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[For the Cultivator and Country Gentleman.) It will be seen that of the foregoing, 16 hogs weighed LARGE HEAVY PORK.
each one over 400 lbs., and that 40 head of them average
about 400 lbs., and the whole lot averages 386 lbs. Burlington county, New-Jersey, has become somewhat noted for some of its crops of extra heavy pork, which this county worthy of notice; but I have not the weights
There were many other excellent crops of pork killed in are annually made by some of its farmers, and sold in the of them, and send such as I have. Watson NEWBOLD. Philadelphia, New-York and other markets. Some of these hogs are of extra size, or rather they are made extra
Burlington Co., N. J. large by being extra fat, so that their individual weight much exceeds what we formerly used to kill. This is ow
MOLE PLOW FOR DRAINING. ing chiefly to good and careful feeding, though those far
If you think it worth while, I should like to get some inmers who make pork such an object, are careful to select formation from you as to Col. Dickinson's mode of draining, the best stock for breeding, from our old common stock with a conical piece of iron fixed at the bottom of a thin, of hogs, and they have been crossed and recrossed, and sharp coulter. You say nothing about it in the Register. we know of no name to specify them by; yet we think Now here, where land is worth only from 830 to $35 an acre, them superior to any other kind we know of, in point of and where draining would probably cost a like sum, fact for the grand object of making superior pork, as the to me hardly possible that it could pay; and yet our land result proves—that being the best test after all is said and though high and rolling, needs draining. Wheat and clover done.
heave out and winter kill frequently, and the soil gets sod. Our farmers generally like their pigs to come in April low clay subsoil; soil varying from a clay loam to a sandy
dened by the spring rains. We have for the most part a yeland May, when the sows can bave a good flow of pasture Joam. There are a good many boulders on and below the in addition to some little feed. After harvest, they all surface, presenting serious obstacles to subsoiling or draining; run in the grain stubble awhile, soon after which they re- Would they make draining by horse-power impracticable ? ceive a little additional help in their feed to keep them in How are we to prevent the bottom of a drain partaking of the good thrift. The pigs are selected for keeping over; and inequalities of the surface ? How are we to manage about the others, and also those one year old, are fed on the soft main drains, outlets to lateral drains, &c. ? How much team corn—then on better corn, and finally on the best corn in does this draining plow require ? In short, is this kind of the grain and on corn-meal-more or less of each, accord- draining suitable to our circumstances ? J. W. SOLIoT. ing to the varied preferences of each feeder-generally
Summit Co., 0. raw, though some scald the meal with hot water, and let Col. Dickinson's draining plow is essentially the old it swell from after one feeding time to the next, and then English mole plow, which is described briefly and figured again the same—this more especially at latter part of feed. on p. 78 of Thomas' “Farm Implements.” It can be only ing. They are mostly killed in January, though a few are used in a subsoil nearly or entirely free from stone. kept till first of February.
After long high feeding, they become very dainty of Large stone would at once arrest its progress. It could grain that has the least improper taint, and require much not of course be used in the subsoil described. The friccare not to "cloy" them.
tion of the coulter and plug are enormous. Hence, to cut I have been at some pains to collect an account of the deep enough for permanent value, say 24 feet deep, it has weight of some crops of pork, and of a part of other to be moved by the use of a windlass, fixed by strong iron crops, and herewith send them for publication:
The following is the nett weight of 32 of the hogs anchors, as represented in the book above referred to. It which were raised, fatted and killed by Thomas Hood: must be used either on a smooth, descending surface, or
720–30—625–624_617–6104592–585–576_570—569–565–563–562- else the course for a constant descent must be previously 561-560—552-545–512—542-541-539-538-532-531-529-527-520---520 -513-511-504.
staked out for the machine to follow. We know of no It will be seen that one weighed over 700 lbs.—that six person who manufactures this plow for sale—there are not weighed each over 600 lbs.--that fourteen averaged over many places sufficiently clear of stone to use it. It is not 600 lbs. each—that the lightest one of the whole 32 weighed over 500 lbs.—that the whole 32 averaged 563 lbs., all so much used as formerly, now that tile is generally emround.
ployed. The "draining plow,” for loosening the earth for Thos. Hood also killed other hogs, which were fine and shovelling out, has greatly reduced the expense of cutting well fed. They were killed about the first of February, ditches, where its use is understood.] 1860. Last year (1859) he killed 41 hogs, which averaged nett 532 lbs.; and in 1858 he killed 44 hogs, which ave.
[For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.] raged 543 lbs. All these hogs, and those yet to follow, REMEDY FOR THE CUT-WORM. hung on the gallows over two nights to dry and thoroughly cool, and then were carted to the railroad depot, and The most thorough inode of destroying the cut-worm, is then and there weighed, as sold. They would have weigh- to fatten hogs in the truck patch or garden, after the crops ed more if weighed the day they were killed and dressed. are taken off in full or winter. They destroy the larvæ. The following is the weight of 22 hogs, raised, fatted
A KENTUCKY FARMER. and killed by Isaac Harrison, which however are not as large this year as formerly. I have not the last year's
TO MAKE Cows TAKE THE BULL.—I have two cows, weights. He also killed a lot of “pigs," some of which calred first Dec., in very fair condition, which as yet show run from 175 to 300 lbs. nett:
no symptoms of bulling. The bull runs with them. I
am anxious they should be with calf as soon as possible. 649_-626-606-590-587-557-539-510-510_505-502-493-491 --483
Some say by giving salt three or four times a week, would It will be seen that of this crop, three hogs weighed bring them in. Please say what might be done, and you over 600 lbs. each, and the whole 22 averaged 504 lbs. will oblige J. M. Morpeth, C. W. [We are assured all round.
by those who have made the trial, that by giving the cow Wm. Taylor killed 34 hogs, which averaged 475 lbs., a piece of rennet as large as the palm of the hand, thirustthe heaviest weighing 570 lbs, nett.
ing it down her throat, she will take bull within 24 hours, Thos. Emly killed 33 hogs, averaging 460 lbs.
invariably.] Edward Jamison killed 53 hogs, of which 24 averaged 430 lbs.
WINTER PLOWING.—“Whenever the ground is dry The following is the weight of 52 hogs, after being enough, and the frost out, says the Ohio Farmer, begin dressed ready for market, and weighed the same day plowing. It osten happens that our springs are so wet fatted and killed by Elwood Haines :
that plowing cannot be performed until late. If perform474468_452-430_430_429—425-423-419_417-416_4164412-409.
ed during the fall and winter, much time and even a crop 408-402 398_-397–393–392 -589_388_-385-383–384–384384-384. --383 may be had, that otherwise would not be got in, in pro 350-345 345 344-344332-330-330-325.
-382-382 380-380-375-375 371-370-368-368-366-362-360-358
Agriculture---Its Standing and its Needs. farming pleasant as a pursuit, honorable as a profession, How Agriculture stands in public opinion, and what it and profitable in result, or the contrary? The answer deneeds to place it in a proper point of view, are questions pends upon the man and the circumstances. There are worthy of frequent and careful consideration. Though a
certain requisites to success which may not be foregonesubject we have before spoken upon, yet deeming it worthy enterprise, intelligence and capital, as well as industry, are
required in this as in all other pursuits. There is ample of occasional recall, we would take it up now and here. The life and employment of a fariner has never lacked room for the exercise and employment of all these, for it
has been well said, “ Agriculture in its true sense is an its eulogists ; indeed, it has been praised and lauded from classic days until now, beyond all other occupations which Encyclopedia in itself-requiring great knowledge, fine men follow for a subsistence
. The members of most other powers of observation, high mental cultivation, assiduous active business callings, seem to look upon Agriculture as invention.” He who enters with enthusiastic relish into
thought and study, and opening its arms to ingenuity and a pursuit rich in varied charms and ample rewards; and the business will find it pleasant—if he understands and often picture to themselves a farmers' life, as free from the
appreciates its demands upon him. Its respectability and caures which now vex them, and sigh for an exemption from
dignity, few now question, and there would be little room the anxieties of their present business, and the enjoyment of the elysium of a farm of their own in some pleasant rural and not a bungler in his profession. Of its profit there
to do so, would every farmer show himself a workman, neighborhood. Mr. Sparrowgrass has many counterparts will ever be varied opinions, as men may find it in their in real life—men who have a kind of poetized idea of own experience—but it will be found that comparatively farming, very different from the experience of the practi
more men arrive at competence in life through agriculture cal agriculturist, and who little dream of going earnestly than through any other avocation. Hence we conclude to work themselves, or of depending on the produets of and reaffirm the conclusion—that with the requisites to their own labor for support, as he must do; but they have
success in this or in other pursuits,--intelligence, capital, made money in other occupations, and now propose
enterprise, industry-agriculture will prove as profitable, themselves a leisurely enjoyment of agricultural felicity.
as honorable, and far pleasanter, as a life-long employment, What the result often proves, we need not repeat. Another class—men who have had one sort of expe- the true state of the case.
than any other which may be chosen. This seems to us rience in the matter-look with very different eyes upon
The great need, to render Agriculture more uniformly the pursuit of Agriculture. We have met such, -and successful
, is the increase and diffusion of agricultural they have formerly been well described in this journal, as
information and its thorough practieal application. The men who have toiled for long and weary years, always spirit now awakened must extend its influences until we working hard, and yet who are now very little in advance have many more thorough farmers who exemplify the best of their starting point—what has been gained, is the result modes of culture and management, and show by their more of saving than of making. What they possess they farms, their crops, their stock, and their general success, owe to the closest economy and ceaseless hard work. The the most direct way of making a living, and a good one, farm bas been to them a scene of much toil and a source by the culture and products of the soil. Such examples of little profit. To make “ both ends meet” bas taxed are annually increasing, and are of incalculable influence every energy, and when anything more has been done, it upon the prosperity of the country, and it is an influence has ever seemed at the expense of some much-needed which will never cease to act for good. Our scientific men comfort and convenience. Meaning well, and anxious to and schools must also join in the work. Agricultural thrive, they have ever found it an up-hill business, and we papers should be circulated more widely, and read more wonder not that they are ready to decry the idea of mak- carefully-indeed we can scarcely limit the power they ing a good or easy living by the culture of the soil.
may exert in showing the many bow the few succeed, and Others—practical farmers, also—take a more encourag- as a means of spreading the experiments, and inquiries ing, and it seems to us, a more reasonable view of farm- and suggestions of the thousands of minds anxious to eleing, and the requisites to success therein. They look upon vate farming above its present position-ready to derote agriculture as the basis and substratum of all other avoca- all their energies to the achievement of an honest success. tions of men, as "fuel that feeds them all that gives It is our highest ambition to do all in our power for the power to the great locomotive of human achievement.” | progress of this greatest material interest of our country With this high idea of its importance, they do not content and of mankind. themselves to follow the old routine whether successful or unsuccessful; they see the advances and improvements
[For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) made in every thing around them, and instead of sinking FARMING ON A SMALL FARM. back satisfied that no progress can be made, no more pro
Messrs. EDITORS-In giving some of the reasons for, fitable course pursued, no waste prevented, no neglected and advantages of, commencing farming on a small scale crop, product, or fertilizer turned to profitable account, by young men of limited means, my object is not to prethey apply all their energies, mental as well as physical, to vent or discourage them from laboring on other men's the development of the resources of their farms, and the farms, at a salary for a limited time; say long enough to
accumulate a few hundred dollars, with which to buy a ns at command about them. These men do not come small farm of from fifteen to twenty acres, but rather to to you with the tale of "all work and no profit" on their encourage them to do so. And also to so manage and lips. They not only save but make money, and they do calculate their work, when farming on a small place, as to it fuirly and honestly, by creating, as it were, out of the keep it ahead, and thus get time to work out by the day, soil, new and valuable products. There need be no paltry when work is driving and wages good; as in planting and shifts and meannesses in such a life, like those for which hocing, haying and harvesting, &c.
The great aversion to manual labor, in my opinion, most avocations furnish too many often-urged excuses. mrans aversion to laboring for others, or working out;
Flat, then, is the true standing of Agriculture? Island that one of the principal causes of this aversion is the
opinion, that at the present price of land, it must take a my, and self-denial, that was practiced by those sturdy young man a very long time if he ever accumulates money pioneers, that as a general thing, without any money to enough to buy a farm. Once satisfy him, that by a few begin with, settled on and cleared up the heavily timbered years labor on a farm, by the month or year, he may save lands of Western New-York, would, if practiced by the enough out of his earnings to buy a small place, and that young men of the present day, secure them a fair compeby good management, and industry, and economy, he can tence, in less time and with much less labor and hardship, make enough in a few years to add more land to his little than was necessary in the early settlement of the country, farm, or be able to sell and buy a larger one; and that by to say nothing about the labor and expense of making pursuing this system of operation, he may finally become roads and bridges, building school houses and churches, the owner of a good farm-I say, once satisfy a young man or the liability to sickness consequent to a change of clithat this may be done, and a large portion of the aversion mate, and the clearing up and bringing into cultivation of to working on a farm will be removed.
a new rich soil. Besides, the satisfaction of living near What drives thousands of young men into other busi- friends and relations; and if necessary, being able to aid ness, is the idea that they cant do anything at farming or take care of parents in old age, and the enjoyment of without a farm of some size, say from fifty to one hundred old associations and congenial society. acres; which it will cost several thousand dollars to pur- We also think that a young man can do better on a chase and stock with suitable teams, tools, &c., and that small farm, than he could by going into any mechanical it will be very difficult, if not impossible, for them ever to pursuit. And also that he would be a great deal surer of compass the means of getting such a farm. Hence they eventually arriving at an independent position in respect reason, that for them to undertake to earn the money to to property, by taking the course we recommend, than he buy a farm by working out, would be very likely to end would by entering any of the crowded and overstocked in being hirelings all their days. And they find no diffi- professions or avenues of trade. culty in pointing out plenty of examples, to sustain this
There are many other reasons for, and advantages of, kind of reasoning. To show that this is a mistaken idea, commencing on a small farm that might be given, did and that by pursuing the course pointed out in this, and time and space permit, but we must pass on to the conperhaps some future numbers, they may be reasonably sideration of the best course or system of management on sure of arriving at a moderate, but respectable competence, a small farm, which will form the subject of another comis our object in penning these articles.
munication. F. Orleans Co., N. Y., 1860. But to come more directly to the subject in hand. One of the best reasons for commencing farming on a small scale, is found in the fact that farmers are often urged to work less land, and cultivate what they do work better. They are repeatedly told that a few acres well tilled would yield more clear profit, than twice or three times the amount of land as ordinarily cultivated. The correctness of this kind of reasoning is further shown, by the frequent publication of accounts of good crops and large profits, that have been realized by the skillful cultivation of a few acres in the best manner. All of which goes to show —what by experience and observation, we have also found to be true—that as large net proceeds or clear profits, may be made on a little farm of from fifteen to twenty acres, as is usually realized on fifty or sixty acres.
Another reason for farming on a small scale, will be found in the fact that it will have a tendency to improve the agriculture of the country generally; by showing that
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) it is better policy to cultivate a little land in the best man
HOW TO MAKE A HOT-BED ner, and realize large returns thereby, than the more common way of running over large farms at a very little if Eds. Co. GEN.-I send you my plan of putting up hotany profit. Furthermore, we believe that one of the best beds. About ten days before I want to put up the bed, ways to promote a system of farming, calculated to get the I throw the manure up in a pile about 8 feet broad and 4 largest amount of produce from the least land, will be the feet high, and in length according to quantity. I set my course we recommend, for young men to pursue. For beds about half under ground—that is, I dig about a foot being anxious to improve their circumstances, they will deep, and throw the dirt on each side, which answers for labor and study to make their little farms produce the banking up. I set the frames on blocks, or rather pieces largest possible amouut, and at the same time having an of boards about 6 inches wide and as long as to hold the eye to the sale of the place at some future time, will not frames to their proper place. I set 4 blocks under each allow it to deteriorate in value or productiveness on their frame, and drive a stake inside of each block to hold them bands. And men, once accustomed to the advantages and to their place. The stakes should be drove square with profits of cultivating land in the best manner, will not be the frames to hold them stiff and to place. Bank up on likely to pursue a different course, when they become the the outside to the top of the frames with earth, and make owners of larger farms.
the beds in length from ten to fifty sash, according to conFarming on a small scale, is more particularly adapted venience; and when the beds are ready for the manure, to young men, for the reason that having but small fami. they are 2 feet 4 inches on the lower, and 3 feet on the lies, if any at all, their expenses need not be large ; upper side, (and bottom level,) which is 8 inches fall. I conseqently, the principal part of their income may be put the manure in the bed 20 inches deep, evenly and well used to pay debts, or saved to buy more land. In this, beaten down with the fork, but don't tramp it. I put the as in most other kinds of business, a man's net income or manure in very hot, just when it is in the height of ferprofits depend, not so much on what he produces, as on menting, and put the mold on as I put the manure in, what he saves. For instance, a man that raises $1000 which keeps the heat in the manure. The mold I put worth of produce at a cost of $900, is only gaining or lay- about 8 inches deep, which fills the bed at the lower side, ing up money half as fast as one that raises $500 worth and being level, within 8 inches of the upper side. I let at a cost of $300.
it stand a few days before sowing, and if the heat is too We further believe, that the course we recommend for great, after settling about 4 inches, I put on two inchies young men, would be better than going into a new country, more mould. The heat is right when the weeds start for the reason that twenty acres of good land may easily freely. My object in setting the frame on blocks is to save be made to yield as many dollars worth of produce, as 100 manure, as it takes one-third less, which is a great objcci to 150 acres usually do in new sections remote from among gardeners in putting up two hundred sash. market. We also believe, that the same industry, econo- Pittsburg, Pa.
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.)
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) Winter Butter.
The Perennial Phloxes, &c. Eds. Co. Gent.-I occasionally see inquiries in the Gent. Roses and Verbenns are considered as indispensable in in regard to making winter butter Some find it difficult to every flower garden, be it ever so liunited ; and next to these, make the " butter come,” even after churning nearly the perhaps the Asters excepted, come the Perennial Phloxes. whole day. I will give you our method, if you think it worth They require a deep, rich, moist soil, to fully develop their the space it will occupy in your valuable paper.
beauty. "The varieties are pumerous, and some of the new Firstly, then, the fountain from which we obtain our milk French varieties are really splendid. The best six, are : is kept pure--that is, the cows are kept chiefly on hay, with Madame Soear, white, purple center. a few roots, and a little meal and shorts, together with a Surpasse Madame Rendatler, white, purple center, perpetual flow. litlle cut straw mixed with the meal once a day.
Augustine Lierval, white, pink center, perpetual flowering. Secondly, The cows are kept clean by the use of a good Madame Audry, white, tinged with rose, violet center. bed of straw, and a card-80 that when the milk is strained Juliette Roussel, white, purple center.
Rigolo, lilac and violet, mixed with white and red. there is no sediment (manure) at the bottom of the pailthink butter better flavored and colored some other way.
The cultivation is easy, and being perpetual thoy require Thirdly--the milk is strained into pans filled about half but little care except annually manuring the beds, and when full, and immediately set into another pan, standing upon the the clumps become too large take them up and divide them. stove, containing hot water and allowed to remain until scalded, They are rapidly propagated by cuttings in the spring or by or until the top of the milk appears wavy. It is then set division of the roots. The flower garden can be beautified by away, and stands forty-eight hou for the cream to rise. a judicious selection of varieties from July to October, and When the milk is skimmed, the cream is put into a stone
what renders them more valuable, they flower at a season churn (this is the kind we use) and thoroughly mixed by when our gardens are nearly destitute of blooms. stirring, and when four days cream has accumulated, we churn.
The Phlox Drummondii is an annual, and also rery beautiAt the time of performing this operation we add a little car: ful, and dwarf in its habits, and suitable for large masses. rot juice -- say a middling sized carrot to every two pounds of Indeed, except the Verbena, we have no flowers so showy for butter-the carrots are washed and scraped, then grated fine, a large bed as this one, with its various hues and tints, seldom and the juice squeezed through a cotton cloth-this gives the finding two bushes bearing flowers alike. butter a nice appearance, and we think, and so do others, that
In large yards or gardens the Dablia is equally indispen. it improves the favor. The churn is now set into hot water, sable, and the Aster is of sufficient importance to have a and from fifteen to thirty minutes churning brings the butter chapter for itself.
WILLIAM NEWCOMB. Care should be taken not to let the churn stand too long in
Rensselaer Co., N. Y. bot water, as the butter might come soft. Neither the milk or cream should be allowed to freeze.
SQUASH BUG. Fourthly-we have sold all our winter butter up to this time, (Feb 22d,) with the exception of one jar of 24 pounds, for 24 Can the editor or any reader of The CULTIVATOR give a cepts a pound-for this jar we got 20 cents. We make about convenient and infallible remedy for the large brown squash 15 pounds a week from three cows-one farrow, the other two bug? The kind of bug I speak of is of a dirty brown color, heifers, two years old in March-one calved the 6th of Dec. and emits a disagreeable odor, especially when disturbed or the other the 1st of Jan. J. L. R. Jefferson Co., N. Y. killed. This bug is a great pest to squash growers in this
region, working nearly all summer upon the main trunk of Artificial Stone Block for Building,
the vine, at the base or near it. It also attacks the young
squashes if it should fail in girdling the vine at the root. They Messrs. EDITORS-I wish to get accurate and concise di- destroyed 40 bills of Hubbards for me last summer. rections for preparing and mixing the mortar for “ artificial Union Co, IN.
A. BABCOCK. stone," or "concrete blocks," spoken of by "J. E. S.," on page The only infallible remedy we know of, although not 109, vol. 5, of The CULTIVATOR. Cannot some render of your
I very "convenient,” is to kill daily all the bugs that can be papers, who has had experience, give us a little more " light on the subject?
found. At the same time care should be taken to destroy If the * concrete” plan of building really has the advan- the eggs, which are laid in little patches, and fastened by tages claimed by “J. Ė. S.," it ought to be fully discussed, a cement to the under side of the leaves. A daily exand accurate directions given for preparing it.
How are " composition roofs" for buildings made ? What amination will not consume a great deal of time. Next to materials are used, &c., and what advantages do they possess this, we can recommend the protection of wire frames covcompared with shingled roofs ?
A. BABCOCK. . ered with gauze, or boxes set with a pane of glass or piece Union Co., Ill.
of gauze. This insect, (the Coreus tristis of entomoloJ. E. S. has given minute directions in the communica- gists,) is common everywhere, and is very destructive to tion referred to, for every part of the operation but mix, squashes and pumpkins. It is important to destroy them ing the materials. We should say, take the best lime and early in the season, before their number increases so much mix it into mortar, with at least five or six times as much
as to render it difficult, as well as before the plants are dessharp, coarse, clear sand, the best for hardening perfectly. troyed. A good time is early in the morning, before they If a larger portion of lime is used, as some masons like, bave concealed themselves from their nightly depredations. because it then works and spreads more easily, it will never become so hard--and an obstinate, ignorant mason will be
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) sure to spoil the work. The success of this mode must Putting in Spring Wheat, etc., Early. depend upon the perfect hardening of the blocks. When the mortar is made, fill the boxes which are to give shape partial destruction of the wheat crop, it may be that some
In consequence of what happened last season in the to the blocks, intermixing it during the operation with farmers will feel a little timid on the subject of early sowbroken stone, small stone, &c., of all sizes, getting in as ing the spring varieties of cereals. But I think reflection much stone as possible, for two reasons—first, they assist will convince those who are open to the “logie of facts," the hardening of the mortar, and secondly, they reduce that no alarm need be entertained for the comparative
safety and success of early sown crops of rye, oats, barley, the expense by diminishing the amount of mortar needed. and especially of wheat. Usually the cold of spring is But every interstice must be perfectly filled with mortar. more intense, and of longer duration, in the open portions
What we most want is the result of experience in this of Illinois and Wisconsin, than in the comparatively mode of building. J. E. S., as we understand lim, only wooded or sheltered parts of Ohio, New-York, etc., in the proposed it-had not tried it.
same latitude. Yet, so far from entertaining a fear of We should esteem it a favor if some of our readers who frost-killing in the spring, the best or most successful are familiar with all the details of the manufacture of com- farmers in the western States named, are now more strongly position roofs requisite for success, would give us the de- inclined to plant early, than they have ever been hereto sired information,
fore. The principal reason of this is, that early sown crops
have a longer season-more time to grow—and being de- It being impracticable to cover seed, or put it in well, veloped more slowly, are less liable therefore to the till the ground is dry enough, putting in seed too early is attacks of blight, rust, insects, &c., that appear to be prin- generally impossible. The same degree of heat, or therecipally incident to a too rapid growth under the influence abouts, that will make grass grow, will, when the ground of too much heat, with other favorable growing conditions. is not too wet, be sufficient to make wheat also germinate
In the Prairie Farmer of Feb. 16th, E. Stetson, of Bu- or grow. But, according to the facts which govern reau Co., II., says: “The quality of wheat is much im- growth—“facts” giving tlie conditions upon which laws proved by early seeding. Å few years since,” (probably or rules are predicated time is also essential to the plant in 1853, “ during an open terin in March, I sowed a part work of large and excellent growth, as are absorption and of a field to wheat, and the balance some three weeks transformation of the elements of its structure. later. No good judge of wheat would have pronounced
Growth that is made early in the season, is necessarily the product of both parcels to be of the same variety, (Rio more compact, weighs more per given bulk than that made Grande.) The product of the early sowed was transpa- later in a higher temperature. The straw of early sown rent, of a bright golden color, while the late sowing was wheat is therefore stifter, more perfect, and better adapted dark and flinty, like the Black sea wheat.” My own ob- to its part, the subsequent formation of perfect seed. Suservation is confirmatory of this. I have noticed much of perior tools for superior work. The seed will not only rithe Rio Grande that was late sown, to be unusually dark pen earlier, but will be of better quality; superior proin color-considered as to its nutritive value, it is none duce of natural work. To expect the best crops of spring the worse for this; because the nutritive eleinent gluten, wheat, and the same is true of oats, rye, &c.—with good gives the dark color, and this fact of late sown wheat, reason, then, we must sow early to give time for the natuwhich therefore makes more of its growth in a high tem- ral work of the plant, as well as other conditions necessaperature than such as is put in earlier, corresponds with ry to satisfactory results.
J. W. CLARKE. the alleged fact, that southern wheat contains a larger Green Lake, Wis. proportion of gluten than that of the north. But the
(For the Country Centleman and Cultivator.) brightest wheat is always most sought after by millers,
CULTURE OF RUTA BAGAS. because it makes the brightest four, and early sown producing the brighter product, is, for that reason of itself,
Eps. Co. Gent. — ITaving been impressed with the inproduced at the greatest profit.
Auence of the root culture in British Agriculture, I inBut there are other advantages incident to early seeding. duced my farmer, Mr. H. Jones, to cultivate last season A crop that is put in early—other conditions being simi- one acre of Ashcroft's Purple Ruta Baga. The cultivation lar-will yield from 10 to 20 per cent more from each
was as follows: I have proved this by experiment, and think it
Ground plowed previous fall-clover sod of three years may be explained consistently with good reasoning.
standing. In the spring well harrowed. Drills 30 inches In 1855 I harrowed in a piece of Canada Club wheat, apart, opened by a double furrow. A sub-soil plow run sowing nine pecks-(I never allowed less than eight)-to through in the bottom of the drills. About 12 wagon the acre, on fair clay loam soil, on the 12th of March. loads of barnyard manure then spread evenly in the drills. Severe frost set in the next night, and the ground was On this, spread 8 bushels of bone dust mixed with 16 frozen solid for eighteen or twenty days. The yield was bushels wood ashes; then covered drills by two furrows 27 bushels per acre; quality bright and good. Last year and sowed about 25th May, with Emery's seed drill, 14 lbs. I sowed 24th of March, with a fair result for the season. seed on the ridge. The turnips came up remarkably well
Now, as I maintain that cvery fact bas a theory in na- and even. In due time they were weeded and cultivated ture—if reason can only find it out—it may be well to fairly, but no extra labor, and I regret I have not the look to the remote causes of the superiority arising from cost of this labor. The grasshoppers trimmed them pretty early seeding. To do this, we must premise that the ab- sharply in July and August, but they had got so well on sorbent capacity of roots and branches, is as much limited that I do not think they did much harm. The crop was by natural conditions and laws as size itself. In fact, it very even, and the tubers mostly ranged from 2 to 6 lbs., depends much upon the extent or size of a plant, as to the and some weighed over 10 lbs. The land was in about rate of growth it can make in a given time. There can medium condition, sandy loam and some cobble stone. be so many openings or pores, to admit the substances of We harvested 940 bushels, or about 28 tons net. They growth, of a certain relative size in a root or leaf, of a were stored for winter use in a barn cellar. I had my given dimension or area. In favorable weather, a certain cellar partitioned into sections about 10 by 12 feet, the quantity of the elements of growth can be absorbed by bottom and sides of lath 1 by 3 inches, so that the air cirthe plant organs in an hour or a day, as much as the interior culates freely around the bottom and sides of each bin. spaces are fitted to contain and digest, but the limits of They are now mostly fed out. Not a root has been inthis interior capacity—which varies as the structures of jured by frost or other cause of decay. You will underplants expand and contract under the influence of heat stand, the quantity of land was not guessed at, but accuand humidity—at a given time, cannot be exceeded. A rately measured.
JOHN W. JERVIS. plant can no more digest a two days' supply in a single Oncida Co., N. Y., Feb. 15, 1860. day, than I cari digest two or three meals in the time naturally allotted to one only. And as the digestion, or
An Old SUBSCRIBER.-In 1833 I commenced taking the assimilative functions of plants, largely depend upon the
“Genesee Farmer," Vol. 3, (I wish I had 1st and 2d vols.) degrec of heat and humidity, and the latter control the and have all of its subsequent volumes bound. Also the supply of organic plant food also to a great extent, the “Cultivator," complete from its commencement bound, plant, unlike some other beings, takes in only as much as until the Country GENTLEMAN was commenced, since it can transform naturally and efficiently. The working which I have that carefully preserved and bound. Topowers of plants, those by which they absorb and grow, gether with other similar works, they form a most valuaare, then, limited to the absorbtion and transformation of ble library, interesting to every one, especially the farmer. a viven proportionate amount of earth and air within a To me it is surprising that so few preserve their papers. given period. Though they grow seven days in a week, Surely a paper that is worth taking and reading is worth they will not make two days enlargement in twenty-four preserving. I know of no way that so cheap and valuable hours, because light is an essential of growth. If the information can be procured, as through our several agricapacity of growth within a given time is limited, then so cultural and horticultural publications. They are and liave also is the proportion of time in which growth may take been exerting an influence for good to all classes of our place. We have therefore no reason to expect either as country, that is not appreciated, and cannot be easily estimuch or good growth, or as large and good quality of mated. Success to your efforts. JAMES McLallen. yield from late sown crops, as from those that are put into en The Eleventh Annual Fair and Cattle Show of the suitable growing conditions in the earliest part of the Brookfield Agricultural Society, will be held on the 26th growing season.
and 27th days of September next.