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Contents of this Number.




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A very choice selection of the leading varieties, neatly put up in Editorial Notes Abroad-More about Suffolk Farmning...

Packages of 25 varieties for

$1.00 Great Hay Crop-Pasturing Meadows,

50 varieties for King Philip Corn, by E. WILLIS,

100 varieties for Culture of Growing Wheat,


76 will be forwarded by mail free of postage. Underdraining with the Mole Plow,

WM. THORBURN, Fieid Culture of the Onion, by E. J. TAYLOR,

Mar 1-w4tmlt

492 Broadway, Albany, N. Y. Osage Orange for Hedges, by O. G. TAYLOR,. Farın Improvement Size of Fields, &c., Large vs. Small Farms, by N. Reid,..

W, T. & E. SMITH, Geneva Nursery, Geneva, N. Y., offer for Sale a The Influence of Example,

large quantity of the following Culture of Indian Corn..

R E E S. AND PLANT S. Annual Meeting N. Y. State Ag. Society, Premiums Awarded at Winter Meeting, Cost of Draining-Thomas Drain Plow, by

Standard and Dwarf PEARS, Standard and Dwarf CHERRY, nad Large or Peavine Clover,

PEACHTREES, and fine growth GRAPEVINES of the new sorts, such Shareg' Harrow,..

as Delaware, Rebecca, Diana, Concord, Hartford Prolific, and older Why Farining Does not Pay Better,.:.


sorts of Isabella, Catawba and Clinton. A large stock of the Oporto Things in Iowa, by SUEL FOSTER,

92 Grapevines, the best for making wine. Lawton Blackberry Plants, WilConstruction of Farm Cisterns,..

son's Albany Strawberry Plants, (true,) and other valuable sorts at reTea Spring Wheat,

duced prices, Norway Spruce, from 6 to 3% feet; Mahonia Aquifolia ; The Yale Lectures, by L. H. T.,.

Roses of Hybrid Perpetual or Ever-blooming-150 varieties at reduced Culture of Tobacco in Onondaga County, by V. W. S.,.

prices. A general assortment of Fruit

and Ornamental Trees always Large Yield of Carrots, .....


on hand. Inquiries and answers, .


SEEDLINGS, & c. Notes for the Month,......


Pear Seedlings just imported, in good order, now pruned and ready THE GRAZIER AND BREEDER.

for planting, at $12 per 1000. Also, Apple, Plum and Cherry Seedlings, Plan of Sheep Rack, by J. H. H...


one year old, Spring Pigs for Making Pork...

HEDGE PLANTS OF HONEY LOCUST.-This is undoubtedly the

best Hedge Plant in cultivation. For a farm hedge, or as a protection Shall we Buy the Cattle we Feed, by A MARYLAND FARMER, Treatment of Ringbone, by L. T. M.,

for orchards, it is unsurpassed, being perfectly hardy, makes a rapid The llog Cholera, by J. T. WARDER.

growth, and when kept sheared, forms a handsome, strong and dura:

91 On Feeding Cattle and Sheep, by Jons JOHNSTON,

ble hedge fence. Price only $6 per 1000. Plant 6 inches apart-will

25 C'se of Sparred Floor Stables, by M. S. K.,

Feb. 23-w&mit 95

grow on all soils. Experiment in Soiling Cattle, by J. L. R.,


| II U F A 0 Ꭱ E A Ꭱ Ꭲ Ꮋ ALMONDS, HORTICULTURAL DEPARTMENT. Strawberries, Mulberries, and Grapevines,


WM. THORBURN, How to Save Girdled Apple Trees, ...

79 Mar 1-W4tmit

492 Broadway, Albany, N. Y. Suckers in Apple Orchards.. Grape Growers Association of Connecticut,

88 THOROUGH-BRED NORTH DEVONS AT Sleight's Plant Case, by H. C. SLEIGHT, Wilson's Seedling Strawberry, by WM. NEWCOMB.


The subscriber intends holding his Second Public Sale of DEVON House in New American Style,.

88 CATTLE early in the coming June, when he will offer between 10 and Plan of a Cheap House,

89 30 head of his own breeding-all Ilerd Book animals, and of superior THE POULTRY YARD.

excellence. As at his previous sale, each lot will be started at a very Homeopathic Treatment of Fowls, by W. E. C..

low up-set price, and sold, without reserve, to the highest bidder over

91 Lime for Fowls, by C. N. BEMENT,

that amount. 91

Catalogues will be ready about the middle of April, with pedigrees Cost and Profit of Poultry, ....

and full particulars.


Feb, 2-w6tin2t

The Meadows, Rhinebeck, N. Y. Green Corn Pudding and Succotash..

76 How to Winter Cabbage, by A. S, Moss,

79 Recipe for Crullers, hy L. S. G.


A large quantity. The finest ever offered, to which the atten. How to Make Hard Soap, by Mrs. E. COPE,

87 tion of Market Gardeners is particularly called. Price only $5 per Durable Whitewash Wanted,

93 bushel, (dirt cheap,)--sacks 25 cents-delivered at Albany. For sale by How to Make the Best Cream, by H, H..



Mar 1-W4tmit

492 Broadway. Albany, N. Y. Driving Bees-Bee-Ilives, &c., by E, A, KING,

77 Shipment of Bees to California,


several young Short-Horns, bulls and heifers, bred from excellent THE DAIRY DEPARTMENT.

milking stock, (see Herd Book.) Also Suffolk swine of all ages, bred Butter from Six Cows, by J. L. R.,

98 from Messrs. Stickney's stock. Address W. H. HARISON. Barley Meal and Shorts for Cows, by J. L. R.

Feb. 23-w9tm2t.

Morley, St. Lawrence Co., N. Y. ILLUSTRATIONS.

R A N T's Ꭼ V Ꭼ Ꭱ G Ꭱ Ꭼ Ꭼ N PEA Suffolk Plow,

73 Plan of House, Tile for Roofing, 74 A Cheap House,

can be planted as early as the ground will admit of cultivation,

89 Girdled Fruit Trees, 79 Sleight's Plant Case,..

and also very late, so that a family can have a supply all the season.

89 Sheep Rack, 81 Farm Cistern,


They are productive, cook easy, and have been pronounced unequal. ed for their delicious flavor, by all who have tried them. Very higiily recoinmended. Price 01 per quart. For sale by


492 Broadway, Albany, N. Y. Garden, Field and Flower Seeds,

AKER APPLE GRAFTS by mail, post-pail, Fresh and genuine, at wholesale and retail, for sale by

Feb. 23-W&mlt.

Ridgefield, ct. March 1-4mlt.

Albany, N. Y. TEW-JERSEY LONG ORANGE CARROT-a Gentleman for Jan, 5, 1860, page 17.) The genuine article just revery superior article, for sale at $1 per pound by

ceived. At 12% cents per pound. For sale by WILLIAM THORBURN, 492 Broadway,

WILLIAM TIIORBURN, 492 Broadway, March 1-4m1t.

Albany, N. Y.
March 1--W4mit.


L O W E R SEEDS This superior variety of OATS ripens early, yields largely and

BY MAIL. weighs from 38 to 44 lbs. per bushel. Seed of my own raising, one dollar per bushel. Also PRINCE ALBERT, JACKSON WHITE, JER


35 varieties for...

$1.00 sale at one dollar per bushel, and no charge for package. Bags for

50 varieties for ...

2.00 Oats 25 cents each, Delivered on cars at Batavia. A liberal discount

100 varieties for

4.00 on orders of 10 bushels or more.

P. P. BRADISH, Feb. 2-21

Batavia, N. Y.

Persons ordering either of the above assortments, may rely upon a beautiful collection.


Feb, 23-W4t from the original introducer, (J. J. H. Gregory,) at 20 cents per

15 John street, New York, package, or by mail 29 cents, $2 per pound. For sale at the Albany Seed Store. WILLIAM THORBURN, 492 Broadway,


Albany, N. Y.


We have just received fifty named varieties of the above species, These celebrated Early Peas, (to which the particular attention of

Price from 15 Certs to $1.50 each. Market Gardeners is called.) for earliness, productiveness and length . Also all other varieties of Gladiolus, Jacobean Lilies, Tubero. of pod, cannot be surpassed. Price $6 per bushel-25 cents per quart. ses, Tiger Flowers, &c., &c., &c,, for which see onr Flower Seed OataFor sale by WILLIAM TIORBURN, 492 Broadway, logue.

J. M. THORBURN & CO,. March 1-wanit. Albany, N. Y. Feb. 23-W4t

13 John street, New York.

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UBLISHED BY LUTHER TUCKER & SON, establishment so extensive, together with the indulgence

EDITORS AND PROPRIETORS, 395 BROADWAY, ALBANY, N. Y. practically of a natural taste for well-bred and highly imJ. J. THOMAS, ASSOCIATE EDITOR, UNION SPRINGS, N. Y. proved stock.

The next morning we looked first among the Short C. M. SAXTON, BARKER & Co., Ak. Book Publishers, 25 Park Row. Horns, finding several that would have graced any show SERIES was commenced in 1833, and the seven volumes for 1852, 4, 5, 6, rich red fifteen months-old bull is called—the only one in

THE CULTIVATOR has been published twenty-six years. A New yard-particularly, I remember, “Duke Humphrey," as a 7. 8 and 9, can be furnished, bound and post-paid, at $1.00 each.

TERMS-FIFTY Oents A Year. Ten copies of the COLTIVATOR and England, beside Webb's “Earl Derby," sired by “20 Grand Ten of the ANNUAL REGISTER OF RURAL AFFAIRS, with one of each

Duke" before his trans-atlantic emigration-also a heifer, free to the Agent, Five Dollars.

"THE COUNTRY GENTLEMAN," a weekly Agricultural Journal who was half sister to that distinguished personage, and a of 16 quarto pages, making two vols. yearly of 416 pages, at $2.00 per year, is issued by the same publishers.

number of charming calves, the progeny of Mr. Webb’s

“Earl Hardwick,” and apparently justifying all the coinEditorial Notes Abroad.

pliments I paid their parent when writing immediately

after having mentally daguerreotyped his merits. No. XXIX ---A Day in the County of Essex.

Mr. Claydon's land is partially a stiff clay soil, but it

varies widely, and embraces some that is quite gravelly. Visit at Mr. JOIN CLAYDON'S—the Short Horns-the Land and Cost

of Draining it-Wages-Importance of an "Air Drain"-the Stock There were nearly 300 acres under wheat; about 520 in kept and Manure purchased—What an English Farmer knows-a barley and oats, chiefly the former; 300 in roots, mostly Ride into the Park at Audley End-Farming in Essex county.

in Swede turnips, as mangolds appear not to succeed quite There is a line of the “Eastern Counties " railway that

so well above a chalky substratum; 100 in grass, (probapierces the heart of Essex-carrying one through Chelmsford, the county town, and Colchester, a place three tiines bly permanent pasture,) and 70 in woodland. Upon the

clay a six course rotation is advantageously employed, as as large, (famous, to judge from the guide books, equally for example, 1, fallow for turnips or mangolds ; 2, barley; for its ruins and its oysters,) away into Suffolk, where we 3, clover or sometimes beans ; 4, wheat; 5, beans, and 6, have just been wandering and noting, and so on into sandy, wheat a second time, followed as above by roots. The four-course Norfolk. But there is another line, turning 800 acre farm, as I understood, belonged to Mr. Claydon northwardly from this, just after we are well away from

himself, while the other was rented. The former had been Bishopsgate, and coquetting in succession with the skirts wholly drained, and the latter to a considerable extent, at of Middlesex, Essex and Hertfordshire, as no reasonable

a cost of from £3 108. to £5 per acre. The general depth railway with due regard for the traveler's geographical im- he has preferred is 3 feet, but on soils of a gravelly kind pressions would probably do—undoubtedly encouraged in he goes to any depth necessary to tap the springs--sometimes this course, however, by the river Lea, in the valley of as much as 7 feet. We stopped to see the tile works, t and wbich, and bridging it every now and then as we proceed,

I was told that the pipe in ordinary use were sold here for our route will run for near a score of miles—passing, too, as it would be most negligent in any tourist not to add, them are paid 88. (say $2) per 1,000 for the labor involved,

248., (say $6 per 1,000,) and that the workmen who make somewhere to the right of Edmonton, and, later, through fuel being furnished. Various patterns of tile for other the junction of a branch to Ware.* Ground over wbich, it is true, these letters have before carried us hurriedly; purposes

, and of brick, were also manufactured at the same

place. having then in view the roses of Sawbridgeworth, and, upon the day following, the festival within the borders of Cam

The regular weekly wages of labor here were 9s. and

beer, that is 18. 6d. (about 37 cents) per day, but men in bridgeshire among the South Downs of Babrabam. After which, as at that time specified, it was a pleasant in the busy season can earn much more by the job. I

charge of teams receive 118. per week, and good workmen evening drive back into the corner of Essex, to enjoy the kindly proffered attentions of John Claydon, Esq., who draining, without adding that Mr. Claydon's experience on

should not, however, have diverged from the subject of cultivates two farms, embracing about 1,800 acres, in the vicinity of Saffron-Walden. I had met Mr. C. as a judge

heavy clay leads him to estimate very highly the importat the Suffolk Show, and his active service in such a sphere the head of a field—that is, a line of tile connecting the

ance of having an air drain, as it is sometimes called, at of duty was not inconsistent, I soon perceived, with the energetic and thorough management of an agricultural upper ends of the lateral drains, and open, probably at

both its own ends, for the admission rf the air. He thought *EDMONTON and WARE-see the melancholy narrative of Jous Gilpix, as chronicled by William Cowper, a most veracious author of the last + It may have been here, instead of at Mr. Crisp's, as mentioned la century.

a recent letter, that I saw the process of making "pan tile."

the circulation thus promoted through the whole system of are doing—that is, not only whether this or that particular underground channels, of most efficient assistance in branch of the year's affairs is to return a gain or not, but very stiff land to the proper exercise of their funetions, also the general features of the Agriculture of their district, supplying, in some degree, the place of the abundant pores and the details of every part of it in which they are themin an open and gravelly soil, in admitting greater atmos- selves intimately concerned. It will be remembered, in pheric pressure upon the contents of the drains—thus facili- looking over the approximative statements often given in tating their more speedy passage outward—and, perhaps, these notes, that I, and not my informants, am responsible also of service at other times in maintaining air currents, frequently for any lack of precise exactness they exhibit; which it is not impossible might create a downward draft for inquiries made as they occur to the mind in a stroll as it were, and increase by degrees the porousness of the through the fields, in driving from farm to farm, or otherguperincumbent soil. However fairly or unfairly I may rep-wise, cannot of course be answered as they would be in the resent from memory the theory by which he explained library, with the farm-map and books at hand for reference. the benefit resulting from such a head drain, this reference I saw enough of my host in the present case too, to learn to the subject should stand mainly upon the merits of the that an eighteen-hundred acre farm is no child's play to experience involved, which, as I have said, was stated to manage, even in England, and if perchance he still remembe decidedly in its favor.

bers my long string of interrogatories, I can only express the Among the stock on the place there are the Short Horns, wish that he might find in the above considerations as great intended as the foundation of a select herd, then in excuse for their having been made, as I can in the prescluding 12 or 14 head—6 of the cows in calf to three of sure of his engagements for their never having been anWebb's best bulls-and all, as intimated above, forming swered in detail. really a choice and promising beginning. Then come some Particularly I wish I might carry the reader with me on of the nicest improved Essex pigs I anywhere met with, our ride that beautiful 8th of July--pausing here to inspect breeding sows to the number of 18 or 20; and last, and a heap of calcined clay in red clods and powder, or cutting probably as yet the most important of the three, a flock of across the headland of one field to visit the crops in anabout 570 breeeding ewes and 600 lambs. Beside, how-other; spying out the insects (if any there were) in the tall, ever, there are annually fattened about 100 bullocks, and stiff beans blackening over for the harvest; following the 30 to 40 head of young stock are generally wintered, while scarifier up and down to examine its operation ; passing by from 800 to 1,000 sheep are fed for the butcher according the cottager's garden, famous for its berries; stooping under to the success of the turnip crop. To keep these animals the tile sheds and thrusting our sticks into the soft clay the farm would yield 400 quarters, or thereabouts, (eight ready for moulding; making a flying call upon a nice bit bushels per quarter) of beans ; 70 to 80 tons of oil-cake of horse flesh, and stirring up a litter or two of chubby would be purchased at from £9 per ton to £12 sometimes pigs; and last, and most of all, of the noble park at Aud. for the best home-made, while the growth of the roots ley End, with its grand old beeches, and their broad and would require 50 tons of "blood manure” or superphos- welcome circumference of shade; the troop of fallow deer pliates, applied at the rate of 3 cwt. per acre, at a cost of that clustered under them, with little fear of treacherous 88. per cwt. If the feeding of animals, according to Mr. Clay- dealings from the human forms more familiar to them there don's experience, can be made to pay for the oil-cake and as kindly admirers than as foes-two hundred and fifty or the attendence they require, all the turnips, hay, straw, &c., three hundred in number, watching us like coy youngsters will be willingly “thrown in ” by the farmer-reckoned in from a village school, and giving an effect to the sylvan other words, as so much paid out for the manure they pro- scenery about and the verdant turf beneath, which we Ameduce. It is a rather extraordinary stroke of good luck, as ricans find far more often in pictures than in reality. HowI understood it, if purchases and sales of feeding stock can ever much I might fancy, nevertheless, that my forte lay be made to do anything more than this-say, for instance, to in descriptive effort, and however well memory may recall return to the feeder 2d per bushel for his turnips. One u general outline, any landscape to be depicted in presentsource of fertilizing material, to which we have already able form, requires more aid than memory alone can give several times alluded, is largely made use of by Mr. C., the painter; he must have sketched this or that effect of namely, burnt sods and clay—the ashes being prepared at blended light and shade as they strike him at the moment, if a cost of 5d. for 20 bushels, and employed mainly, I think, he would attain to such a touch of Nature as Nature herself upon root crops.

alone can give. It has been said, I think, that if there is any The rent paid for land here is about $7.50 per acre with subject upon which one's manhood is peculiarly sensitive, out tithes, or $6.50 where also subject to a tithe of about the world over, it is that of equestrian accomplishments; and $1.25.

without even pretending to present a modest under-estimate Few pleasanter and more useful days did I spend than of those which I pussess, (mainly acquired, I tbink, by som that at the “ Rectory Farm," and I am sorry that my notes familiarity with the fine engravings of Suffolks and Clydesprove so meagre, and my memory so treacherous as to all dales presented during the past twenty-five years in the that might be narrated of what we said and did. More- Farmer's Magazine,) it is no disparagement of them, I over I had hoped to procure from Mr. Claydon some memo- trust, to add that my head would have been more clear for randa as to the cost of the production of the crops he raises, appreciative observation if my feet had been in some of feeding stock, etc., etc., to which end I must here con- position more familiar to them than the stirrups. As a fess to having propounded perhaps more questions than previous foot-note has contained an allusion to one ineven an American would generally consider it admissible stance of not altogether masterly horsemanship embalmed to ask. To tell the truth, however, it seemed to me one in legendary rhyme, it is, however, needless to pursue the of the most important illustrations I could furnish of theme farther at this time. "English Agriculture "—aside from any intrinsic value of The view commanded in some parts of the park is conthe facts themselves—to show, if possible, how well and sidered an unusually fine one, and the mansion of Lord accurately the best English farmers know just what they Braybrooke, the proprietor, is an extensive and lordly resi


F. B.

dence as one sees it from the public road, the walls being bined action of the great heat of the black surface, and sunken on either side, so that the prospect from it may the melted tar running into the pores. There is a possiinclude an uninterrupted range of woodland scenery. We bility that the tar may become so well dried by that time, also drove into Saffron Walden, a place of five or six as to obviate the latter objection. If on the thick bark of thousand people, and containing an interesting museum old trees, applied in winter, the danger would be comparaand a fine church.

tively slight. On young trees, freshly applied in warm The county of Essex, toward the eastern part of which we weather, death would be nearly certain. There would be had already visited Mr. Mechi's noted estate, is a district various grades of intermediate danger as the circumstanof not quite 950,000 acres, long in cultivation, including ces might vary. If the trees are mostly young, we should near the Thames much marshy grass land, and in the vi- prefer to get rid of the tar. Ashes and water or soapsuds, cinity of towns numerous gardens and farms devoted to will remove it soon after it is applied. Probably turpenthe production of seed and similar purposes. Well water- tine would at a later period; but the turpentine itself is ed and generally of a somewhat heavy loam, it furnishes dangerous unless quickly washed off by the assistance of London with excellent wheat, while according to Arthur the ashes or soap. On old trees, with the tar dried in Young and Loudon, its arable lands are “cultivated better winter, and the coated part shaded with straw, we should than nine in ten of the other counties." “With every not apprehend much danger. Such experiments should of facility," says Mr. Caird, “which railways, roads and navi. course be always tried on a small scale. We regret we gable rivers can supply for the disposal of produce and can do no more at present than offer uncertain suggestions fetching back manure, this county might be expected to be —we hope some of our readers may give the results of eminently well cultivated, the landlords wealthy, the farmers their experience. prosperous, and the laborers fully employed.” But, writing in April, 1850, he represents this as “far from being the Chestnuts and Walnuts from Seed. case.” Certainly Mr. Mechi does not present a very attractive I should like to ask how long it takes to grow chestnuts picture of the methods in vogue when he began at Tiptree from the "seed ;” also " English walnuts." Would the seed Hall, in that part of the county, but it is possible that a planted in spring, vegetate sooner if the shells were partially

or wholly removed ? At what age do they bear fruit? more favorable one might be drawn of the northwestern Would they bear sooner if grafted on their own roots, or is district, partaking as it may more of the character of south- there any other stock that would be better? ern Cambridgeshire; for, from what I saw in that region, and Chestnuts will grow the following spring after they riwhat I have heard of the farming of such men as Mr. Webb pen. They usually fail to vegetate because the shell is and his landlord, Mr. Adeane, Mr. Jonas—formerly of allowed to become dry. The moment they drop from the Ickleton, and now, I believe, of Chrishall Grange, not tree, they should be mixed with or buried in moist peat, far from Saffron Walden-Mr. Claydon, and others, I sand or loam, and kept in this moderately moist state till should find it difficult to believe that there is not here planted. If left upon the ground, as soon as they fall, and some of the most thorough and sensible cultivation which covered and kept moist with leaves or straw, they would the kingdom affords. The Adeane estates are said to in- readily grow the next spring, if the mice did not get them. clude 300 acres, irrigated ever since the days of Queen Nearly the same treatment is applicable to the black walnut, Elizabeth, and something of the kind has been carried on except the nut does not dry so soon as that of the chestupon a smaller scale at Audley End.

nut. Probably the walnut would grow more readily if the

shell were removed about the time it sprouts. It might GAS TAR FOR TREES.

wilt, decay, or spoil, if done much sooner. We know of EpitoRS COUNTRY GENTLEMAN-The Michigan Farmor of

no advantage in causing early bearing by grafting, unless Feb. 11 says: "J. W. M. of Amsterdam, N. Y., writes sub-such trees were selected to graft from as have borne unstantially that an application of coal or gas tar has destroyed usually soon. Nor is there any other stock to recomhis trees. I have, in pursuance of the recommendations of mend. several horticultural journals, applied it literally to the whole of an orchard of about sixty acres of apples, containing over

THE BLACK KNOT. 2,000 trees, and several hundred

other fruit trees, including peach, pear, plam and cherry. They are all in fine condition, I should be glad to know if you or any one else can give a and thus far show no signs of injury. The bark beneath the remedy for the unsightly and destructive black fungus comtar is fresh and green. The tar was applied from about one ing on the limbs of nearly all our plum trees. inch below the surface to 18 inches above. I write you from an impression that I shall be as likely to

A remedy of twenty years trial has kept our own trees obtain either directly from you or from sources to which you clear, if promptly and repeatedly applied. It is to cut off can recommend me, the earliest and most reliable informa- every diseased part as soon as it makes its appearance. tion as to what I clould do.

The property periled by this experiment, if endangered, Never mind if this cutting does disfigure the tree—it is amounts to many thousands of dollars, and that I feel great better to do so than to have it disfigured with black-knot solicitude you mily well conceive.

and death. Some say they have tried this mode and failed You cannot scrape the tar from the tree without removing —but we have ascertained on inquiry that the disease in wholly the outer bark. This I have tried.

If the coating will not injure, it is certainly a complete such cases had been allowed to nearly ruin the tree before protection from what here are great pests, mice and rabbits. any effort was made to arrest its progress. A man might Detroit, Feb., 1860.


as well talk of insuring his house against fire after it is in We have never tried gas tar nor seen it tried in the way ashes; or propose to send for the doctor after the patient mentioned; but have heard of disastrous results from its is buried. Others complain of the "trouble”—but it is

From a want of experience we can only speak by no more trouble than cultivating the soil. Those who exway of suggestion.

pect to have fine fruit without “ trouble,” will have to wait The trees will probably remain uninjured till the hot sun eat good p!ums." We have found that washing the wounds

a long time for it. “In the sweat of thy face shalt thou of spring nets upon them. If the tar were applied freshly made by these excisions with a solution of chloride of at that time, wc think it would destroy them, by the com- slime, lessened the tendency of fungus to break out again,

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a Gradual Work--Underdrain.

Farm Improvement---II. Drainage, Manure, Etc. plant more land to corn than he can thoroughly enrich

with manure.

It will then be fit for any following crop. Farm Improvement with "the many ing, and the Change it Works on Hard and Sterile Soils-Saving and No farmer should plow up any portion of his farm unless Applying Manure the basis of Progressive Farming-The Corn-field he can prepare it for growing good crops by manuring and should be Thoroughly Manured-What to Plow, and Why Keep Stock-Mr. Quincy's Remarks-Show Them that “It Pays," and culture. Every farmer should keep stock, that he may be Agriculture will Become Popular.

able to grow grain, and he should grow grain that he may Among the works of improvement in which the farmer be able to feed stock and make manure. If we avail ourmay profitably engage, we have already instanced the sub- selves of every fertilizer within our reach—if we make division of the farm with an idea to its symmetrical ar- our fields accord with our manure, enriching each of them rangement for the most convenient, effective and economi- thoroughly in its turn-we shall soon be able to give every cal management. This we have said, after the plan is crop, and the whole farm, that preparation and culture once fully formed, may be a gradual work—"one field at which shall ensure its productiveness and certain profit. a time, and thorough work with it," and such progress

Speaking on the question, “What will tend to make will best suit the means of the majority of farmers. We agriculture pleasant and profitable as a pursuit ?" recently have little sympathy with those who will do nothing be- discussed at the Boston State-House, the Hon. Josiah cause they cannot do a great deal—who make no progress QUINCY, Jr., made some remarks very pertinent to the because they cannot go rapidly forward—and less still subject before us. He said (as reported in the N. E. Farwith those capitalists engaged in agriculture, who scorn mer) that he thought the great question in relation to agrithe work of the farmer of moderate means, because it culture was, “Will it pay?" and our present purpose does not equal their own well-puffed achievements. It is should be to show that it will. He spoke of farming in our aim to induce the many to begin, and to point out a England and France, where men invested very large practical way of doing so; well knowing that the work amounts of capital in cultivating small farms, thus making once fairly commenced, will go on without our urging.

it very profitable, and getting the most from the land, Let us return then to the field and farm instanced in our while here our farmers are too desirous of extending their former article. It may be that more or less underdrain- labors over too much territory, and not half cultivating ing is needed in order to profitable cultivation. This first any of it. The report, (to quote it directly,) adds further: field may require a few drains in the clayey corner, or “He said that there was nothing that paid better than down the slope, (which we take in here because it cannot money judiciously expended on the soil, and in proof of this find a better place in other fields,) to render it equal to the he spoke of pet pieces of ground that yielded at the rate of

$50 to the acre, and he asked why this might not be extendremainder--and to make it one of the best lots on the ed to 100 acres? He had 10 acres of ground on which the farm. Let us not leave this improvement unattended to. hay was not worth cutting; finding this, he broke it up, ferIts results will reward us for many years with largely in- tilized it, harrowed and seeded it, at an expense of $50 per

and the first year he got 21 tons of hay from it, which creased productiveness. It will be taken from the list of he could sell at the barn for $20 per ton, thus paying in one hazardous and uncertain, and be placed among those sure year for the entire expense. He had last year raised 300 tors ly productive—no longer demanding a peculiar season and of hay, which cost biın $700, which he harvested for $2.50 culture in order to the remuneration of the labor bestowed per acre, while his neighbor could not do it for 85; but the

speaker said he had the advantage of the best machines, Almost every farm has fields of this character- mowing, raking, &c., and it is in not having these that farfields sure for good culture to return good crops, very ex- mers lose money. He thought farmers were the most extraordinary seasons and casualties excepted--and almost lect in saving manure. Mr? Quincy then showed that a cow

travagant men in the world, and he showed this by their neg. every farmer has those which fail frequently, however kept up during the year, will produce more value in manure much labor may be bestowed, because the season does not than the value of her milk, relying on the estimate of Dr. suit them. And the grand difference in soil, character and Samuel L. Dana, that she produces (when composted with two

parts muck,) 21 cords. He alluded to the care which is taken certainty, lies in the fact that one is porous and friable in Europe in this matter, and spoke of the result in bountiful from drainage, natural or artificial, while the other is hard harvests. and sterile from the presence of or effects of stagnant wa- liberal and judicious expenditure, and we must either invest

The great element of farming, said he, is saving, with a ter in soil—the remedy for which is found in this simple more capital, or reduce the area of our furns to make the operation. We have so frequently urged considerations land yield what it will do, and it would be far better if farbearing upon this point, that we will not continue them in mers invested their profit in their land than in bank or rail

road stocks." the present connection. An equally important question to be considered by those

(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.] anxious for farm improvement, is this, "Do I avail my

FROSTED CORN. self of every means within my reach to increase the amount of manure made and applied upon the farm? Do I give having plowed up large fields of Indian corn, owing to the

Observing in divers publicatious, instances of farmers care and labor to this subject, commensurate with its im- frosts of last June, I am induced to give my experience portance in furthering the ends proposed ?" If so, the upon the subject. 'About the year 1849, I had a small ground and basis of farm improvement is laid. If not, field of corn cut down twice by frost, that made good corn the matter must receive greater attention, for we may rest without replanting; and this was my guide for last year, assured that a reasonable amount of labor in this depart- when I planted a field of 35 acres, Ohio river bottom, very

fat, with basins here and there of half an acre each. ment will be well rewarded, and cannot be withheld with. When the frost came, this corn was eight to ten inches out great prejudice to our advancement.

high, and on the following day the plants looked as though The greater the amount of manure we can apply in hot water had been poured on them, especially in the any year, the larger our fields may be. But it is far basins. I did not replant, and notwithstanding the exces

sive drouth and great neglect sustained by my hands better to grow large crops on a few acres, than to grow leaving at wheat harvest, I have just now finished harvest, small crops on many acres. To return to the first crop, ing about 2,000 bushels good sound, thoroughly matured heretofore proposed, we would repeat that no farmer should I corn.


upon it.

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