« AnteriorContinuar »
[For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.)
without ever thinking or caring to return anything to it in HOW TO MAKE FARMING PAY.---No. II. the form of manure. Csop alter crop was grown on it
without any manure, until, in many instances, it was a Necessity of Capital and a Knowledge of the Business - My own Ex
perience-Cut Foddler-Protecting Animals and the Pecuniary Value matter of doubt whether the avails of a crop would repay of their Flesh if lost.
the expense of simply harvesting it. Farming, in one point of view, is not unlike some other During the first season of my career, from eight to ten occupations, and therefore in order to make it pay a fair bushels of wheat, about eighteen or twenty of oats, and profit, it is of the first importance that a farmer should start about eighteen bushels of Indian corn, per acre, was my corectly.
average crop. It required nearly three acres of pasture When a man engages in the mercantile business, or per bead, to keep my horses and cows during the summer. opens a manufactory, he makes himself acquainted with, From ten to fifteen hundred pounds of hay per acre, was and, in a measure, master of his business. He feels that the maximum quantity; and in many places, the grass it is a very important consideration to liave some capital was not mowed, because it was so poor it would not pay to commence with. Who ever beard of a man opening a for mowing. The result was, before the return of pasture, store, who had not first acquired some practical knowiedge I was running about the neighborhood, like many of my of the duties, &c., of a merchant. It is always desirable neighbors, to find a little hay. My grain was ihreshed and very important, when engaging in any business, to with a two-horse machine iu autumn, and the straw thrown have a good capital to begin with. And this is particular out of doors; and the consequence was, before winter was ly true with regard to farming.
haif gone, my straw was all used up. The first step, then, towards rendering farming a paying I had always been instructed when plowing, not to turn business is a good agricultural education. No man can up any of the subsoil, because “it was barren and cold, expect to succeed in the cultivation of the soil who does and would spoil the soil ;" and as there was not a rod of not have a good understanding of the various operations drain on my farm, and as the soil had been only skimmed of the farm. A farmer in order to succeed well in the over, I canie deliberately to the conclusion, that such a cultivation of his soil must have some knowledge of soils system of management would never answer for me; and —of their characteristics--and what system of management the conclusion was, that a new leaf must be turned over. will improve them, and what will impoverish them. The first thing then, was to adopt a system of manageman may become a very good shoemaker or joiner in one ment which would give an increase of erops, from year or two years, but it requires more than one decade of years to year, without purchasing foreign manure, or without to make a skillful, intelligent, and successful farmer, who impoverishing the soil. Believing that such a system of will be capable of managing tlie affairs of even a small management is practicable, the question arose, how am I farm with discretion. The operations of a farm are so to accomplish such an object, or how shall I render my manifold that a farmer, if he expects to succeed in his plans progressive-tending to the end in view ? business, must have a good smattering of agricultural Now, if a system of management could be adopted chemistry, a good knowledge of mechanics and of the which would obviate the necessity of purchasing hay to principles of draught, and of the laws of force and keep my stock through the winter, one very important motion. People were once accustomed to think that step would be taken towards rendering farning progres. if a boy or man was so unaccountably stupid that he sive—or a paying business. In this dilemma, I procured could not, or would not, make a skillful mechanic,
a railway borse-power and thresher, and horse straw-cutmust be a farmer. But there never was a more egregious ter, and as soon as winter set in I commenced threshing error. Experience demonstrates, most conclusively, that my grain. After threshing a few hundred sheaver, the the veriest clod-hopper in the land may succeed tolerably straw was cut up with a little hay and some cornstalks, well in life if he serves a good apprenticeship at some and moistened with water and a little meal applied to it; one of the mechanical arts, and that were he to live coeval after which it was fed in mangers. I did not wait in with the sun, he never could succeed in farming so as to autumn, until my animals had begun to fall away in flesh
before I commenced feeding them cut feed, but as soon In addition to education, a farmer must bave some capi- as they did not seem to fill themselves weil in the field, tal, as has just been observed. If a yomg man bas a liule they received one or two feedings per day, as they seemed agricultural education and but a few hundred dollars capi- to need. In this way all the straw was used up in the tal he may succeed tolerably well, providing he gets a good most economical manner, and every spring, since I adopted farm, and is an energetic, thorough-going man. But no this course, I have bad bay to sell or to keep over. But man ever expects to succeed in mercantile business, or in case I did sell any hay, I always made calculations to in any kind of manulacturing occupation, without having purchase more manure to return to my fields than could some considerable capital to commence with; nor can a l be made from the bay sold, if it had been fed out in my man expect to move along in farming with a very small own yard. To cut this subject short, I may be allowed to capital any more prosperously than one can in the me say, that I have followed up this system to the letter until chanic arts with a limited capital. It is not impossi. the present time; and I know that I keep more animals ble-indeed it is quite practicable-to make farming pay on the same quantity of fodder, and keep them in better a good interest on borrowed capital; but as a general rule condition than they do who do not cut their fodder. it would be considered rather uphill business.
Another very important step towards making farming Dropping the discussion of these theoretical questions, pay, was—and it is true even at the present day--to proI propose now to show how to make farming pay when the vide comfortable sheds and stables for my animals, in cold farm is a poor one, and the capital is very limited. And and stormy weather. I know not how to do it in a more satisfactory manner to I always considered—and do now-that every cow, calf the readers of the Co. Gent., than by recording my own and bullock, or sheep, is worth four cents per pound, experience in the matter. Farmers always desire some live weight. Now then, my idea was—and it has ever thing tangible to aid them in their manual operations, and been a rule of action with me--that if I could retain only we all esteem a short article which tells us what has been one hundred pounds of cow tlesh and fat per head, by exdone, what is very practicable, and what may be done pending two dollars or more per head, in erecting comagain, more highly than we do a large volume which is fortable sheds and stalls--the fodder being always the replete with the most plausible theories.
same--my system would tend to render farming a paying I commenced farming on about thirty acres of plowable operation. land. Most of this was old land, and the greater portion Let us unfold this thought a little. Suppose we allow of it had been plowed and sowed ever since it was cleared a good cow to lose one hundred pounds of fit and flesh up, and the produce had been carried down the Cayuga during the winter-one hundred pounds will not make a lake. Different owners had worked it themselves and rent- very great difference in the appearance of a cow of good ed it to different tenants every year since the country was size, if she is tolerably fleshy—that one hundred pounds settled, who had carried away from it everything that grew, lis worth, in cash, not less than eight dollars. It is in
make it pay.
reality, worth more than this; because there is no portion
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.] of bone and offal in the part that is thus wasted away.
Cheap Paint. Now, during the following season, such a cow must appropriate grass enough to replace this one hundred pounds
Eds. Co. Gent.— I see in the “Co. Gent." an inquiry for of fat and flesh, to have made one hundred pounds of in Jan., which I know to be first best
a cheap paint. Enclosed is one I sent to the “Niagara Mail” butter. No good farmer will deny this fact. Now, com- Take one bushel of upslacked lime and slack it with cold puting the value of that one hundred pounds of butter, water; when slacked add to it 20 lbs. of Spanish whiting, 17 aside from the expense of making it at twelve dollars, Ibs. of salt and 12 lbs. of sugar. Strain this mixture through which added to the eight dollars, for the lost flesh and fat, a wire siere, and it will be fit for use after reducing with cold we have a dead loss of twenty dollars per cow per annum, water. This is intended for the outside of buildings, or where in consequence of not having comfortable sheds to protect it is exposed to the weather. In order to give a good color them from the pelting storms and the pinching cold.
three conts are necessary on brick and two on wood. It may My principle was then, as it now is that in order to be laid on with a brush similar to whitewash. Each coat make farming pay, every animal must be kept in a thriving must have sufficient time to dry before the next is applied. condition ; consequently every one receives a regular sup. slacked lime, 3 lbs of sugar, 5 lbs. of salt and prepare as
For painting inside walls, take as before, one bushel of unply of food every morning and eveving, with a portion of above, and apply with n brush. turnips, carrots, or potatoes, until grass comes; and when
I hare used it on brick, and find it well calculated to prethe winds howl, and he storms rage, I never lay me down serve themit is far preferable to oil paint. I have used it to rest, until I know that every animal has been well fed on wood, and assure you that it will last longer on rough siding and is in comfortable quarters. S. E. TODD. Lake Ridge.than oil paint will on plained siding or boards.
You can make any color you please ; if you wish straw color, use yellow ochre instead of whitening; for lemon color, ochre and chrome yellow ; for lead and slate color, lampblack; for blue, indigo; for green, chrome green. The different kinds of paint will not cost more than one-fourth as much as oil paints, including labur of putting on.
GALLOWAY. Cliflon, C. W.
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.)
Treatment of Burns. Messrs. Editors – Flour has been extensively recommended for burns ; but seeing it tried several times, increasing the pain intolerably in every instance, I would not use it, nor have it used. But a short time ago one of my family was scalded on the band quite badly-flour was first applied, but could not be borne. Next the skin of hog's lard was applied, which relieved the pain almost at once, and entirely. If the skin of lard cannot be had, oiled silk would be a good substitute. If you can make use of the above to relieve a moment's pain, you and I will have our reward.
P. P. Peckham. (For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.] Pie Melon and Ground Cherry. Eps. Co. Gent.-I see much is said about the JAPAN APPLK MELON. I raised some last season and find them a good substitute for apples to inake pies. They also make good preserves and sweet pickles. I have two on hand now. My largest weighed 35, 37, and 16 pounds.
The GROUND CHERRY I have cultivated for two years. They make a delicious pie and very nice preserves, and are
very palatable to eat when ripe. They are easily cultivated, Buist's Dwarf Okra Plant.
and yield abundant. I think thom worth cultivating; they keep until mid-winter.
P. WAITTLESEY. The Okra plant is of the Mallow tribe, and of a southern
Wallingford, Conn., Feb. 3, 1860. or warm clirnate, though it grows rapidly, and succeeds well in the iniddle States. We have raised it in gardens between
Cooking the Sweet Potato. the 420 and 430 degree of latitude. It is valuable for the healthful and highly agreeable mucilage obtained from the In a late no., I noticed an article on the culture of sweet fruit, which grows at the joints of the branches in the form of potatoes. Now I will tell you two or three ways of preparing upright cones or pods; these are cut up and boiled in soups, them for the table, besides baking, steaming, &c. and give them a rich flavor. It is necessary to take off the 1. Potato PUDDING.–Wash the potatoes, peal and grate pods while tender, after they have attained their full size, ther, (using a large coarse grater,) then take of the grated and before they harden and ripen, which they do in one or potato, eggs, butter, either sugar or molasses, (the latter is two days afterwards. Their tenderness can be ascertained by best) and milk sufficient for a batter-bake in a deep dish the point of a knise, and this period of the growth of the without crust-stir two or three times whilst cooking, and pod inust be watched, as after they become dry and hard, then bako brown. Flavor as desired. they afford little of the glutinous matter, and are worthless, 2. Potato CUSTARD. --- Boil the potatoes, skin and mash except their seeds be used as a substitute for coffee, for which them, then with the mashed potatoes, butter, eggs, sugar they are adınirable. The green pods are also pickled; and and milk, make a batter and bake with one crust in a shallow are frequently dried and preserved for winter use by hanging dish. Flavor as desired. on strings. They are even boiled like asparagus, and eaten 3. Potato PIE.- Peal the potatoes, slice-tako sugar and with drawn butter.
water sufficient to make a syrup to cover the potatoes, add a We are indebted to Mr. Robert Buist, seedeman, Phila- little butter and some spices, and cook until the slices aro delphia, for the engraving given above, which represents softened-then make into pies with two crusts. “ Buist's Dwarf Okra," which produces pods at every joint. It 4. FRIED POTATOES.-Peal them, slice and sprinkle with a is said to grow two feet high, about half the height of the old little fine salt, then fry till moderately brown, in butter or variety, and its superior advantages are that it requires much lard-if in butter, no salt is needed. less ground to raise a given quantity, being more fruitful, We depend very much upon sweet potatoes for fattening while the fruit is larger in quantity and botter in quality. pork-on our sandy lands. The red and yellow varieties are
much planted, but the Spanish is much preferable for tablo Do good to others-it will come back to you. The water use. This kind is rather dry and insipid when first dug, but which you pour on the roo's of the cocoanut tree comes back upon exposure to the air, becomes very sweet and even to you sweetened from the top.
syrupy. " W. NICHOLSON. Perquimans Co., N. C.
[For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.)
CULTURE OF FLAX.
Eds. COUNTRY GENTLEMAN-I have had considerable can purposes, is one to the difficulties of wbich we have
experience in flax culture during the last 28 years. Large heretofore referred, while for the present generally con
quantities are raised in my section of country, and having tenting ourselves with a simple record of the efforts made two tlax machines on my farm, and also a factory for toward their solution. The latest of these, the Agricultu- spinuing tax into shoe thread, carpet yarn, twine, &c., ral Lecture Course at Yale, we announced some months in has necessarily given me considerable experience in this advance of its appointed time, and by subsequently recur
crop. ring to it as occasion offered, we endeavored to do our
Flax requires upland, and a loamy soil, or a loam with share towards attracting thitherward the steps of the far- gravel or sand, or a clay soil if it can be in season put in mers of the country. Which endeavors, by the way, ap: proper tilth. It does not, like corn, thrive well on a pear to have at least created a strong desire for the publisward ley, but succeeds best after corn, and tolerably well cation of the Lectures delivered a matter quite impracti. after potatoes. It requires, like most other crops, to be cable as well as impolitic—the former, because much was
From various experiments, I find said that was wholly or partly extemporaneous, and be got in in good season.
one bushel of seed to the acre the best, where we unite cause what was written is the individual property of the the seed and lint for the profits of the crop. The ground writers, who may require it for other uses--the lat. must be made mellow with the drag before sowing the ter, from the simple reason that the course is to be an An: seed, and dragged as lightly as possible after the seed is nual one, and that much of the inducement to attend will sowi), for very little if any of the seed will grow if deeply be lost, if it is anticipated that for a Dollar or two we can covered. subsequently purchase the whole in print. Nor is this a selfish consideration on the part of the directors--the great from 250 to 300 lbs. lint.
The ordinary yield is from 8 to 10 bushels of seed and value of such a course lies in its drawing together as large
In former years much flax was water-rotted, but from a number as possible from all sections of the country-a the fact that the U. S. Government has not patronized, source of usefulness at once discarded if the chief source for the last 15 years, the making of duck for the navy, of attraction is put in bazard.
there bas been but little demand for water-rotted flax, and Farmers peculiarly are of that class, to whom, according this method has been abandoned. It is now, after the to the scripture, "faith cometh by hearing.” Nine out of seed is off
, spread on grass lands, thinly and evenly, and ten who would refuse to read, or pay no regard to anything dew rotted. It gives a tritle more weight by dew rotting. they should read, would perhaps receive the same information or item of experience from the lips and voice of a the same as oats.
The expense of the crop until harvesting it, is about
In pulling the flax, which must be done neighbor as an immediate legeon to themselves. Hence it is that the Discussions are becoming so impor- in three days. I bad 55 acres pulled by hands at $1 per
if you wish to save the lint, a fair hand will pull bis acre tant and interesting a part of onr Agricultural Meetings day, at an expense of $2.75 per acre. The seed would and Shows. While a whole evening expended in this way, average one year with another, about $1.50 per bushel, may witness the utterance of much more that is random and the lint about 10 cents per lb.; but the past season and unqualified where accuracy and limitation are especial. the price for good flax has been 15 cents per lb. ly necessary-of much less either in amount or variety
The flax crop is usually taken by the mill men when that is practically useful as a contribution from actual ex.
pulled, from the farmers, but where the farmers take care perience, than any one number for instance of the Co. of their own flax they can get it dressed and fitted for GENT., may possibly afford, there are not a few who would market at $2 to $2.50 per 100 lbs. enjoy the one away from home better than the other at their own fireside, and perhaps receive from it a degree of two-thirds of the quantity ought to be sown; and if the
If seed only is the object in sowing, from one-lialf to benefit greater in proportion to the greater attention awa- lint only is the object then one and a half bushel of seed kened and thought bestowed.
is not too much per acre. From a notice elsewhere of the concluding address of quantity is sown, but in every experiment tried in this
In Europe double the last Prof. Porter at New Haven, it will be seen that another country, where three or four bushels per acre have been year the Lectures there are to be renewed with still greater sown, it has proved an entire failure of the crop. I hancfforts to render them effective of good. Such a course dled a crop of two acres and seventeen one-hundredths, has the advantage over ordinary discussion, of presenting raised by a neighbor the past season ; although this was the observation or the experience of careful and trust. rather an extraordinary crop, the sales of seed and lint worthy men, well-matured for the occasion, and subsequently overhauled and sisted by questions and by debate. amounted to $195.19, and the whole expense of the crop
was a little over $40, leaving a net profit of nearly $70 Yale College, as a center for such a convention, renders New-Haven a prominent point by its ligh scientific and per acre. The amount of flax raised in the United States
does not approach near the consumption, and very large educational standing, and the proposed establishment of an Experimental Farm will also add to the advantages of York in 1855, show near five millions of lbs. of lint raised
amounts are annually imported. The statistics of Newthe place. But it is not an idea of which Yale is destined in this state, but the numerous impossibilities there stated, to retain the monopoly. The propriety of taking some render the returns useless for any calculations. measures of a similar kind, during another Annual Meet.
The only difficulty in raising this crop is the bulkinesg ing of our State Agricultural Society in this city, has al. of the product, which will not allow of transportation to ready been mooted, and the example of our Connecticut any great distance; consequently it can be profitably friends only requires a little more testing to be extensively raised only in the neighborhood of flax mills; but when imitated. "The Herkimer Co. Journal, published at Lit- once dressed, it will bear transportation to any point for tle Falls, in this State, comes to us with the following sen
a market. WILLIAM NEWCOMB. Rensselaer Co. N, Y. sible suggestions:
South Downs. Mr. J. C. Taylor, Holmdel, N, J., has A course of Lectures on Agriculture should be delivered at our recently sold several South Down rams, to go to California. Academies and Seminaries every winter. A considerable number of Among them, one to Messrs. Crosby & Dibblee, whom young men from the surrounding country go to School at the Academy only during the Winter Term. To these course of Lectures on Agri- they named “Golden Fleece.” He was from the imported culture from practical inen would be invaluable, as it would stimulate them to look deeper into the subject, and thus lay the foundation or ram Frank, bred by Mr. Webb, and a Webb ewe, bred by future improvement and success.
Col. Morris—was of large size and heavy fleece, having Nor need these Lectures be expensive. There are practical men sheared 8 lbs. when a yearling. These gentlemen are goin the of in our County, who are capable of giving a first class lecture, on some par: ing into sheep raising extensively, baving a "ranche" of ticular branch of the subject." Leta dozen such inen be engaged, with perhaps a fer from abroad, and we have no doubt this feature alone over 13,000 acres near Los Angeles. He has also sold ser. in the Programme of Academic Education, would awaken an interest eral ram lambs, all got by his noted "World's Prize” ram, in our schools throughout the community, which would amply pay all
YALE is doing what might be done here, on a smaller scale; but with great advantage we think to our Young Farmers,
to Mr. Stanwood of Sacramento.
expenses for lectures.
Writing for the Papers.
self the question, “Has my life invariably been in accord
ance with the dictates of reason-have I never failed to * “ Probably," writes an esteemed correspondent grasp an opportunity of improvement ?" The calculation whose letter is just received—“when you penned the arti- was not very long ago presented as to the money value by cle asking your readers whether experienced with the pen which the lands of this State might be increased if they were or not,' to 'do good and communicate,' you were not aware all properly drained ; to which some thoughtful objector of the amount of talent that would respond to the call, or
responded by saying that when our territory was all thus perhaps you would have been less confident of not having immense production. 'He need have given himself no un.
put in order for tillage, there would be no market for its your supplies overstocked.'»
easiness; by the time the Anti-Utopians (as a correspondOur friend is only one among many to whom our ac- ent elsewhere styles them,) are all exterminated, our knowledgments are due for liberal and valuable 'communi- population will have incalculably increased, and perhaps cations during the past two months-large numbers of Macaulay's antiquarian New Zealander will have already which have already been published, while many more are taken his mcuitative seat among the ruins of London filed for seasonable opportunity to appear. But very few Bridge. are perhaps aware of the quantity of manuscript grain, The moral, then, of these discursive notes, is simply that must go into our compositors' mill to bring forth as before-Let all contribute as they can to open cbanthe grist which is returned to our readers. The amount nels of light in the dark places of our farming; out of of paper occupied by pen and ink in the preparation of each much discussion, here and there shall we prompt to some printed column, bears something the same relation to the real and tangible advance, and the example of one sucregular and compact lines which this great Art compress- cessful man will exert an influence upon others in cones in bulk while it multiplies in numbers—as the pyramids stantly widening circles. A careful thinker, as well as to a bay stack, or the cotton lint' that flies loosely from thorough practical farmer, said in our office the other day: the gin, to the same product pressed and baled for the there have been just as good farmers among our fathers as market. Consequently, although not a mail arrives with there are now-just ay careful observers, just as earnest out bringing from widely scattered sources, some contri- ; thinkers, just as progressive cultivators. But the great bution or other to our stores, the ever recurring draft they advantage of the Agricultural papers of our day is, that sustain is so great, that we are scarcely more apprehen- they bring to light what this class of farmers can accomsive of 'overstocked supplies,' than we are that all the far- plish; their example, which formerly appeared to their mers of the land will simultaneously put in practice the neighbors as merely an instance of good luck, is now doctrines we are teaching, and spoil the profits of their thoroughly sisted and discussed; the measures of advancebusiness' by the immense crops and consequent low pri- ment they take are disseminated and pushed on, instead of ces that would ensue.
going with them to their graves. “I perceive," he added This remark recalls one consideration which, although in effect, “a constant and remarkable change for the betvery old in our own mind, has perhaps never been express-ter, precisely in this direction, in your publications; ed in so many words. One of the most successful and you are continually drawing out the experience of those thorough-going forists and plant growers whom we ever who have not before written, and as I never met a knew, now-if an exemplary life ever deserved such man who could not tell me something, so there is not a reward—at home where
number issued that contains nothing to ponder and nothing "the forget-me-nots of the angels"
to practice.” require neither culture nor human care—when asked to describe in print his methods of propagation and growth,
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) used to answer with native shrewdness, more generous al.
Brussels Sprouts. ways of his money than of the secrets of his trade, “Let others find out for themselves, as I did."
This variety of cabbage is supposed to have originated from There need be, however, no fear in telling all the secrets ly near Bruxelles and other large towns in Flanders, where
the Savoy. It is a celebrated vegetable in Europe, especialof nature or art that one can learn, either in Agriculture from October to April, it is an every day dish on the table or Horticulture--arising from any danger that too many of both the rich and the poor.--Buisi's Kitchen Garden. will at once rush into the ranks of improvement. Men, Wherever this fine vegetable will stand out of doors during like children, require “line upon line, and precept upon the winter, it is invaluable, as furnishing a rich vegetable preeept.” And we do not hesitate to say that our corres- fresh from the grounds. Where it will not, as in these northpondents may send us the fullest particulars of all the expe- ern latitudes, an excellent way is to give them a pit, where rience they have gained or any discoveries they may have they can be p:eserved in all their freshness. We recently saw made, without the slightest peril of thereby creating in at a r:eighbor's, a pit full of these little cabbage, from which jurious competition in farming or gardening. If we should the gardener supplied the family. They are simply taken up publish this month, in the way of an ordinary editorial or just before winter and planted in these pits, and covered with
litter in extra cold weather
EDGAR SANDERS. communication, a perfect and complete specific against the wheat midge or the curculio, we doubt if the price of PLANTING SUGAR ORCHARDS. plums would be a cent lower in the New York market next autumn, or if their daily bread could then be purchas- In regard to planting sugar maples on stony hill-sides, ed any cheaper by the consumers of that metropolis, recently noticed in this paper, (Co. Gent. Feb. 2, 1860,)
This is the case because important changes for the bet- a correspondent of the New-England Farmer remarks: ter or worse resemble almost invariably the forest wbich “I have a sugar orchard on the top, and just over the east old Time reary to gradual inaturity, rather than the gourd side of a hill, and I think it yields moro sap and of better that sprang up in a night for the prophet: Of a hundred quality than on level land, and the leaves not only keep the who should try either of the specifics we have suggested and on which the trees stand in the highest state of fertility, if indeed there were so many who would go beyond the but a nearly equal area on the side of the hill below is kept casual remark_-“Well now, that looks reasonable enough," a belt of timber on the south, and by high hills on the oppo
in quite a productive state ; and this land being sheltered by -probably a number would fail in the care requisite to site side of the valley, east and north-east, I have planted a ensure a fair trial; others might tire before the process small orchard of apple-trees upon it, and by throwing brush was complete; only a very few would verify its correctness on the land to catch the leaves, I succeed in getting å better by ultimate success.
growth than on another orchard on good level land well cultiPerhaps it will be thought that we place too low an estivated." mate upon the enterprise—nay, even upon the common The same writer remarks upon the known variation in sense of our readers, in such statements as these. The the quality and quantity of sap yielded by maple trees of truth nevertheless is unmistakable; nor will it seem as the same size, and suggests the trial of experiments to asstrange, as it might at first be regarded, if each of us, certain whether this superiority could be propagated by whatever his position or pursuit-should soberly ask him. grafting seedling trees from the best sugar yielding sorts.
THE CALF QUESTION---A GOOD BARN. I take my calves from the cow when three or four days Calves should be Raised, not Sold-Cost of the Milk they Consume- make a tea from it ; I add a small quantity of milk, and a
old. I take a small quantity of good English hay, and Mr. Thayer's Way of Saving $14 per llead-The Stock of Mr. Sawyer very little molasses to it. The calf drinks it freely, and
and Mr. Davis-Description of Mr. Sawyer's New Barn. Messrs. Ens.-Under the above caption, a "Maryland very soon becomes very fond of it, and having got the Farmer” has an article in the Co. Gent. 'of 6th of Jan., taste, will eat hay at three weeks old with as much eagerin which he gives his views and method of raising calves.
calf will usually eat grass at ten weeks old. As To this, Mr. Pettee, in the Co. Gent. of 19th, replies, and they increase in age I decrease in the quantity of milk, ungives the weights and price of calves in his section of make the tea pretty strong, and give them about as much
less I happen to have a large quantity of poor milk. I Connecticut, saying that at six weeks old, good calves will weigh from 150 to 180 lbs., and bring from six to seven few carrots cut up five, and also as much good hay as they
as they would usually require of milk twice a day, with a cents per pound, live weight. The average weight then, I will eat. The hay the tea is made of is not lost, as the is 165 lbs., and average price six and a half cents per lb., cattle will eat it all. I think a calf may be raised till it is live weight; these figures make the average value of the calves $10.72. This looks like a large price for calves ten weeks old, in the manner I have adopted, for the small six weeks old. In saying so, I do not in the least call in sum of three dollars; the trouble is but trifling. I have question Mr. Pettee's statements. But there is another
no difficulty in selling my cows from fifty dollars to a much view to be taken in connection with this question, by all
higher price." those that can readily sell their milk at four cents per
The above, somewhat abridged, is Mr. Thayer's method quart. (I have been selling milk all winter at five cents.) of raising calves, and a very similar plan is pursued by
To fatten one of these large calves, it will require upon many fariners in that section of New-Hampshire where I an average at least eight quarts of milk per day for the reside. six weeks-that is, forty-two days. Eight quarts per day
This morning (26th of Jan.) I rode four miles to call for forty-two days, is 336 quarts, which at four cents a upon one of our young, enterprising farmers, to take a quart, amounts to $13.44. The calf at three days old will look at bis last spring calves---and other stock. Some ten sell for a dollar at least, making $14.44, instead of $10.727, months ago, cows were readily saleable here at a good for the calf at six weeks old. And I think it will be much price. This farmer (Chas. P. Sawyer) sold all but two; better for the cow to be milked, than to be suckled and these calved in March, and he also purchased six more punched by these large calves.
calves when they were three days old, for which he paid Mr. Pettee further says, he has in two or three instances one dollar each. The eight calves were raised mostly on sold calves who have run with their mothers three inonths, hay tea, the skim milk of the two cows was mostly mixed for $15 to $20, which he considered the most profit he with the hay tea, which was given them night and morncould get from the milk. To many, $20 for a calf three ing—at noon they were fed with a porridge. They are months old, would be thought a great price.
But in the now a very fair lot of calves, quite as good as are those New York cattle market, 29th of December, a premium that take the milk from the cows for eight or ten weeks. calf four and a half months old, weighing 650 lbs., sold He has recently refused ten dollars each for two of them. for $47.50, or 75 cts per pound, live weight.
Two years ago the coming spring he raised fourteen calves A certain number of calves must be annually raised, to on three cows. He now has two calves, a few weeks old, replace, in time, the cattle slaughtered for beef, and other for which he paid one dollar each. At this time lie has wise disposed of; and it should be the study of the farmer ovly a farrow cow that gives milk-yet these young calves to ascertain the most profitable method of keeping up this look as well as those do of the same age that suckle the supply. But farmers differ widely in this matter.
Mr. Sawyer has made money by raising young stock, Pettee thinks it better to sell his calves for veal, and pur- and other branches of farming, to which I will again alchase store calves in the fall from drovers, who obtain lude. I also called upon Paine Davis, another of our intheir stock in Northern or Southern New-York, where there telligent young farmers. At the commencement of winter is no such demand for veals. The “Maryland Farmer" he had fifty-one head of cattle; since which he has sold thinks it more profitable for him to raise his calves, and 4 oxen, 8 two year old steers, and 4 calves. He now has gives his reasons therefor. These reasons, as well as those 35 head of cattle, eleven of which are last spring calves-of Mr. P., are before the readers of this paper, and I four of them he raised. Late in the fall, some thirty miles leave it with them to draw their own conclusions. But in north of this, he purchased eleven last-spring calves; for connection with the foregoing, I will give the method of these, upon an average, he paid $3.75. The four lie raised, raising calves by two other farmers.
and the eleven purchased were raised upon skim milk, In Colman's 2nd Report of the Ag. of Massachusetts, is hay tea, &c. Another of our farmers raised eleven last a copy of a letter from Minot Thayer, a farmer of Brain- spring, having for them only the milk of three cows. It tree, to Mr. C., on “Raising Calves,” which says: “In is my impression that the calves that take the milk from answer to your inquiries respecting the mode which I have the cows, if they have a full supply, generally look better, adopted in raising cattle for ten or more years past, I can when turned to grass at the age of ten wecks, than those merely say, those that I have raised within the above time, do that are brought up by hand. But according to Mr. have not cost me more than one-quarter part as much as Thayer's figures it costs about $17.00 to raise a calf on the those I formerly raised. They used generally to be with cow to the age of ten weeks, and only about three dollars the cow from eight to ten weeks. The usual quantity of when fed on skim milk, hay tea, &c., making a difference milk they took, was about eight quarts per day each ; the in the cost of a calf ten weeks old of $14.00. Difference in common price of milk has been twelve and a half cents location, or the place in which different farmers may reside, per gallon, and four cents per single quart, and more sold the price of butter, milk, veal, hay, pasture, &c., are matby the quart than by the gallon. Upon calculation, you ters that each farmer should take into consideration in the will see that it would cost about $17, upon the lowest price disposal and management of his calves. In these matters of milk, to prepare a calf to go to pasture.
he should "apply the sober second thought.” What might “ Another difficulty which arises from letting the calves be profitable in one place for A, B and C, in the managetake the milk from the cow, is when you turn them to the ment of their calves in their section of country, might not pasture they are very uneasy, continually bawling after prove so for D, E, F and G, in their section, their mother, eat but little, and fall away in flesh, and are In the Co. Gent. of the 12th inst., under the heading of often stinted. The expense of raising them in the old way "Sheltering Cattle," I had something to say of our Newhas been so much that scarcely a single calf is raised in Ilampshire barns. The past season, Chas. P. Sawyer of this vicinity. Consequently our farmers have bought their this town, built him a No. I bam, which as it has some young cattle from droves from different parts of the coun- peculiarities about it, I will attempt a description. It is try, and have had no opportunity to select the breed, the 80 by 40—18 feet posts; every stick of the timber was result of which is a miserable breed of cattle. Now sir, sawed, and every part built in the most thorough manner. the method which I have adopted (with great success) is : There were 50,000 feet of timber, boards and plank (board