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AGENTS IN NEW-YORK :
PUBLISHE PROBRY TOMU U BEOR W71, ALBANE, A
formed. For the “Sayings and Doings” of the Alderman, J. J. THOMAS, ASSOCIATE EDITOR, UNION SPRINGS, N. Y. consist of his scattered writings from time to time, una
voidably containing more or less repetition; representing, C. M. SAXTON, BARKER & Co., Ag. Book Publishers, 25 Park Row.
too, in some degree his changes of views with additional THE CULTIVATOR has been published twenty-six years. A NEW experience, but lacking in the connectedness that would SERIES was commenced in 1853, and the seven volumes for 1853, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, can be furnished, bound and post-paid, at $1.00 each. render these changes features of still greater value in the
TERMS-FIFTY CENTS A YEAR.-Ten copies of the CULTIVATOR and Ten of the ANNUAL
REGISTER OF RURAL AFFAIRS, with one of each progress of a perfectly relevant and straight-forward tale. free to the Agent, Five Dollars.
"I may be asked,” says Mr. MECHI, “What can you, "THE COUNTRY GENTLEMAN," a weekly Agricultural Journal of 16 quarto pazes making two vols. yearly of 416 pages, at $2.00 per as a Londoner, know about farming? I will answer, ‘I year, is issued by the same publishers.
always loved the beauties of nature, the pure air of heaven,
the sports of the field, and the hospitality of our honest Editorial Notes in England. yeomen. I have seen one farmer making a fortune, and
his next neighbor losing one. I have seen one field all ALDERMAN MECHI'S FARMING.
corn, and another nearly all weeds.' Fifteen or twenty years ago, a successful London trades- “I asked, “How is this ?'-inquired into the causesman, or merchant, as in such a business he would have noted the results-obtained from all the best farmers, and been called by us,—“having some spare capital,” re- all the best agricultural books within my reach, every insolved, with that taste for agricultural pursuits which formation bearing on agricultural pursuits, and practiced forms a distinguishing feature in the English character, to in my own little garden, on a small scale, a variety of exinvest his money in land. He purchased 260 acres. It periments.” was not the best of land. It was not in the best condi
Carrying forward upon his new property these experition. “Almost surrounded by barren, heath,” the owner ments-agitating continually the necessity of certain imfound the general opinion around him in Essex, to be that provements—if not in his own way, by some other means his purchase “could never be improved, even to become of which he thought English farming pecuniarily capaof tolerable goodness.” He has since told the story of ble—his sentiments have progressed through different his expenditures, from different parts of which I am quo- stages of ridicule and hostility until it is now commonly ting these expressions. The principal adaptation of his granted that while very few may wish to proceed upon his soil was to retain the water that fell upon it from heaven system exactly, he has yet done a good work in stirring and rose beneath it in hidden springs; and this retention up the many to direct measures of advancement. He has was so admirably accomplished that the strong yellow loam certainly been most liberal in the expenditure of his subsoil which constituted a large part of it, was constantly money in such a way as to test how far others may venture in a state varying " between putty and bird lime, according safely; and he has presented an example which in nototo the season.”
riety as well as from its intrinsic merits, must have been Under such circumstances, Mr. Mechi, for it will be exceedingly effective. Moreover, as it was remarked to already understood who I am talking about, did that most me in conversation by a large farmer in one of the middifficult of all things for a man to do—judging by the ac- land counties, his efforts bave opened the door to him of tion of a great many, both here and in America, who bave associations which in England money does not buy. Mr. too much land to cultivate it well. He sold one-half, and Mechi, the widely-advertised vender of razors and razordetermined that, be the obstacles what they might, he strops—Mr. Mechi, the wealthy Alderman, might have would improve the remainder.
gone down to the grave with other dealers in fancy wares Since 1843, when these steps were decided upon and and consumers of turtle soup, but Mr. MECHI, the farmer
of Tiptree Hall, is invited to Sir Robert Peel's, with improvements commenced, he has made some little addi- lords of high degree," and comes to be looked upon, as tion to the farm, so that it now contains 170 instead of he mournfully says himself, in bewailing the responsibili130 acres. I visited Tiptree Hall the last day of June, ties and “miseries” of the position—in the light of " and saw so much more that seemed to me of real, practi- public improver."* cal value, than I had been led to anticipate, that I hope
• After speaking of the thousand questions with which eager inqui. what I can say here will not entirely fail to convey some
number for the means of introducing their schemes, he adds as a setof the lessons which Mr. Mechi has been endeavoriug to off, in the consciousness of having been of some service" to his
country, the pleasing recollection that the two American Reapers teach. At the same time let me disclaim the anticipation were first tried" on his farm, in 1851. Then they were wondered at: of presenting anything like a perfect detail of his opera- 1 dred for use in 1839."
now Messrs. Burgess & Key alone are preparing to make fifteen bun.
rers prey upon his time, and of the resort to him by inventors without
About Feeding Cattle. e quantity of meat made on a farm per acre, determines the
17?. ? Fribe quantity of corn grown.'
Mr. LAWES has shown beyond a doubt that there is no way of obtaining manure so cheaply as by feeding animals,
It chanced that Mr. M. was not himself at home, but I found the steward or bailiff, Mr. Drane, an intelligent and communicative man. The first turn we took, very appropriately brought us into the feeding stables. Appropriately--because the feeding of animals is entitled to a front rank among the improvements we must more extensively practice, and because while many of the most peculiar, and to some obnoxious features in Mr. M.'s system here meet the visitor at once, he may also learn in what he sees, the general importance of careful management, the economical use of feeding materials, the benefit of comfortable quarters, and probably the strongest arguments that can be advanced, in favor of stall feeding in summer as well as winter.
The building which we now enter is of sumicient width for one row of stalls or boxes, and an alley in front of them from which to feed. The size of the boxes is nine feet nine inches inside breadth, and eight feet length, exclusive of the manger-each designed for two bullocks.The manger is a simple box or trough, and receives all the food the cattle eat. So far there is nothing extraordinary in what we see, but the floor is certainly a surprise ! It is composed of slats of good sound deal or other timber, three inches by two in size and two or two and a half
PORTRAIT OF MR. MECH. inches apart. The animal has no bedding of any kind. "There is nothing pleasing to the grazier's eye,” as Mr. per ton, (98. 4d.) while for feed it is worth to him $6, or
more than double as much. This difference is one which M. remarks, in such an arrangement. Indeed, like others, he does not think he can afford to lose, for he calculates he had at first many prejudices against it
. Both men and upon a production of two tons of straw per acre, and a animals like a soft place to sleep on. When bullocks are loss of, say $5 per acre, on fifty acres of wheat, will go a first pnt into these boxes, they seem "afraid to inove,” good way toward the difference between farming at a proand for twenty-four hours, nine out of ten "resolutely fit and farming at a loss. maintained their standing." Just a forkful of straw, how
The pains taken to illustrate and verify these facts, show cver, spread about under them, seemed to overcome this to what economical minuteness, so to speak, the English
sense of insecurity," and they only required one resort farmer has been compelled to go in order to sustain the to this expedient. Physicians tell us, reasons our host-gainfulness of his calling under thoso numerous expenses that a hard bed is undoubtedly the most healthy. In this with which he is burdened by government, church and case the edges of the boards, at first new and sharp, in two landlord, and notwithstanding which he has accomplished or three weeks become smooth, and the animals find easy the grand triumph of so far competing successfully with positions. This floor is, I think, perfectly horizontal and all the rest of the world—the cheap labor of the continent the slats placed, not across the box, but longitudinally as and the cheap lands of America. With us, where we have the animal stands. They are also used, however, and with difficulty to bring our farmers into the way of converting results represented as similarly satisfactory, both for pig; their straw into manure, to go beyond this use into a caland sheep. Mr. Huxtable is the author of the boarded culation of its further value as food, seems almost a waste door system, but lír. Mechi has modified the details, and, of words. But such will not always remain the case where after trial and measurements of the hoofs of various ani- it is so at present, and the subject may not be universally mals, has concluded upon the following as the best size of disregarded even now. From Voelker's analyses, alluded slats:
to by Mr. M., he derives the statement that the soluble For bullocks, 3 inches thick, 4 inches wide, 17 inches apart.
fattening substances contained in each 100 lbs. of straw For sheep and pigs, 1% do. 3 For lambs & small pigs, 14% 3
are equal to 181 lbs. of oil. How, then, he asks, can it For calves,
have been so long disregarded ? Simply because the The result of putting two bullocks together is not found straw in an unprepared condition, is not in an availablo to retard their progress in flesh-making--the better ox, as condition for food." elsewhere, will be the master, but not to the injury or dis
Before proceeding to the method of preparation advocomfort of his associate. They are all groomed daily by cated, there is a difficulty to be disposed of, which may a boy-a process which appears to contribute much to already have arisen in the reader's mind. In casting our their enjoyment. The floor, although not swept, is always eyes about the building we were looking at, we merely elean ; a little gypsum (plaster) is sprinkled over it every noticed the floor, but did not go below it; and the quesmorning-about a pack to ten bullocks.
tion that at once occurs, is this-how is the manurial matEconomy in Saving the Litter.
ter we obtain, to be managed and transported without some The great advantage claimed by this system, aside from such material as straw to act as an absorbent, and give it the assertion that it actually amtributes to better the health greater cohesion ? The answer is two-fold—the first, not of the animal and the quality of its beef—is the saving strenuously insisted upon by Mr. M., although it has been both of the bedding and of the labor that accompanies its one of the most striking features in his managenient, while distribution, removal, and the subsequent management of the second he also employs, I believe, to a large extent. the manure, of which last we will speak by and by. All Beneath the slats on which we have been standing, there the straw is wanted for feed. As Mr. Horsfall argued runs along a tank about three feet in depth, of brick, laid when I visited his place, the straw when used for litter is in cement and water-tight, its two ends having a slight only of value as a contribution to the manure heap; when descent towards the middle, whence there passes a pipe or it is fed to the animal, those parts which in the dung-pit drain into a large outside tank of no less than 80,000 galwould ferment and escape, are precisely the ones which the lons capacity. Álr. Mechi's way is to admit a flow of water animal converts into its own tissue, while the mineral ele into the tank under the animals until its contents are ments which it does not make use of, remain for fertilizing diluted and liquified so as to pass wholly into the exterior purposes as before. Now the value of straw simply as cistern. The hose employed for this purpose, in hot manure, is computed by Mr. Mechi to be not above $2.33weather may be used also to wash the whole interior of
2 do. 3
the building and keep everything, ever to the animals ging, when composted and carried on the upland. At themselves, clean and cool. The existence of such a mass first the swamp was too soft to plow, and he raised a good beneath them, does not prove in experience to emit the putrefying stench that might be anticipated; when undis- crop of potatoes by wheeling on sand to cover the seed, a turbed, indeed, it forms so dense a mass that sufficient air shovel full to a hill. The land is now firm enough to cannot penetrate it to produce the fermentation that would plow, and grows grass, and any vegetables desired. take place with the presence of straw to lighten up the Mr. Hart of Cornwall, had drained a swamp with open heap and permit the admission and circulation of the ditches, taking off the water three feet below the surface, atmosphere; and when the water flows in, the whole is and seeded it to grass, and one year got fourteen loads of washed away at the least possible disagreeableness and
hay from four acres. Still, he said, that was not uplard cxpense. The Use and Manufacture of Burned Clay.
hay, nor in any way equal to it in value, and rich as the The other method of managing manure in this condition, soil was, it would not produce a fair crop without manure. is found in the use of burned clay. Upon the heavy soils Hence had not of late given it much attention, and believed of Steuben, Major Dickinson has been an advocate of the muck worth more to cart upon the upland than to culburning sods to use the ashes as a fertilizer, but it is quite tivate where it lies. He had found some benefit from a common thing in many parts of England now to burn hauling muck upon loamy soil, but it was more valuable the siinple soil itself-of course whatever vegetable matter it may contain being considered a welcome addition, but composted, and he used the muck in all his stables, and the great point lying in the conversion into an available also to absorb all the soap-suds and wash of the house, and supply of mineral matters, of the hard subsoil and other thus made valuable manure. clods-in themselves sometimes actually poisonous to the Mr. Hoyt of New-Canaan, had not found cultivating plant, although when reduced to brickdust at once rendered swamp muck, several feet deep, profitable; but found it * attractive, absorbent, filtrative, instead of being, as for- valuable to haul to the stables and out-houses for an ah. merly, sullenly unalterable and repulsive.” Good farmers use it to advantage, drilled with their turnips; spread sorbent, and to increase the amount of manure for upland. broadcast over a field, it is found lasting in its effects— Mr. Bill of Norwich, thought the difference in the apparently sinking gradually down into the obstinate effects produced arose from the variation of the character subsoil," and imparting to it something of its own per- of the soil. His drained swamp was the best land he had. meability. The inorganic elements contributed to the soil by the animal life of every sort under or upon it, for which He also made great use of muck as a manure, making, it has long been “the feeding-ground, the dung-heap and with the help of six or seven head of cattle and a few the grave;" the stones that lock up in their hard sides so hogs, three or four hundred loads of manure each year.-many of the same materials which give the straw its glaze Guano and muck, ten pounds of the former to a load of and stiffness, and the grain its phosphates; the germs of the latter, makes a very valuable compost. He had new weeds and the decaying remains of old vegetation, by this trial of fire are all converted at comparatively little brought very poor land into a state of great productivocost or trouble into either what is actually available as
ness by the aid of swamp muck. plant food, or what exerts the best effect upon the mechani- We copy the remarks of Prof. S. W. Johnson in full, cal condition of the ground.
as reported. He said: Now, the burned clay may be employed to the best ad- “We have all grades of what is called muck, ranging vantage with the manure under the boarded floors, and is from that containing only two per cent of any substance cheaply obtained in large quantities—the estimated cost but vegetable matter, to those containing fifty per cent of per 100 loads of 27 cubic feet each, being,
mineral water (should not this be matter?] Of course the
use of these mucks will produce different results. Upon For plowing and horse labor,
pure muck we cannot produce any grass or grain that will Total,
ripen its seed, more than one or two years. Such muck
is valuable to mix with soils, but is nearly worthless alone. That is 16 cents a load. It is strongly recommended for Some persons have sent me samples of muck which they use under sheep, only one-fourteenth part of their excre say are equal to good manure, without composting. Some ment being in solid form, while one barrowful of clay daily muck is said to be deleterious, and in that I find salts of to twenty sheep will preserve the remainder perfectly. iron. To determine the value of muck, we must know “Sheep do not get sore feet upon it.” The only purpose, its ingredients. In some cases nitrogen accumulates in remarks Mr. M., with which we turn over and manipulate muck, and when that is brought out and put in a situation our ordinary manure heaps, is to secure the proper decom- where plants can assimilate it, it will always add to the position of the straw they contain; manure mixed with value of their products. The excretion of any animal, burned clay is carried at once from the farmstead to the mixed with muck, is rendered more valuable, from the Sield and applied where wanted.
fact that the muck absorbs and saves the ammonia.
Plants over-stimulated with ammonia, produce much foliDRAINING SWAMPS-MUCK FOR MANURE.
age and few seeds.
Some of the most valuable
deposits of muck appear to be composed almost entirely At the recent Connecticut State Fair, Agricultural Dis- of decayed leaves and vegetable substances. Such muck cussions were held each evening; and the subject on may be applied at once, with good cffect, to almost any Wednesday was the drainage of swamps and using muck substance. of the great value of muck deposites to the
crop, without any preparation, or mixing with any other for manure. The remarks, some report of which we find owners of poor upland, there can be no dispute. The in the N. Y. Tribune, give additional confirmation to only thing is to know how to treat it so as to make it most what we have already said on the subject, especially upon
valuable." the different characters of soil which they present, and their value for the production of different crops. We
CHEESE MAKING.-Mrs. T. L. Hart, of West Cornwall, therefore condense the most important portions for our Ct., received the four first prizes for Cheese, at the late readers.
Conn. State Fair-to wit, 1, for old cheese—2, for new Mr. SUMNER of Woodstock, had drained a swamp of cheese-3, for old English Dairy, and 4, for new English eight acres, in which the muck was fifteen feet deep. The tien. The Homestead says Mrs. H. was Hartford born and
Dairy-notwithstanding there was an extensive competimain drains are open, the rest covered. The muck of the bred, and never saw a cheese made until after she was ditches he estimated as worth more than the cost of dig- married.
For labor and burning,
L. H. T.
WINTER MANAGEMENT OF MANURE. A. “Very true, and that is one reason why I dislike
these dishing' barnyards." Looking over this morning, “ The Cultivator" of some twenty years ago, when conducted by Judge BUEL, we is nearly all straw, more or less rotted, and of value so far
B. “In another part of the yard the manure pitched up noticed an article on the above subject, which might be read with profit even at this late day—but do not propose allow. Mere rotten straw, however, is worth little; a
as it has not been leached and the original material will to reproduce it here. We will merely give his statement of “the objects to be obtained in the winter management agon load thoroughly rotten could be carried on a wheel
barrow. Another spot seems mostly composed of animal of manure," and then add some thoughts drawn from our
droppings thrown from the cow and calf stables, or around own experience. The objects are
the feeding places in the yard. This is the best of the "1. To prevent waste by lcaching and drainage; 2. To prevent its becoming fire-fanged; and
manure, but it wastes by leaching and decomposition be3. To prevent more than moderate or incipient fer-fore the farmer is ready to apply it to the soil.” mentation."
A. “You forget the horse manure back of the barn." --Called away at this, by some necessary farm-work, we B. “No, that is managed the worst of all. The outer did not again take up the pen until evening. Meanwhile part is well bleached straw and dung--the center is an our thoughts were busy with the subject, and some con- almost inert mass of fire-fanged straw and manure. The versation with a farming friend led us to give them the heat which has been evolved in its decomposition has been form of a dialogue.
suflicient to drive off its most valuable constituents, and B. “The question comes up—What is the best way of the property of fermenting readily, which, according to managing manure in winter ?"
Prof. Johnston, renders it so valuable as a means of bringA. “Managing manure ? and managing it in winter. ing other vegetable substances into a state of fermentation, It is as much as I can do to manage my foddering--the is nearly or entirely lost.” manure I manage when I draw it out in the spring. What A. “How then shall I manage my manure? If you next will you book-farmers meddle with ?"
can show me any system that promises to pay well, perB. “Let's talk a little about that. When you drew out haps I'll go into it.” your manure last spring, where did you find the best and
B. “You have good sheds around your barnyard to richest, or was it alike over the whole yard ?”
shelter your stock." A. “Don't know-didn't observe particularly. Got it A. “Yes, I do not like the trouble of stables, but I all out though, and plowed it under for corn and potatoes ?" want to keep my cattle and sheep comfortable. So I sta
Right enough, perhaps, so far, but let me tell you ble a part-my milch cows and young calves—and allow what you might have observed as to quality—what we the rest the run of the sheds and yards.” bave noticed when drawing out manure.”
B. “Then you can put the wheelbarrow system' into A. "Some of your personal experience in the barn- / practice. It does not require a great deal of labor and yard?"
answers a very good purpose under your particular cirB. “Yes. And first, it is an axiom in hydrostatics that cumstances." water runs down hill.' It certainly does so in the barn- A. “Well, give us the system of the one-wheeled locoyard. And, however level the surface may be, there is motive.” generally a lower place,' and in spring time that place is B. “First, have good racks under your sheds, so that full to running over, of a dark colored fluid, which drains your cattle will feed there. Second, have them roomy away, it is to be hoped, into the farmer's adjacent fields, and well littered, so that they will rest and sleep there.and not into some streain or public highway.”
This will, of itself, bring a large share of your yard maA. “Yes, I hope so. I would not be as wasteful as nure under shelter. But its decomposition will be too that."
slow to allow it to attain its greatest value for spring crops. B. “And yet you may, by not managing your manure Now bring on your wheelbarrow. Remove to your shed properly, waste one-half its value. This drained manure and the dryer portions of the yard, every day, the manure of which we were speaking has suffered loss. Testing it from the horse stables. This dung is richer in nitrogen, by drying, it is (even if originally of the most valuable the most valuable constituent of manure, than that of any character,) light, chaffy stuff, compared with that which other farm stock, but as usually treated, a large share of has not been exposed to this leacking process, showing its value is lost. To retard its too active decomposition, that it has lost largely in value.”
mix it with the colder, less active dung of cattle from 1. “Not much loss to me, perhaps, for the drainage their stables, &c., and a large quantity of litter, and the enriches my orchard.”
value of the whole is greatly increased—the horse manure B. “If there is much of a hollow in the barnyard, and carries on the decomposition of the whole mass, (if kept the subsoil is clay or hard-pan, water can pass off only by damp enough,) “about right” to prevent loss, and to get evaporation. That hollow, (and some make them on pur- the full value of all the materials employed. If not suflipose,) is frozen over in very cold weather; in mild win- ciently rotten in spring, it may very speedily be decomters, and for a long time in spring it is 'a slough of de- posed by giving it air and moisture—by heaping it in spond,' almost impassible to man or beast. It 60 remains light heaps out of doors for a few weeks. Or if plowed for a long time in summer, unless cleared out and drawn under immediately in a long state, it is much more valuato the field-a large part draining from the cart on the ble than if not managed as above described. way there. Of this we observe:
“ Mix and shelter your manure in this way, Mr. A., and i. The liquid part is of some value, though too diluted, you will find it a different article in its effects from that but a large portion is lost in application.
you have heretofore applied. At least I have done so.2. The solids (tested as before, by drying) are nothing It is important, I will repeat, that this mixed manure be but litter in an almost undecomposed state-for decompo- kept where it will be trodden hard by the stock. Treated sition gocs on very slowly in cold water."
l in the same way, and placed in a barn cellar, it will fire
fang or burn-here it is too solid for that, but not for a satisfactory business than under their former system. We slow decomposition. The constant “addition of litter re- are glad to see the idea gaining ground that farming canquired, will use up the refuse fodder of the farm, and not be carried on without capital, enterprise, intelligence more too, if one gets dry leaves, sawdust and the like, to —and that it opens a fair field for the exercise of the add to the stock of fertilizing material. And the use of noblest endowments of the human mind. the wheelbarrow, or mixing the material where it will be
Let us then be less covetous of surface-of large farms sheltered and receive and absorb a large share of the liquid and broad plantations and more anxious for productivemanure of the stock, will give about the best condition ness-asking for better crops, finer animals, more serviceand quality of barnyard manure.”
able implements, rather than “one field more.” Why,
when our title deeds cover all beneath us, should we not LARGE CROPS vs. LARGE FARMS. be anxious to own and use the subsoil, instead of seeking
“more It has been tersely remarked, “If our farmers, instead ever to enlarge our outside boundaries. Why cry of laboring to double their acres, would endeavor to double land,” when our sterile acres are a shame to our skill in their crops, they would find it a rast saving of time and farming what we already possess, they give such meagre toil, and an increase of profits."
crops. Let us farm thoroughly a few acres, and we shair Is this true? Is the secret of successful farming what thus best prepare ourselves to farm profitably upon a it has been declared to be, “Much labor on little land ?" larger scale. Up to a certain point we believe it to be so. A few farin
THE CROPS OF OHIO IN 1858. ers are successful because they possess a soil naturally rich in every element of fertility, and suited in character and A table of the grain and meadow crops of Ohio in 1858, situation to the growth of large and profitable crops, but contained in the last 0. Cultivator, shows that
1,695,412 acres produced 17,655,483 bush. Wheat. these farms form but a small portion of the whole surface
1,871,133 of the country under cultivation. Most soils need some improvement and amendment-deepening, draining,
1,806, 105 tons of hay. and manuring—in order to their highest productiveness ; This is an average of not quite ten bushels and a half of and all need careful cultivation, at least to keep out noxi- wheat to the acre, and twenty-seven and three-quarters of ous weeds, the “thorns and thistles” with which the earth corn; a little more than nine and a half of rye, sixteen was "cursed for our sake."
and a half of barley, and eleven of buckwheat; and, With too many farmers, the acres in possession do not finally, and best of all, full a ton and a third of grass to come nearly up to the productiveness which might be at- each acre of meadow land. If we had the time at com tained. “Doubling the crop” would be thought a very sim- mand, it would be an interesting although rather laborious ple undertaking by the progressive farmer-he would merely task, to give some further details as to the average in difadd sufficient labor in the preparation of the soil to give ferent counties. A hasty glance at the figures seems to the product to which he would devote it, a fair chance, show that the largest average of wheat is 19 bush. per -depth of soil, appropriate food, freedom from weeds, acre in Hancock Co. Erie Co. comes next with only a etc.—and the yield would be doubled at once. That little more than 16, and the only others which average farmer will be most successful who, by a wise expenditure more than 15, (and all less than 16) are Henry, Huron, of labor and capital, gives to the lands he cultivates a like Richland, Sandusky, Scioto, Seneca and Wyandot. The character with those most productive, not forgetting, also, average of many counties is considerably below 10 bushels. by clean culture, to concentrate the whole energy of the Stark produces the greatest quantity—being the only county soil on the crop. Artificial means must be employed to that exceeds a half million bushels—its average is about give depth and fineness to hard and shallow soils, and a 11ļ per acre. Next in amount follow Butler, Wayne, course of manuring and culture adapted to add the elements Seneca and Richland, each producing between four and of fertility to sterile and impoverished ones. Stagnant water, five hundred thousand bushels. There are two counties, that enemy to all vegetation of a profitable character, must Trumbull and Ashtabula, containing each over 50,000 acres be drained off, and retentive soils thus ameliorated. Light of meadow land; Portage contains a little over 40,000 sands ask for an addition of a calcareous or aluminous acres, and the next largest are the following in the order character, to give them better consistency for cultivation. named, all having more than 30,000 acres : Geauga, CnyaThe hill-sides and knolls have long contributed from their hoga, Stark, Lorain, Wayne and Medina. soluble and loating elements of vegetable matter, to fill the adjacent marshes; let these return their rich deposits GROWING CLOVER FOR HAY, SEED, AND PASTURE.--The of muck, and a partial exchange of soils would be no
advantages of this crop are well stated in the communiea
tion of “F., Orleans Co., N. Y.," and we can add our injury.
testimony to its value on all upland soils. As to bay the The passion for more land is one which works incalcu- past season, although the dry weather of May and June lable injury to American agriculture. It crowds out of injured our clover, we get more hay from six acres of this farming many who would otherwise engage in it-many grass than from four times the number of acres of old who, were small farms more readily attainable, would do meadow. Farmers who had no clover or newly seeded
timothy meadows the past season, have little hay in their good service in the culture of the soil, and in the eleva- barns the present winter. We got a good second growthi, tion of the character of our farming population. If the but think it is not as fully seeded as some years-many great mass of farmers would engage in the laudable enter- heads containing little or none. The clover seed crop prise of “doubling their crops,” they would soon find use usually pays as well on the average as grain crops, and at home for all their outside investments and excuse for requires much less expense of cultivation. It probably
exhausts the soil as much as other crops of equal value, selling off that portion of their land which they had not but it also enriches it by increasing the return of manure ample means to cultivate, --would soon find, too, that they from the barn-yard, and also by the decay of the numerous were making more money, and doing a more pleasant and | roots in the soil. B. Niagara Co., N. Y.