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measure) used in its structure-nearly all of which was tected, being erroneously attributed to east wind instead of white Norway and yellow pine; 30,000 of No. 1 pine of the morning sun. shingles were used in covering the roof the barn and an L part, which is 40 by 16; also six thousand of clapboards shrubs with straw is a further illustration of the same prin
The common practice of covering the stems of tender for covering the sides. The hovel, or tie-up, on the south side of the barn, is 80 by 14; in which thirty-six cattle ciple. An inch or two of straw could not of course keep can be tied up the cattle standing on a raised platform. the tree actually warmer while the thermometer is ten deThere are four sliding doors of good width, hung upon grees below zero, and the wind sweeping through it for rollers, opening from the yard into the hovel, which is twenty hours; the protection it affords is not unlike that well lighted with several sliding windows, of large squares of glass-—(not the little 7 by 9 lights.) There is a cellar given by the thin coating of earth, but less efficient. under the whole, (80 by 40,) the walls of which are of Evergreen branches operate partially in the same way. split granite. The south side and ends, only, of the cellar are walled; the back side is boarded and clapboarded Raising New Sorts of the Strawberry. from the eaves nearly down to the bottom of the cellar. In this large cellar there is neither “post nor pillar,” The
Will you inform me how I can raise new kinds of straw
berry best from the seed? A. W. floor timbers, sills, &c., are all supported by numerous round iron rods passing through the sills, girths, beams,
Plant the fresh newly washed-out seed, a fourth to half and rafters-these last are double. The cost of the iron an inch deep in very rich and finely pulverized beds, and was from $75 to $80. After his barn was well filled with keep the surface moist and shaded. Many new plants his bay, grain, and corn crop, the floor had settled only spring up spontaneously in bearing strawberry beds, from about two inches
. The lower part of the L is used for the fallen and decaying berries, and thus excellent sorts calf-pens and a few sheep. The upper part for his fowls; the chamber is well lighted, and the fowls have the range become mixed with poorer. The strawberry is the easiest of the cellar-for which they appear to be very grateful. fruit to raise new sorts from by crossing. For if the bearHe has 22 hens, all except one are last season pullets. ing sort which produces the seed is a pistillate, it must be From the 1st day of Jan to the 24th, he has sold twenty- fertilized by some staminate; and thus every seed is a cross eight dozen eggs. They lay upon an average, fifteen egus between the two-the seed, not the berry, being affected per day.
The cost of his barn, without taxing anything for his the first year. Every secd in every berry of Burr's New his own labor and that of his oxen, nor reckoning any. Pine, Hovey's Seedling, and other pistillates, are necesthing for board of bands, &c., fonts up $1,200. To spout sarily always crosses. We would recommend the follow. the eaves and paint the barn, will add another $100 to the ing as suitable varieties to produce seed for this purpose : cost. Mr. Sawyer, by fourteen years' labor, has fully set- Burr's New Pine, fertilized with Hooker and Wilson; old tled the question that money can be made by farming, even here, on the almost worn-out farms of the “oid Hudson fertilized by Hooker; Hovey's Seedling fertilized Granite State.” He is no believer in what is terined with Eurly Scarlet and Walker's Seedling, &c. “luek;" but he is a firm believer in the necessity of the farmer's exercising care, diligence, and a love for his voca
Requisites for Making Good Butter. tion, if he wishes to succeed in his business. Warner, N. H.
LEVI BARTLETT. What are the requisites for making the best butter? A.
There are a few butter-makers who have established such COVERING TENDER STEMS. a reputation for making the very finest article, that all they
can spare for market is eagerly taken at several cents a pound "I observe that directions are often given for covering tepder grapevines, raspberries, &c., with only two or three inch: above the market price. So far as we know, they all adopt es of earth. How can this bo of any use, seeing that this cov. the following rules; or if they do not, they practice them : ering freezes as solid as stone, and the frost often goes down 1. A perfectly clean cellar, not only clean from all dirt, a foot lower ?
A Novice." but from every bad odor-pure, sweet, and fresh. Protection of half-hardy stems does not have so much 2. Perfectly clean, well aired vessels. Not an infinitessiinfluence on the actual temperature, as in modifying chan- mal speck of any foreign or sour substance adheres to any of ges. If for instance, a young peach tree is dug up for them. transplanting, and while the roots are out, it is frozen stift. 3. Churning before the cream becomes old. If set into the earth before any thawing takes place, the
4. Securing such a temperature that it will require about tree will not sustain any injury; but if it thaws in the air half an hour for churning-if performed much sooner, a loss it is ruined. The difference is entirely owing to the man
of butter must occur, and it is not so good. ner in which the frost is abstracted. This result is obvi- work no longer, which is still more rarely, but sometimes
5. Work all the buttermilk out, which is rarely done-and ous if we look at young nursery trees—the roots of which are frozen in the earth and thawed again, every winter. A
6. Use the purest salt-and add an ounce to a pound. covering of an inch or two of earth is sufficient to alter
7. Pack the butter in the jars or firkins solid-put as much wholly the effects of the thawing on the grapevine or rasp- in a small space as possible. berry-cane. Some difference has often been observed by 8. Lastly, and first also, provide good sweet pasture, and fruit growers, even in the manner in which plants are plenty of perfectly puro water for the cows at all times. thawed in the open air. If, for example, after an intense- If any have practiced all these, and have not succeeded, ly cold and clear night, the morning sun bursts out and we should like to hear from them. It is proper to state, howproduces a sudden warmth, the destruction of the parts is ever, that there are some who assert that their vessels, do much more complete than if the change is gradual through
are clean, when in fact they are far from it. the influence of a mantle of clouds. Gardeners have often
CURE FOR SCRATCHES. observed that box edging, if shaded by a building, will be fresh and green in spring; while, if exposed to the full I will send you a receipt to cure the scratches. Take a rays of the sun after a hard freezing, they will be turned little white percipite pounded fine, mix with fresh butter brown or killed. The shading of buildings or steep hills then apply the ointment once a day. Two or three appli
or lard, and wash the part affected with suds, and dry iton the east side of fruit trees, has sometimes saved the cations is sufficient. This I think is ahead of all others. crop, the cause of the loss on adjacent trees not thus pro- Butternuts.
J. H. R.
Smith & Winegar's Tile Machine.
This machine was invented by SAMUEL M. Smith and CALEB WINEGAR of Union Springs, N. Y. Having had an opportunity of witnessing its working, we can commend it to tile manufacturers as a valuable invention. Its prominent advantage is in performing at one operation the work of grinding the clay, screening it from gravel and forming it into tile. It is usually driven by horse power, but water or steam may be employed. The tile thus made we find is better formed generally, than such as is made by hand machines, on account of the stiffer consistency of the clay which may be employed by the more powerful propelling force. The softer material required for manual labor often causes the tile to settle out of shape.
The annexed figure is a well executed representation of this tile machine. The clay, with a sufficient portion of water, is first supplied to the mill A, and when ground by the power applied to the shaft E, it passes down into the box D, and is pressed by a reciprocating plunger through screen, F, and drops into the box, G. It is again pressed by the same moving power through the dies, I I, on the carriages, and ready to be placed on the drying boards. This machine makes all sizes and forms, from one and a half to twelve inches in diameter, and the inventors say it will make twelve hundred 2-inch tile per hour, which statement we have no reason to doubt. For ordinary every-day work, about 600 are made in an hour. It is made of iron, and appears substantial and durable. The working parts being visible and accessible, any coarse gravel or foreign substance is quickly removed from the screen, and the dies readily changed. Further information will be given by A. LATOURETTE, Waterloo, Seneca County, N. Y., who is one of the proprietors.
FILTRATION vs. EVAPORATION. filtration will dispose of a like quantity of water without That evaporation is a slow and tedious process, is a fact any change of the temperature, save to increase that of the
undersoil-equalizing it with that of the surface soil-in of which the farmer who has undrained retentive soils, spring always warmer than the subsoil. It will dispose of which he would plant or sow in good season, is often re- it in a few hours—in a very short time after the frost leaves minded, and the thought can scarcely fail to arise, that the ground in spring, or after a heavy shower. Filtration some quicker way of getting rid of the surplus water not provided for, the much longer time—weeks instead of would be both convenient and agreeable. If it can be hours-required for evaporation, shortens the season of shown that a certain remedy for this source of delay has
preparation, or totally destroys the chance of a crop. been found, and can in most cases readily be put into ope
Could the water now making mortar of many an unration at a slight expense compared with its beneficial re- drained clay, find an outlet or passage through the soil, sults, surely none need longer suffer from this cause. That the character of that soil would rapidly be changed. Who draining is such a remedy--that its application is profita- has not observed how soon heavy clays become friable ble to the farmer-that nearly every instance the ex- when placed where the water freely flows from beneath pense is repaid by longer seasons and better crops, let us them, or who can fail to see that a like result would follow attempt briefly to prove.
the deep and thorough draining of even the heaviest soil. Look at a retentive soil in spring-time—a stiff clay or And the evils of stagnant water, or water waiting evapohard-pan subsoil, for instance. The water then abundant tion, can scarcely be overrated. As said above, it shorton the surface and saturating the upper soil, must pass off ens the season of preparation for crops, and it also prevents either by drainage or evaporation. It cannot sink or fil- the proper pulverization and culture of the soil ; it causes trate away—the impervious subsoil prevents—it cannot wheat and other winter grains and the grasses, to heave drain off; the surface is too level and too retentive of out and winter kill, and fills lowland meadows with wild water-hence it must remain stagnant until the warmth of grasses and weeds, instead of wholesome herbage. the sun and passing currents of air effect its evaporation. In ease and extended time of working, in the effect of And evaporation is not only a slow process, but a cooling manures applied, in the increase and certainty of producone—the heat passing off with the vapor—and in proportiveness, and in many other things which we might name, tion to the quantity of water thus passing, will be the loss the difference between a porous or well drained clayey soil, of heat from the soil. On the same soil, when drained,' as coinpared with an undrained and hence compact and
retentive one, is almost marvelous. And this difference is
[For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.] simply “filtration vs. evaporation.” In the one, the ex
MOLE PLOWS. cess of water has free course through the soil, passing
EDITORS COUNTRY GENTLEMAN-In your issue of March away by the drains without delay; in the other, it must 1, Mr. Lewis C. Smith, of Mo., inquires, “ whose is the wait the slow process of evaporation—a process leaving best mole plow for draining purposes—the team necessary the soil more compact than before, and every way less fit- to draw one a foot or more deep through a heavy tenacious ted for producing any crop of value.
clay soil ?" This difference in the soil " drained, or drowned," as it It might with great propriety be considered that I was has been quaintly characterized, is not only observed in disposed to be invidious were I to recommend any one of early spring, but ise the heat and drouth of summer. A the numerous mole plows patented from a neighboring heavy soil becomes far dryer and harder from the effect of county (Madison) within the past two years. The names dry, hot weather than a light one. The porous soil takes of parties interested in the manufacture and sale of the up moisture from below, as well as absorbing it readily plows are Witherow & Co., A. Defenbaugh, Moses Bales, from the air. Thus a well drained and deeply plowed soil Cole & Wall. The address of all of these parties is Lon?
don, Madison Co., Ohio. is little injured by drouth-its increased depth of mellow, The beam of the plow ranges from 15 to 18 feet in friable earth gives greater extent to its power of supplying length, the front end, as well as the rear, resting on a moisture to vegetable growth.
truck; the length of the cutter or coulter is from 41 to 8
feet; the breadth from 6 to 9 inches. The mole is of variINFLUENCE OF THE MOON.
ous shapes and sizes, ranging from 4 by 5 inches to 5 by 8
inches in diameter, and making a drain a section of which is We published a few weeks since a few remarks on the a to a circle, and an oval, the shortest diameter of which influence of the moon on the decay of timber, in reply to that the employment of a capstan is the better method of
is the breadth of the drain. Experience has determined a communication in the American Farmer. Those re operating these plows. The capstan is fixed on a frame with marks have brought a reply from a subscriber in Kentucky. legs inclined in the direction of the plow, which (when the He says, “I have tried it, and I know that hickory cut in power is applied) sink 12 to 18 inches into the earth and the new or light of the moon is safe for ever from the hold it firmly in its place; the capstan is 15 to 18 inches
and if you cut it in the dark or wane of the moon, lever from 15 to 18 feet is firmly fixed; at the extreme worms;
in diameter, 2 to 3 feet in height, on the top of which a you may dress it out in what shape you please, and the end one or two yoke of oxen, or a span of horses is attachworms will eat it up."
ed to operate the plow, from the front end of which a two Now we are willing to give our correspondent, who says inch cable passes to the capstan. This cable is usually 100 this is his first attempt, all the credit possible for accuracy; feet or 6 rods in length. The draft to operate the plow but when he says he has “tried it," and found that the making a drain 5 by 8 inches in diameter at 38 to 40 in.
ches in depth in a stiff clay is from 250 to 325 poundstimber is "safe forever,” we hope he will excuse us for as tested by a dynamometer—the draft of an ordinary plow involuntarily doubting his veracity. It is true, we have in loamy soil, cutting a furrow slice of 12 inches wide, and heard of the man who said “cedar posts would last for. 8 inches deep is 500 pounds. ever, for he had frequently tried it,” yet we think he must
Gentlemen from Fayette and Clinton counties testified have been an older man.
a few days since, before the U. S. Circuit Court in Cincin
nati, that one thousand rods of drains could be made in We have been so often told of results produced by the one day with a mole plow, at an expense not exceeeing 11 moon, in quite as confident a manner as that of our corcents per rod. respondent, which results frequently conflicted directly Ten or twelve years ago mule plows, made somewhat with each other, that we could not possibly believe them alter the style of that of Col. Dickinson of N. Y. State,
were used; the mole was a cone not exceeding 3 inches in all. On examining further, we found that confident its greatest diameter, but required three to four span of opinions had been either founded on isolated cases; or if horses to operate ; the consequence was that they trampled a number of examples had been taken, all the exceptions, the ground in operating it so much that it required several usually about one half the whole number, were singularly extra plowings to bring it into “good heart” again. In Fayoverlooked. We never yet failed to cure any person on ette, Clinton, and Highland counties the Marquis & Emmerwhom we tried the experiment, by invariably and repeat the above named ones, is used to a considerable extent.
son mole plow, which does not materially differ from any of edly reminding him of the exceptions only. We cannot Mole-plow draining has been introduced into Greene, see how the sun shining on this or that side of the moon Warren, Clark, Madison, Union, Pickaway and Ross councan make any difference, and must therefore ask the privi- ties. The soil in many portions of these counties is a stiff lege of doubting a little longer.
clay-drains made by the mole plow three or four years
ago are said to be as good as when first made. We should perhaps have added that our correspondent After all, the great proportion of arable land in Ohio says that the time for cutting is just the reverse with white which requires underdraining, cannot be drained by the oak. “You cut an oak tree in the dark of the moon, and mole plow, the substratum not being sufficiently tenacious. the worms will never touch it." What is the reason of
I may as well say a word or two about the progress we this difference between the hickory and oak! What is two tile drain manufactories, at Cleveland four, in Lorain
are making with tile drains. In Lake county there are the rationale? The light of the sun flies ninety-five mil. county two, in Champaign Co. one, and in Franklin Co. lion miles and strikes the moon; it shines on it eqnally all |(Columbus) one, which have sold all the tile they are able the while ; a part of the time we see the shade, and a part to manufacture during the past season. In the Northern of the time we do not; but why this faint shadow more
portion of the State twelve new establishments were erected than two hundred thousand miles off, has any more to do into active operation next summer—the demand for tile
during the past summer and autumn, and which will go with the decay and preservation of oak and hickory tim- appears to be unlimitted ; before five years we will bave ber here in Kentucky, than the whisk of a sturgeon's tail one, if not more, tile establishments in every county in the in the bay of Biscay has on the boiling of a tea-kettle at State. The style of tile mostly used is the horseshoe and Pikes Peak, we are unable at the present moment to per- pipe, from 2 to 3 inches in diameter. Jno. H. KLIPPART. ceive.
Columbus, O., March 10. Cor. Sec. 0. S. B. of Ag.
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) the time 16 cows--we had just passed through a "dry SOILING CATTLE.
spell "-he said his cows did pot average over three and a
half pounds of butter a week, while we were making, at MESSRS. Editors—I feel constrained to say a few words the same time, nearly six pounds to the cow. The reason more upon this subject, although others would do it greater was, his cows were pinched, and mine had enough. justice. Yet “in the multitude of counsellors there is
4. A Much Larger Quantity of Manure is Made.safety." I will therefore mention a few things which, to This is the last thing I shall mention, and though last, it my mind, give this system the preference over that of is not the least in importance. The manure heap is the pasturing, and hope some one will " enlarge” and “in- farmer's “ bank," where he can make his " deposits," and prove" upon it.
present his " drafts "-his “deposits" must be equal to or 1. The Fences. You are aware, Messrs. Editors, that exceed his “ drafts," else he will be out of " funds.” If fences are a heavy tax upon the profits of a farm-the ma- then the stock may be considerably increased by soiling, terial, and the labor of keeping them in repair, under the he has the means of enlarging his " pile," and thus premost favorable circumstances, amounts to quite a sum an- venting his “ drafts " from "protest.” nually. But in many localities fencing stuff is getting to
It should be the aim of every farmer, to make, save, be quite scarce, is very expensive, and difficult to ob- and apply to his land, every thing within his reach that tain, even at high prices; and this evil will continue to in: will enrich it—this it seems to me, is one of the great secrease for time to come. Now, by adopting this method crets of successful farming; and I am of the opinion, that of keeping stock, the greater part of this expense may be after one has tried this method of keeping his stoek, he saved, as but few fences are required; and not only so, will be astonished at the amount of manure made annualbut the land now occupied by them, and also, in many ly, and for this and other reasons, will be quite unwilling cases, by a variety of shrubs and flowering plants—such as
to abandon the system. elders, willows, Canada thistles, mulleins, and the likemay be made available in raising valuable crops. This and applying manure, in the agricultural papers- urging
But as a good deal is said upon the subject of making would add much to the appearance of the farm, and the farmers to look to their own interests—it is needless for land thus gained for tillage would, in many instances, go me to say any thing more in regard to this matter. Every far towards keeping the stock upon it. 2. The Saving of Land.—I think there can be no ques. capable of producing them, and I have no doubt that the
one knows that to raise large crops, bis land must be made tion about this. In my opinion one acre of good clover soiling of cattle will contribute largely towards producing will afford as much feed as four acres of the average pas- this result. tures—corn and sorghum about the same; with millet the
J. L. R. Jefferson Co., N. Y. difference is not quite so great. There may be other crops that could be as advantageously raised, but these are all
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) that I have tried to any extent. If this be so, it is evident
"FARM IMPROVEMENT." that the stock upon the farm may be greatly increased, or there will be quite an additional number of acres for Editors OF THE COUNTRY GENTLEMAN_On the first page other purposes. Often two crops may be raised from the of your paper of Feb. 9, is an article with the above headsame ground—as where rye is sown in the fall, and fed ing, and having some experience in that line, I have conoff early in the spring, any other crop may follow it. Early cluded to give your readers some of my ideas and some *corn may be followed by millet or turnips, and later corn of my experience also. In the first place, I came into by rye for the following spring, and so on.
possession April 1st, 1853, by purchase, of the old home3. It is Better for the Stock.-Cattle are often turned stead of the Yardley family, which had been in the family to pasture too early in the spring, before the feed is suf- since March 21, 1681, with the exception of about four ficiently large to give them a good "bite,” or sufficiently months, viz., from March till June, 1710. The original nutritious to do them mueh good; the consequence is, if grant (in my possession,) from Wm. Penn to Wm. YARDthere happens to be a "dry spell” in the spring, as is often LEY, dated March 21st, 1681, is for “500 acres of land, to the case, they will be very likely to have short feed through be located in the Province of Pennsylvania,"—197 acres the summer. Of course, they will thrive but little, and of which remained in the family at the time of my purwill scarcely get over a hard winter's keep, before they chase. I first purchased 135 acres with the buildings, and enter upon another. When pastured, they are subject to some months afterwards purchased 35 acres more, and I all the vicissitudes of the season—the usual drouth in July then sold ten off, leaving 160 acres, the present size of the and August diminishes, often very materially, the quanti- farm. ty of milk, and checks the growth of young stock. But if The property had been rented about twenty-three years, soiled, the case is different. Where proper provision has and was somewhat out of order at the time of my purbeen made for them, they have their food regularly, and chase. On looking about me to see what was necessary all they require, and are in a great measure exempt from to put the farm in the best shape possible, I came to the the changes thus mentioned. The flow of milk is more conclusion that the whole thing needed remodelling. I uniform-the only diminution being the natural one as immediately commenced taking down the inside fenees, they advance in the season, and I think the quality of the and laid out the fields anew, so as to equalize the size theremilk richer. Butter made from cows thus kept, is decided. Of, and also to bring as many of them as possible to the ly of a better quality, and in hot weather has not that oily stream of water, which runs from west to east, through appearance so often the case with it at that season of the nearly the middle of the farm. I also laid out a new farm year. I presume this is owing to the fact that the cows road, which began at my wharf on the Delaware Division have not had a long drive, it may be, to pasture, and been of Pennsylvania canal, (the canal being the eastern boundexposed to the hot sun through the day, and so become ary of the farm,) and passes by the barn and by all the heated, affecting their milk. Whatever may be the reason, fields to west end of the farm, where said road crosses the we have had no difficulty in making butter, in the bottest creek. I have built a large bridge of stone side walls, weather, that would work into nice rolls when it has stood and covered the aperture for the water with stone, and a suficient time after being salted—this I think an im- then continue the side walls on upwards, and the space portant consideration. We use neither ice or cold water between I fill with stone which I pick from the fields. in making butter. (Our butter is furnished to families. The bridge is passable thought not finished, and never will weekly, in rolls.) Similar advantages attend the keeping be until raised up to a level with banks on both sides of of young cattle in this way-they grow faster, and it tends the creek, and as long as any offal stone remain on the to make them gentle—if heifers, they become docile and farm and the bridge is unfinished, there is a place to dump quiet milkers with very little trouble.
them. I will mention a circumstance that will convey the idea In laying out the fields, I first began by setting the two I wish to, perhaps better than I have done it. A friend fences which enclose my lawn, so as to enclose also all the called upon me the latter part of last September, who has farm buildings, thereby enclosing the whole in a plot of a farm of about two hundred acres, and I think milked at about two acres, with the outside fences parallel. I then laid out the fields parallel to the western and northern sharp spade and go on the other side of the fence and turn lines of the farm, and in size about twelve acres, and so the back to the rail, and cut all loose under the fence, and arranged that five twelve-acre fields of farm land and ten let a man follow with a potato rake and pull the dirt and acres of meadow have running water in them, and a strip trash into the oatfield side, where the harrow will effecof meadow along the creek of about six acres, which is tually exterminate it. This method effectually destroys only fitted for grazing purposes. I disagree entirely with the mole and mice harbors, and does away with the Mr. J. J. Thomas in his 7th proposition. I deny that hills system of raising a fringe of noxious trash around the should govern the size or shape of fields, or that they fences, to be sown broadcast over the field by every blast should be always plowed down-hill, for by so doing you that blows. Lastly, in preparing the field for wheat, I would soon have the soil plowed down the hill, which if plow and scrape the dirt all down to an even surface, that left to the action of the rains, will get off much sooner than is, an equal depth of soil all over the subsoil, and fill up I want it to.
all the pie-dishes that may be in the field—then harrow In your editorial remarks on the size of fields, you say, the field well, and pick all the stone off, and then roll it “We would propose then, that the amount of manure down by running the roller as close to the fences as possible which the farm can furnish, determine the size of the --drill in my wheat and timothy seed, (some time from field.” I would propose no such thing, but would lay out the 1st to the 15th of Sept.,) and follow the drill with a my fields to suit the farm and system of farming to be light one-horse harrow; then pick the stone again; and adopted, and then work up the manure heap in some way then roll down the field in the most complete manner, to correspond therewith.
drive out the team, and put up the bars or shut the gate. And now, Messrs. Editors, having got my stakes set for And here, Messrs. Editors, I might also observe that I the new fences, I commenced overhauling and assorting sow nothing but the best of seed, and never let a noxious my rails. I first selected all the large rails suitable for å weed go to seed if I can possibly help it. In conclusion four-rail fence, and put them on a bank along a public I will only say, “He that knows better how to tame a road. I then took all the straight and small ones and put farm,' why let him teach-'twere charity to show.” them along the farm road. I then took the same size but Prospect Farm, Bucks Co., Pa. Jxo. KELSEY. of a rougher quality, and put them on the line between P. S.-I find on looking over the above article, I have me and my neighbors; and lastly, I took all the most forgotten to say anything of the amount of stone I have crooked ones and put into the division fences. All my removed and the manner of doing it. In plowing any line and most of my division fences are five rails high, and other than a sod, I place a grubbing-hoe axe downward in nearly all of best chestnut timber, and put together by the coulter-hole in the plow beam, and then say to the an experienced fence-maker, who I consider an adept at plowman, take out every stone of sufficient size to disturb the trade.
the plow, and if he finds any too large, I have him mark And now, having got my farm fenced, I will give you the place, and take them out afterward. By this method some idea of the natural lay and quality of the land, and I cleaned nearly all the farm of stone-in all some 300 or my plan of farming it. To begin, I would say that the 400 perches, nearly all of which are first-rate building soil is a brown sandy loam, well adapted to all kinds of stone, and many of them so large as to require blasting grain and grass, the stone in it being brown sandstone, before they could be removed—in addition to all of which, with an open gravelly underlay, considerably rolling, and I grubbed innumerable loads of briers and elders from therefore needing little underdraining.
along the fences. The fields have formerly been plowed in lands of different sizes, and both ways, thereby creating artificial in
In a communication I wrote you some days ago, I beequalities in the soil, and the water driven into bodies so lieve I omitted the finishing stroke on my wheat field. as to wash many of the fields badly into gullies of more It is this: After the last harrowing, or perhaps during or less extent. I immediately commened a different sys- its progress, I pass round the field with a garden rake, and tem of plowing, for I felt satisfied that unless some other push the dirt back under the fence, and smooth it down system was adopted, my farm, with all the manure I might nicely, so as to give the scythe a fair chance; and then put upon it, would wash off on to somebody else, or into after drilling my wheat, I take a pan of timothy seed, and the Delaware.
go round the field, and sow the ground along and under I first commenced the smoothing system, by plowing the fence; then follow with the rake, and rake the seed the old lands to their proper level, and then if the ground in, and break up the clods that the roller cannot reach. was not in proper shape, I used the shovel and cart and The next spring I sow clover seed around the fence in the hauled the hills into the hollows, and have thus moved same way. Thus you will perceive that when I come to nearly four thousand ox cárt-loads of dirt in seven years. mow the field, I have hay about the right stripe. In moving dirt I sometimes use a board about eight feet
Bucks Co., Pa.
JNO. KELSEY. long and six inches wide, set edgewise under the hind part of a triangular harrow, and then with an engineer to man
PROFITS OF FRUIT. age the horse and two men to manage the harrow, a field of ten or fifteen acres may be smoothed down in double
The New-England Farmer states that the Northern Spy quick time.
apple now sells for fifty to seventy-five cents a dozen at Having got my field smooth, I endeavor to keep it so. retail in the Boston market. This remark of course apSometimes in plowing for corn, I begin at the fence and plies to those only of fine quality and well kept. Fruit plow around the field outward until finished, and then haul that is better than the average will always bring not only the outside furrow and fill the corners and middle “clear a high price, but will also command a ready sale. The up." Last spring I sowed my oats on the corn stubble Northern Spy is one of those fruits that will always show without plowing the ground at all, (having first cut away the effect of good treatment, and those are the sorts that the cornstalks with a hoe when the ground was hard frozen.) afford the highest profits under skillful hands. It has been I first sowed the oats and then barrowed the ground three objected to this apple that it is hard to convey to market, times, and rolled it down, and had plump fifty bushels of on account of its liability to bruise. This is the very qualioats to the acre, the uniervsal prediction of the knowing ty that gives it its high value in selling. A half a day's ones “to the contrary notwithstanding."
labor in extra pains in packing, will repay the cost of a In preparing my field for wheat, I first put on the ma- week's labor in putting up. It is the difference in the renure, and plow the field into large lands, say thirty or sults of common and skillful management, in raising, gatherforty paces wide, and then plow them back again for seed- ing, ripening and packing that gives such great prices to ing. I always endeavor to destroy all signs of vegetation the finest pears. Farmers ! if you wish to make money by inside of my fences before putting in my wheat, and my marketing fruit, pursue such a course as will enable you method of doing it is to plow the oat stubble from the to exhibit specimens, finer in quality and more splenfence on all sides, and by putting a single horse to a plow, did in appearance than those around you, and you can comI can plow within six inches of the posts. I then take almand almost whatever you choose.