canoes—the natives in council-dressed and painted for war—the domestic scenes of the village costumes—tattooing-modes of cooking, eating, drinking cava, taking and curing fish, swimming, gambling, and other amusements—their war-dances, club-dances, jugglery, and numerous other particulars illustrating their manners and customs, have been sketched with fidelity. The portraits, too, are numerous, and so faithful, that the natives, who had not seen them taken, on beholding them, would cry out with surprise the name of the individual represented.
The number of sketches of scenes and scenery amounts to more than 500, besides 500 others of headlands; the number of portraits is about 200. They have been taken at all the places visited, from Madeira, where the vessels first stopped, throughout the cruise, to St Helena. It is unnecessary to enumerate the particular regions.
The principal importance of the observations and sketches illustrating the different races, consists in their bearing upon the history of these races, their migrations, and their physical and moral characteristics. These subjects, in connection with the study of languages, which together constitute the science of ethnography, received special attention during the cruise. The opportunities for observation have been unusually good, and the information collected will prove, it is believed, highly interesting. Only a few of the results can here be alluded to.
It has been long known that the inhabitants of the principal groups scattered over the Pacific to the east of the Feejee islands, those usually included under the general name of Polynesia, belong to one race, and, in fact, are one people
speaking dialects of one general language closely allied to the Malay. Materials have been obtained for a comparative grammar and dictionary of the most important dialects (including those of the Sandwich, Society, Friendly, Navigator, and Hervey Islands, and New Zealand), and from this comparison, and the traditions of several of those islands, it is believed that the original seat of the population, viz. in the Navigator Islands, has been satisfactorily determined, and the course of the migrations has been traced out by which the different groups were peopled.
The vast island or continent of New Holland has heretofore been generally supposed to be inhabited by numerous tribes speaking languages entirely distinct. An opportunity, however, was found of obtaining a grammatical analysis of the languages of the inhabitants of two tribes living more than two hundred miles apart, and ignorant of each other's existence, which has resulted in shewing a clear and intimate resemblance, not merely in the great mass of words, but in the inflections and minute peculiarities of the two languages. By the aid of several vocabularies, the comparison has been extended across the entire continent, and has afforded fair grounds for believing that the inhabitants of New Holland, like those of Polynesia, are one people, speaking languages derived from a common origin. Much information was obtained from the missionaries and others concerning the character, usages, and religious belief of this singular race.
The inhabitants of the extensive and populous Feejee group have been viewed with peculiar interest, from their position between the yellow Polynesian tribes on the east, and the Oceanic Negroes on the west. The result of inquiries, pursued with care during a stay of nearly four months, has been to throw new and unexpected light on the origin of this people, and their connection with the neighbouring races. A mass of minute information in regard to the customs, traditions, and languages of these islanders, including a grammar and a dictionary of about 3000 words, will be given to the public.
The Kingsmill Islands are another interesting group, first accurately surveyed by the vessels of the expedition. They lie in the western part of the Pacific, directly under the equa
tor. They are sixteen in number, all of coral formation, the highest land on any of them rising not more than twenty feet above the level of the sea, and their united superficies not exceeding 150 square miles. They afford no stone but coral, no quadrupeds but rats, and not more than thirty species of plants. Yet on this confined space, thus scantily endowed by nature, was found a dense population of more than 60,000 souls, in a state not inferior, as regards civilization, to any of the other islands of the Pacific. It is obvious that the character and customs of this people, as modified by their peculiar condition, must have presented much that was novel and striking. By the aid of two sailors who were fortunately found living on those islands, one of whom had been detained there five years without an opportunity of escaping, these points were minutely examined, the relations of the language determined, and the probable origin of the natives ascertained.
In the territory of Oregon, vocabularies have been obtained of twenty-six languages belonging to thirteen distinct families, a surprising and unexampled number to be found in so small a space. In general, where a multitude of unrelated idioms have been believed to exist, more careful researches, by discovering resemblances and affinities before unperceived, have greatly reduced the number. On the north-west coast of America, however, this rule does not hold good, and careful investigation, instead of diminishing, has actually increased the number of languages between which no connection can be proved. On the other hand, traces of affinity have been discovered where none were supposed to exist; and it is worthy of note, that one family of languages has been found extending from the vicinity of Bheering's Straits to some distance south of the Columbia River.
At Singapore the expedition procured from an American missionary there resident, a collection made by him with great pains, and at considerable expense, of valuable Malay and Bugis manuscripts relating to the history, mythology, laws, and customs of the East India islands. Since the loss of the splendid collection of Sir Stamford Raffles, which was burned along with the vessel in which it had been shipped for England, this is believed to be the best in existence. It is likely
to be of great service hereafter, not less to the historian than the philologist.
The birds of the expedition already make a fine display in the National Gallery, although but two-thirds are yet arranged. In all there are about 1000 species collected, and double that number of specimens. Contrary to expectation, many of the birds of Oceania were found to have a very limited
range. Some of the groups have species peculiar to themselves, and several insessorial species were found to be confined to a single island. About fifty new species were obtained.
The field for mammalia afforded by the voyage has been very limited. None of the Pacific islands, including New Zealand, contain any native mammalia, except bats. Much interesting information was, however, obtained relative to species met with on the continents visited, and a few new species were collected.
The following is a list of the number of species in the other departments of zoology, as nearly as can now be determined:
829 140 900 1500
· 2000 Zoophytes, exclusive of Corals,
Of these the number of new species, is nearly as follows: Fishes, 250 Shells,
40 Zoophytes, exclusive of CoCrustacea, 600 rals,
The following catalogue contains the number of species of reptiles and fishes collected at the islands and countries visit
ge has uding
the on Se det
Of the 600 new species of crustacea, about 200 are oceanic ats. Le species, of many of which, even the genera or families are un
known. tire tus
The ocean swarms with minute crustacea, and it is seldom that a hand-net is thrown in good weather without ew spet
bringing up some novelty. In some seas they are so numerous as to colour the ocean red over many square miles of surface, as was observed off the South American coast, near Valparaiso. These are the red or bloody waters that have been described. When thus numerous, these animals are often called
whale's feed; and it is believed that they are actually the Co
food of the " right whale." Each animal is not over a 12th of an inch long; yet they swarm in such numbers as to afford subsistence to these monsters of the deep. The fibrous network of whalebone, in the roof of the whale's mouth, is fitted to strain out these animals from the water, which passes through, and is ejected by the spout-holes. Many minute dissections have been made of these and other crustacea, and some interesting physiological facts brought to light. As the species are often transparent, nearly all the processes of life, even to the motion of every muscle and every particle that floats in the blood, are open to view.
The Anatifa (a species of barnacle) has been traced through its metamorphoses, from the young state, when it resembles a Cypris, and swims at large with distinct compound eyes, to the adult animal; and its connection with crustacea is placed beyond doubt.
The collection of corals at the National Gallery is one of its principal attractions. The great beauty and variety of these
VOL, XXXVI, NO. LXXI.--JAN. 1844.