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SEEDING DOWN WITH OATS. Ibs.--gain, 41 lbs., or nearly 31 lbs. per day. He ate 70
Ibs. of corn, and 16 lbs. of rye bran mixed with skimmed Eps. Co. GENT — The first numbers of the Co. Gent. are milk.
In both cases the pigs were fed as much as they at hand, and to say I am pleased with their contents would would eat, a few days before weighing, so that there should be a small word wherewith to express my satisfaction. As be no “ filling up," as it is called, to take into the account. I look over the nicely printed pages-the observations and experience of practical and thorough farmers—all brimful tor's statement in the Feb. No. of the Cultivator, page 65,
From these experiments, in connection with Mr. Procof instruction, my only regret is, that I had not long ere and with some observations that I have made at other this been a subscriber to its valuable pages.
times, I am of the opinion that it is much easier making Allow me to couple the above with an inquiry. I have pork in the summer and fall months than it is in the winseeded down, after oats, for two seasons in succession, an
ter months. Marcus E. MErwin. Litchfield Co., Conn. eight acre lot, the first season with clover, the second with clover and timothy, and each time it has proved a failure.
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) The soil is well drained, and consists, for the most part, of
HOW TO CLEAN SEED WHEAT. a black mold with a gravelly clay subsoil. The oats have been good each season, yet marks of seeding could be seen Messrs. Editors— The following mode of cleaning only in spots. The grasshoppers have been pretty thick chess and smut from seed wheat, I have found to effectuat harvest time in the field, but still it was not attributed ally prevent transmutation, and the benefit to the crop will to them, as I inferred that they would have left no spot un.
pay the expense. touched. The lot has not been seeded down for a number
Take a barrel and fill it half to two-thirds full of brine, of years---been under the plow each season, If you, or
strong enough to float a potato-pour into it one bushel of some of your numerous correspondents, will suggest somewheat-skim off all that floats-stir and turn up the wheat remedy for tbis case you will confer a favor. AGRICOLA. -skim and stir it again and again, as long as any thing Genoa, N. Y., 1860.
rises. After skimming all you can get from the brine careSeeding down with oats is rarely successful. If the oats fully off, (80 as not to agitate the wheat,) in a tub, there are poor the grass may succeed—but on good soil, that will be some chess missed by the skimmer-be careful to will bring heavy oats, and which should grow good grass, make it all run off
' with the brine. When the wheat beit usually fails. There are two modes which our corres. Dat will holů it back, and allow the brine to drain oft
gins to come, place your hands or some screen before it, pondent may adopt. The first is to sow the grass seed When drained, empty the wheat on the floor, and mix in it (double the usual quantity) early in the spring, on the land lime enough to dry it, so that it will not stick together. which he has prepared for the oats, with no other crop, Pour the brine in the barrel again, put in another bushel and brush it in. If sown quite early, it will be good pas
of wheat, and proceed as before. ture before midsummer. We have cut about two tons to is none in the ground, the operation will not require to be
By this method all the chess can be got out, and if there the acre under favorable circumstances, the same year. repeated the next year. The second year the grass crop will be all he could wish. There is usually some chess in Timothy seed. If it is The second mode is to sow oats alone, and after harvest to sown with the wheat, sift it through a meal sieve. plow the stubble, and sow and brush in the grass seed.
Chess will grow with grass from year to year. I have The grass crop next year thus treated will be much better seen it in the grass that was mowed three or four years in
succession, and it increased every year. than it could be if the seed was sown with oats in spring.
Poughkeepsie, N. Y. [For the Cultivator and Country Gentleman.]
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.] CORN FOR A POUND OF PORK.
CULTURE OF THE RUTA BAGA, MESSRS. EpitoRS—How much corn does it require to MESSRS. TUCKER & Son-As this is a good time to make make a pound of pork? With a wish to obtain a correct calculations and lay plans for summer, I propose through answer to the above question, I made an experiment in your excellent paper, to inforın my brother farmers how I the fall of 1857, and now give you the result.
raised ruta bagas quite successfully last season.
A piece On the 28th of October, I weighed a pig which was of pasture ground, which was so badly run out that it proabout six months old-the weight was 145 lbs. I then Juced next to nothing, was taken for bagas. It was fed it ten days and weighed again, Nov. 7th-the weight plowed about ten inches deep, harrowed well, and furwas 175 lbs.—gain, 30 lbs., and it had eaten 96 lbs. of rowed out with a light one-horse plow. Compost manure
I then fed corn-meal fourteen days, and weighed composed of night soil one part and surface soil four parts, again Nov. 21st-the weight was 211 lbs.-gain, 36 lbs., well mixed, was dropped in hills in the furrows two feet and it had eaten 145 lbs. of meal. I then fed on corn apart, at the rate of one shovel full for three bills. It seventeen days, and again weighed Dec. 9th-the weight was covered lightly with earth by the hoe, and seed was 263 lbs.-gain, 52 lbs., and it had eaten 216 lbs. of dropped by haud and covered by hand hoe.
The rows I then fed till Feb. 1st, 1858, fifty-four days, and were three feet apart, and it was designed to bave two weighed again--the weight was 311 lbs.-gain, 48 lbs., plants grow in a bill, but in planting we covered some of and it had eaten 445 lbs, of corn. It was butchered that the seed too deep, and it did not come up; but what day, and weighed dressed, 262 lbs.
grew were very large and fine, and had the ground been I was disappointed in the result all the way through; fully stocked the vield must have been very great. the gain on the first feeding of corn, was far beyond my The advantage gained by this plan is that it costs but expectation; then the gain on meal was less than I ex little labor to tend them, (which always comes in a very pected, as I had often heard it said that pigs would gain busy time of the year,) and requires but little manure. faster on meal than they would on corn). Then again, the We cultivated twice with a horse and boed twice by baud. gain on corn after the meal, was more than I expected; But, says some of the brotherhood, ruta bagas are an exbut the gain on the last trial was very much below my ex. hansting crop; little or nothing will grow after bagas. pectation, and unaccountable by me.
Such is not my experience. If the crop is fed, and the So far as the experiment extended, I do not know how manure returned to the land, apply what crop you please, it could be conducted with more accuracy. The drink and you will find your labor rewarded by a bountiful crop. was water, in a trough separate from the feeding trough, But if one prefers he may grow bagas for a number of so that the food was taken dry.
years in succession on the same piece of ground. I hardly I would add, that in 1858, Sept. 24th, I weighed a pig, know how one can get so much feed in any other way. to see how much he could be made to gain in twelve days, By feeding the crop and saving all of the manure, you (previous to a fair which was to be held.) His weight was will keep up the fertility of the soil without requiring the 104 lbs. At the expiration of the time he weigbed 145 proceeds of any other crop, and most likely have a suro
plus of manure left. A neighbor of mine, and he quite that I feared, for some time, I should lose them. Such a a successful farmer, has had them on the same piece of remedy never should be used, when there are enough beground for the past four years, and the crop of 1859 was sides, of a milder character. much the best, though it has produced an excellent crop A decoction of tobacco is frequently recommended for each year, although but lightly manured. Last year he destroying lice. But oil is much cheaper and more efficamanured better, applying 25 or 30 two-horse loads to the cious, and will not make animals siek; but tobacco, when acre, of good stable manure. The same ground was set to applied very bountifully, will often make them sick. apple trees four years ago, and they are doing nicely. He Fowls roll in the sand in order to mingle it with their intends to continue the crop on the same land so long as feathers, which will scratch the lice to death; and cattle it continues to improve.
frequently throw dirt on their backs, which destroys the Chicopee Falls, Mass.
lice mechanically, just as scores of people are smashed up
among the rubbish of a huge building when it falls. But (For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.] it is very difficult to make sand or ashes remain among the A Sure Remedy for Lice on Animals. hair on the dewlaps of animals, or on their sides; tiere.
fore oil seems to be preferable to almost any other remedyIt is really amusing, but not very instructive, to read
Fat catttle will sometimes be covered with lice. I once the ideas of different men with regard to the manner of owned a yoke of very fat oxen, which were the lousiest treating lice.
One will recommend one nostrum, and an beings that I ever heard of; but a good sopping of oil other something else equally inefficient. Why do lice flourish best, and increase much more dition is usually a good preventive; but it will fail some
soon dispersed them. Keeping animals in a thriving conrapidly, on very poor, emaciated animals, than they will times as a remedy. °S. Edwards Todd. Lake Ridge, N. Y. on fat animals ? Because the surface of the skin and the hair of fat animals is somewhat oily, wbile the skin and
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.] hair of very poor animals is quite free from oil. Well,
HAY CAPS. what of that? Why nothing, only no lice can ever propa. gate their species among oily hair; and whether they have
MESSRS. EDITORS—This is a very useful article in hayany brains or not, they will never deposit their nits among making, although a little out of season just now—but it is oily hair. If the nits after they have been deposited, or the right time to make or procure them, that they may be stuck to the hair, should be oiled, they will never hatch; in readiness when wanted. The use of hay caps has not as and the lice seem to know that fact, and therefore they do yet become general, but the time is not far distant when not find a congenial locality in the hair of an animal which every progressive farmer will have them, and consider perspires very much. Consequently if lice are formed on them about as necessary as any farm implement. a fat animal, they will always be more numerous near the
Three years ago I made one hundred caps, one and a end of his tail than on any part of his body. Lice are half yards square, of heavy cotton cloth. They were very like sheep in one respect, they like a warm and dry made by sewing halt a breadth to a whole one of the deplace.
sired length. To fasten them on, I first tied stones in the Let a few nits be placed in a warm place for a few days, corners, but they would blow off, and were ugly things to and they will hatch; but let them be oiled, and it will be handle—then I sewed strong twine to the corners, with impossible to hatch them. So with the eggs of birds and pegs attached, but in high winds the corners would pull or domestic fowls; give them a good coat of paint or grease, tear out after a while. Finally I tied a knot in the corand they will never hatch.
ners, leaving the end sticking out about an inch, so as not The bees, which are such a great annoyance to horses to slip or untie, and fastened the cord by tying it back of in the summer, which fasten their eggs to the hair of the knot, and found this to work well. The strain then horses, seem to understand this principle much better than comes upon the whole corner, and not upon a small secmost people do, and therefore they deposit most of their tion, as when sewed on. There is a little knack in putting eggs on the bair, which will be least liable to be moistened caps on so that they will “stay put.” The pegs should with sweat. For this reason we always see many more not be run straight into the cock, but pointing up at an bot eggs on the legs, below the knees of horses, than on angle of about forty-five degrees; then the working of the any other part of them. If such eggs should be greased, cap by the wind will not draw them out; and the cap or moistened with sweat a few times, they will never batch. should be drawn down snug when the last two pegs are
There are several very good remedies for lice on ani- put in. If thus put on, not one in a hundred will get mals ; but among them all, perhaps, oil is the most effica- loose, and the cock cannot blow over. cious and harmless. None but sweet oil, or the best kind
But my hay caps called forth various and often ludicrous of lamp oil, or winter strained machine oil, should be used remarks, when first brought into the field-many looked for such a purpose. If linseed oil, or some other kinds of askance at them, and thought it useless to “blanket” oil be used, it is liable to dry, and the hair of the animals hay, besides any "gump” might now that water would will all stick together in dry, hard bunches. Pour it on run through cotton cloth. One individual who first saw their backs, and on their necks and tails, and rub it in them at a distance, and really did not know what they thoroughly; and if lice take up their quarters on the dew were, (they were all in use in one field,) concluded it was lap, give it a good oiling, and they will soon bid adieu to the encampment of a general muster, or of an invading such oleaginous climes. Oil should be applied when the army-didn't know which. However, I was so well pleasweather is warm, rather than when it is very cold; because ed with them, that I added fifty to the number the next in very cold weather lice keep very quiet, and do not de- season, and also made two twelve feet square, to cover posit many eggs.
Let it be kept in mind that they never stacks and think the money well invested. deposit their eggs on oily hair. In the spring of 1859, we were raising a lot of turkeys
RESIDENCE AND which were about as large as quails, when they began to COUNTRY droop, and appeared very lifeless. Upon examination they
VALUABLE FARM FOR SALE, were all found to be as lousy as an Egyptian. Every one
Known as the “COLDEN MANSION FARM," situated in Coldenof them was caught, and sweet oil was rubbed on their ham, Orange Co., N. Y.. 7 miles west of Newburgh, on the Newburgh heads and poured on them, under the wings—giving them and Cochecton Turnpike.
The llouse is 50 feet square, two stories high, basement kitchen, a good sopping-and in three days not a louse could be and built of stone. There is a large Farm House and Tenant House found, and the turkeys soon began to fap their wings and also on the place, together with Carriage Houses, Barn, Hay Houses,
. A move about with agility.
choicest kinds of Fruit Trees in full bearing. Mercurial ointment or “unguentum,” which is made of tion, and is as healthy a location as can be found.
The Farm contains 217 acres, mostly under a high state of cultivamercury mingled with lard, is often recommended for lice. At least one half of the purchase money may remain on bond and But it is a very dangerous remedy; and is no more effi- mortgage for a term of years.
For further particulars apply to Judge John J. Mosell, Newburgh, cacious than oil. I applied mercurial ointment once to L. MURRAY FERRIS, jr., 62 South street, New York, or to the subscriber
on the premises. my calves, which were lousy; and it made them so sick, Mar 8-W6tm2t
J. L. R.
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.] which the disease appeared being one brought from HolMILLET FOR FEED.
land to the farm of Mr. Chenery, of Belmont, where cattle Eps. Co. Gent.-Last winter I wrote you, giving a
are also dying in great numbers—but the sale of the calf, brief statement with my first trial in raising a crop of the and its transfer to Brookfield, was the occasion of the German millet. I was so well pleased with it, that last appearance of the disease in its most virulent form, at spring I fitted the ground, and sowed fifteen acres. The the latter place, and with, at present, greater destruction. ground was plowed about the iniddle of June, well har. No less than fifty head of valuable cattle have died, and rowed, and sowed a little over a half bushel of sced to the acre—again harrowed and rolled, finishing the work many more are beyond recovery. Inquiries are being June 22d. On the 20th Aug., making sixty days after made by the farmers of all who can be expected to suggest sowing, I mowed it with a machine; being very thick on any relief. Dr. Dadd addressed some of the citizens of the ground, it required two days to cure. Then raked North Brookfield a few evenings since, after examination with a horse-rake and cocked. The ground was very un of the diseased animals, one or two of which had been kill
The highest and dryest produced the lieaviest growth. On about two acres of the lowest ground, but ed for the purpose, in different stages of the progress of little grew, being too wet. Some of the heads grew over the disease—the offensiveness of it in those which had died seven inches in length, and yielded over a tablespoonful naturally, being overpowering. He thought it infectious, of seed. The entire crop on the fifteen acres was sixty but not contagious-believed it to be pleuro-pulmonia— loads, as heavy as a span of horses could well draw. I differing from the pleuro-pneumonia of Holland, in its not estimate the crop at sixty tons, or four tons average per assuming a typhoid form in our climate. In some cases
I have fed 20 horses (old and young,) and 20 cows, thus examined, the lungs were putrid, having mortified. In far with no other feed, and have enough on hand to last one instance the lungs were compressed to one-fourth their until the 10th of March.
natural size; in another filled with nearly a pailful of I have a large barn floor on which I put enough to last foreign substance in the form of colored serum. The two days. Put on the horses, and about two-thirds thrash it. It is all fed in stalls and mangers. My horses and only symptom was a deep sented cough. No remedy cattle eat it readily, and are in better flesh than they ever could be devised but to isolate the diseased animals and were at this time of year. Several times I have put a have them killed—this could be done by direction of the lock of millet and a lock of the best tame hay into the Board of Agriculture-the State paying for the loss, as was horse manger. The horse would invariably eat the millet uniformly done in Europe in similar cases. first. A team that works every day, requires about half the
Immense numbers--amounting to millions—of cattle grain if fed on millet it would if fed with hay. I have a have been lost by this disease in Europe. The governstack of it in my calf-yard, allowing the calves free access. ments of France and Holland have offered large rewards If you were to see them cut their pranks when let out to for a remedy, but none has yet been discovered. Inocuwater, you would think they had • pretty good keeping" lation has been found a preventive, and in localities where at least. I will here remark, that I wintered fourteen sixty per cent of the cattle used to die of this disease only calves last year, fed wholly on millet, and never had a lot in better condition in the spring. The butchers tried to one per cent die since vaccination has been tried. The buy them for their market stalls.
process is described as follows:One of my neighbors last spring tried to raise two crops " This inoculation is done near the end of the tail. The in a season by sowing the first in April, and again after hair is clipped off, the skin cleaned, and two incisions made the crop came off. fe failed in both. The 20th June is with a lancet, into which the virus is introduced. The virus about the best time to sow the seed. It is often the case must be obtained from the lungs of a cow suffering with the that some of the farmer's crops fail, either by poor seed, disease, and killed for the purpose, and not from an animal heavy rains, drouth, or frosts. If in such cases a little that has died in the natural way from the effects of the dismillet seed was on hand, he could in a great measure re- the lung between the healthy and the infected parts-tho
The manner of obtaining it is to cut off a portion of pair the loss.
If the farmers in Central or Western New- part marbled like water and blood is wrung out into a vessel York, or any where else where the frosts of June last cut and allowed to stand one day, when the the bloody part will off their corn, beans, potatoes, &c., had sown the desolate sink to the bottom, and a lemon colored liquid will remain ground with millet, they would now have something good upon the surface. This, if free from scent, is fit for use, and and cheap to feed their stock with.
may be preserved in a vial.
In cold weather it will keep Why the name of Hungarian grass should be given to right or ten days before becoming too corrupt for use, while a variety of the millet, is to my mind a query. If a Hun- in warm weather it will hold good only one or two days. The garian emigrant introduced into lowa a millet seed produc- fortnight, and in some cases a longer time, a pock quite simi
drops introduced into each incision will produce, in a week or ing a round head, requiring to be sown each and every lar to that caused by the inoculation of persons with the cow year to produce a crop, how can it be called a grass? It pox. When no pock appears it is presumed that the animal does not stool or sprout out after harvest, and produce an is not susceptible to the disease. When the tail of the aniabundance of fall feed as some have stated. At least I mal becomes much swollen, an incision is made, in order that have seen no after growth as yet. There is no such thing the infectious matter may run out, and the wound is from as grass about it.
It is Millet, nothing more nor nothing time to time cleansed with water." less. It is wrong to class it in your market tables as Hun- Der Since the above was in type, and too late for this garian grass seed, or Honey blade, or any thing else than week, we have received an interesting letter from a MasMillet. There is a little difference in the shape of the sachusetts correspondent on this subject, which will appear head. So there is of wheat or barley.
in our next. Rock Island Co., II., Feb., 1860.
LARGE PUMPKIN.-I send you a few pumpkin seeds. Fatal Disease among Cattle in Massachusetts.
The original one was sent me last winter. The result from
the vine, one pumpkin, which measured 3 ft. in length, 4 A very destructive disease is raging among the cattle of ft. around it, and weighed 80 lbs. The skin was perfectly North Brookfield, and neighboring towns in Massachusetts. smooth—color a delicate yellow with a few white streaks. None of the animals attacked with it have recovered. The I kept it until Christmas. It proved to be the finest for disease first appeared last summer, in a calf of foreign like to hear, through your paper, the result of these seed,
pies we had ever tried; I do not know the name. I would breed, leading some to suppose it is an importation of the and name of pumpkin.
G. R, DUER. pleuro-pneumonia of Holland. The first animal upon Burlington Co., N. J.
C. G. T.
Ynquiries and Answers. deep-insert a handle, and as soon as you see a crack pound
down, and as long as it cracks continue to pound. The pro
cess is not lengthy, but requires attention wbile drying. DRAINING WET WOODLAND.- What will be the effect of
J. COPE. draining upon a native growth of maple, ash and hickory, grow- BUGGY PEAS-QUERY.-Last fall my father and mother ing upon a heavy wet suil, sloping to the west, with hard-pan were shelling pens. My mother's attention was called away, from two to three feet below the surface - the draining to be and she got up, unthinkingly, throwing about a quart of the sufficient to convert the adjacent land on the lower side of the peas in a tub of cold water. On that account they were put grove, to gardening purposes ? A SUBSCRIBER. [The old away separately. At the present time the ones that got in trees will probably be injured by the operation--the younger the cold water are perfectly free froin bugs, while hardly one not.
We have seen swamp forests, consisting chiefly of black of the others escaped. Will cold water have that effect ? ash, mostly killed by draining the swamp. The injury would Rhode Island.
Jos. M. WADE. be less with common upland trees growing merely in wet
CATTLE NIBBLING THEIR MANGERS.-I would like to inspots -- possibly no injury in the present case might be the result, as the change would be much less severe than in drain- quire through the Cultivator the cause of cattle nibbling tho ing flooded swamps.)
inanger and other boards within their reach, while tied in
the stable. Is it a disease, or is it a lack of something in the GRAPEVINES FROM Eyes.- Please inform me if I can soil, thereby rendering the hay deficient of something that is start grapevines from the oyes, in a small box of one pane of necessary to the health of the animal? My impression is glass, placed over a hot-bed or in the open ground. P. M. the latter, as the land has been rented a good deal and pretty (They need some bottom heat, and will start in a hot-bed.| well reduced. If you or any of your readers can answer this
PLANS OF Fars, BARNS, AND OUTBUILDINGS.-(Thomas and prescribe a remedy, you would much oblige Bell, Elizabeth, III.) Plans of farms will be found, with
A SUBSCRIBER. several illustrations, in the Register for 1857 and for 1859. Quick MANURES. -A correspondent at Bridgport, MontDesigns for barns bave been published in the Register for gomery Co., Pa., wishes to know the best and cheapest man:re 1836, and for outbuildings in that for 1858, and for good farm for a final crop of corn on a piece of land devoted to building houses in 1857, and in other numbers. If water is diffeult purposes in future -- tho manure being of no value after the to obtain, large rain water cisterns will furnish water to stock, present year. In answer, we would say that if guapo and if collected from all the barn roofs, and kept in reservoirs of superphosphate have already proved valuable for that region, sufficient capacity, or enough to hold at least 25 or 30 barrels they may be employed, provided common manure is scarce of water for erery ten feet square of roof.]
or high-priced. But as the soil is sandy, a large portion of Poultry YARD.—How large will a poultry yard need be barn-yard manure if applied, would be available the first for 50 hens, and how made to have it cheap and durable ? year, especially if very finely pulverized and mixed with the W. P. (We have never had an opportunity of testing the soil down a few inches. The land being sod, tarn it over in proper size, as we allow our fowls the range of the barnyard, spring about six inches deep, mellow three inches of the top orchard, &c. A fourth of an acre would probably be the surface with a Shares' barrow, which will at the same time sipallest admissible dimensions-half an acre would be better. turn under partially a moderate coating of fine mapure. A high picket fenoe is commonly used. Some breeds, as the Manure in the hill also ; cultivate with a horse at lenst once large eastern sorts, need very little fence, as they cannot fly in two weeks till the corn is too large, and we would rather much. Our white shanghais will not pass over a picket fence trust the common manure, if not too costly, than anything
else. four feet high.)
If a Shares' harrow cannot be had, plow as flat as posPeas and Buckwheat for Cowg.– Will it pay to mix siblo, lay the sod flat, roll, harrow, and turn under the manure peas at $1.50 per bushel, with oats at 44 cents, and buckwheat
with a gang-plow—which after all, may be the best way. at 50 cents to feed cows ? W. P. [It must depend on the
Sort SOAP FOR THE BORER.- Dr. Fitch stated in his lecprices obtained for their products. Peas are more than double ture at New-Haven, that soft sonp is an unfailing remedy for the value of the buckwheat for feeding weight for weight, the apple borer. Is the soap diluted and applied as a wash and about one and a half times greater than oats.
The latter to the trunk, or applied round the root in an unmixed state ? would probably be rather the cheapest food of the three, at the
A YOUNG FARMER. Morristown, N. J. (Tbe soap will not above named prices - although the experiments which have kill the borer after he has entered the wood—but will exclude beon made differ considerably in results. They would be the eggs. It should be just thin enough to forin a good coat about equal to hay at 812 or $15 a ton. Different animals, over the bark-some soft sonp is already diluted enough for different modes of feeding, and difference in the quality of this purpose, while other needs the addition of more or less these substances, prevent accurate estimates.]
water. Scrape the earth away somewhat from the foot of
the trunk, and coat the bark, as high as the borer is ever CORN AFTER PEAS.-Will corn do well after Peas ? A. B.
found. The rains will wash it down sufficiently to cover all [Yes; especially if a good coating of manure is given to the the exposed bark, if any is not supplied. The insect does not land before planting.)
like to lay her eggs in the soap. It should be applied early Plowing IN CLOVER.-Which is the best time to plow in in summer, and bo repeated once more in a few weeks, acclover-when it is in full bloom, or when nearly ripe? Will cording to the amount of rain which may have washed it off.] it do to plow it in in summer, and sow it with wheat the next
Cottage Roors.-Can you tell me how long the rafters of spring ? C. D. (About or soon after it is in bloom. It will
a house should be, in order to have hanging eaves, and a good do for spring wheat if the clover has been turned deeply un. pitch to the roof, the post or studding being 12 feet.
Is this der with a flat sod, and the inverted sod subsequently made too high posted for a country cot:age, where good chambers mellow by shallow plowing afterwards!
are desirable ? The site is quite romantic, and I wish to SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF Milk.-What is the standard weight know if the roof, to harmonize well, should be fiat or steep? of milk, if any, and is rich milk heavier or lighter than poor? How high should the lower rooms be finished ? Apanswer to B. P. R. Neio-Jersey. [Milk is heavier than water; if the these queries will greatly oblige A READER. [A fat roof specific gravity of water be taken as a thousand, milk will be has some serious disadvantages—a prominent one is its liabilion an average about 1031. It varies greatly in different cows, ty to both leakage and rot, if covered with shingles. The and even at different times from the same cow. A feeding of snow is less apt to slide or blow off, and there is less garret salt, says Flint, has made the milk of a cow vary from one to room. As our correspondent bas not given the dimensions of three per cent. Cream is lighter than skim-milk, and very his intended house, we cannot give the measurements he dorich niilk therefore lighter than poor. Rich milk and water sires, as much depends on the relative breadth as comtherefore resemble each other in weight-bonce adulterations pared with the breadth of eaves, pitch of roof, &e. There are by water cannot be detected by the hydrometer.]
very few houses the eaves of which should not project two and
An ascent of one foot for Cellar BOTTOM8.-In No. 8, J. C. R. queries about cellar a ball or three feet, often more. bottonis. I suppose bydraulic cement would be good, but I every foot and a half horizontal, is as flat a mof as should ever have always found common mortar, not made very rich, good be adoptod with shingles, that is, if the house is 30 feet wide, enough, just on the bare ground--say three or four inches it should be ten feet higher at the peak thon at the eaves-a thick, and carefully pounded down until it becomes dry. The better slope is one of 45 degrees. Steeper than this does not process is so simple and cheap that no one who can procure a look well, except for cottage Gothio, which may be as nearly few bushels of lime and sind, should permit either rots or or about as high as its whole width] mice to frequent their cellar. Don't think of employing a USE OF MANURE.- Ilow would you adviso mo to use the mechanic, but straightwny mix up a bed of mortar-clear manure from one horse and about twenty sheep, it having ererything off the floor, and if not level, level it-spread the been put together and kept under cover all winter? YOUNG mortar, provide a block about one foot square and six inches FARMER. (If there is litile or no long litter in it, it may be
E. C. J.
applied to land in spring, by spreading it evenly over the sur them, &c., &c.
Va. (Cut the ditches directly down face, breaking it up finely and mixing it with the top soil by hill by the shortest way-the reasons for which are fully exthorough harrowing before plowing it under. If there is so plained in the Rural Register for 1859, in the article on much long stuff with it that it cannot be treated in this way, underdraining. The depth should be about three feet; and draw it out to the side of the field where it will be ultimately the distance a part twenty-five to thirty feet for heavy soils, wanted, and make it into an oblong pile with thin alternate and thirty-five to forty-five for porous soils.) la yers of fence corner turf, loain, ditch washings, &c., and PeaVINE CLOVER.-I see it stated in the columns of your pathen let it remain a few months, until completely rotted. If per that the large or peavine clover is recommended highly. the pile is long and not high, it may be easily and thoroughly Will you please inform me where I could procure the seed, pulverized and mixed together by means of a plow, harrow, the price per barrel or bushel, &c. M. ROBLEE. (See adverand a yoko of oxen-- and will then be in adınirable condition tisement on another page, of William Thorburn of this city, to apply for fall crops of any kind, or for other purposes.] price 124 cents per pound.
UNDERDRAINING—Top-DRESSING.--Seeing that you take APPLE-PIE MELON SKEDS.-Can you inform me where I some notice of inquiries, I would like to ask a few questions can obtain some Apple-Pie melon seed. J. H. ABBOTT. (of in regard to our soil-- 1st, whether underdraining would be Wm. Thorburn of this city, and we presume at the seed stores necessary-24, whether top dressed with manures or plowed generally.] under would be best-the soil being sandy loam and sub-soil Worms in Horses. I have a horse that is terribly wormy. clay, no stone of any kind in the way of the plow, and pretty Is there any cure for him? F. A. W. (We infer that worms hilly at that; so much so that but little water stands any (not bots) which infest the intestines are here meant. Dr. length of time on the surface. J. H. Washington Co., O Dadd prescribes tho following to remove them: 12 ounces (We repeat the simple rule to determine whether underdrain- castor oil, oil of wormseed one ounce, and oil of tansy three ing is necessary, namely, to dig holes in various places two drachms - to be given on an empty stomach, followed by and a half feet deep, and if the water stands in these holes mishes of fine feed or shorts, well seasoned with salt. To be soveral days durivg the wetest time of the year, the ground repeated, if necessary, until the bowls respond.) should be underdrained --if on the other hand the water when it falls into these boles immediately passes off through the
PINES FROM SRED.-I am cutting the timber, oak and porous subsoil, draining would be of no use whatever. Plow- chestnut, from a lot, the soil of which is a heavy gravelly
loam. ing under manure is always best on light soils Top-dressing
Can I sow white pine seed to advantage, after the pastures or lawns which we do not wish to plow, if done in wood is cleared off; and when and how can it be collected autumn or winter, so that the soluble pirts of the manure will and sown ? P. A. w. Still River, Mass. (The shade having be carried by the carly spring rains into the newly thawed been removed and the sun let in, we do not think the young porous surface, will be of much use -- but the most so on heavy seedling pines would succeed. If weeds should spring up they
would smother thein. or clayey soils.)
Young pines are very minute and
feeblo, and would need careful treatment, inapplicable to Root Crops.—Will you please inform me through The broad fields.] Cultivator the best kind of root crop for stock? What time to sow-how to plant out, and what time to harvest thein--the ed with stock, and about to stock a small farm with four cows,
CATTLE AND Pas for SMALL FARMS.-Being unacquaintcost of seed for half an acre, and where I can get it. ChrisTIAN TRAUGER. Pleasant' Unity, Pa. (Carrots and Ruta please inform me what is best - Durham, Devon or native, Bagas do best on light soils; for carrote the soil should be and what breed of pigs? E. T. Proridence, R I. (Prodeep. Mangold Wurtzels and Sugar Beets succeed well on -and if a full-blood or nearly full blood Durham bull can be
cure the best native cattle-handsome form, good milkers, &c. strong soils.
The land must be very rich. Ruta Bagas can. had to breed from, the half bloods resulting will be likely to not be used for feeding milch cows, as they impart i turnip prove very satisfactory animals --costing only as much more taste to the milk and butter, but carrots and beets are both han natives as the cost of the bull service. Suffolk pigs and excellent for them; the beets are perhaps best of the two, to their crosses are the best. Full blood cattle cannot be raised promote a free flow of milk, but they must be given cautious economically on small farms, and the course here designated ly at first. Carrots make very rich inilk and yellow butter.
will be found most profitable.) The seed should be sown as early in spring as the ground can be made ready-it must of course be mellow and fine. There
OATS AND CORN FOR HORSES AND CATTLE.- What is the is no transplanting--the superfluous plants must be thinned value of oats, ground, for feeding horses and cattle, as com
An old farmer told me some out. The weeds must be never allowed to grow 2 inches high pared with Indian corn mcal ? Half a pound of ruta baga seed will plant half an acre, and years since, that he would prefer one bushel of corn and one will cost 50 cents—2 pounds of carrot soeu or of beets will plant of oats mixed, for fattening hogs, to two of corn. Is that the same, and will cost a dollar or two. They can be had at opinion sustained by facts ? F. A. w. (The various experithe seed stores in large towns, and our correspondent could ments which have been made to test the value of oats as food undoubtedly procure them at Pittsburgh. We should, per- for cattle, vary from each other about one hundred per cent. bapk, add that a planting machine is almost indispensable as
in the extremo-conjectures or “opinions” cannot therefore a labor saver --but in its absence, the labor of dropping by be very reliable. For ordinary feeding, we should prefer hand inay be greatly facilitated by nailing a tin cup, to hold them mixed, to either or both separate.] the seed, to the lower end of a stick 2 feet long, and making a hole in the bottom just large enough for the seed to fall
(For the Cultivator and Country Gentleman.) through as it is held over the drill and shaken as the operator
FAMILY RECIPES. walks along)
PROPAGATING THE BLACKBERRY. I would like to know Sponge CAKE, No. 1.-One egg (beat the white soparatehow to propagate the Lawton Blackberry, so as to get the ly to a froth.)— 1 cup of sugar-1 cup of milk -- 1 2-3 cups of most plants in one season. Is there any difference be- Aour-1 tablespoonful of butter-2 teaspoons of cream tartar tween the Lawton blackberry and the New Rochelle, or does -1 teaspoon of soda--soason with lemon extract or putmeg. the Lawton go by any other name? Can you tell me the SPONGE CAKE, No. 2.- Throe eggs--1 cup of sugar-14 of cost of the bushes? William Ruodes. [The New Rochelle flour-1 teaspoon cream tartar- 1 teaspoon of saleratus-nutblackberry is the true name of the sort called Lawton. The and lemon. sorts are precisely the same. They are propagated by placing
SPONGE CAKE, No. 3.—Three eggs-1 cup of sugar-1 cup pieces of the root under the surface of a rich mellow soil, and of four-3 tablespoons of cream—2 teaspoons of cream tartar giving them bottom heat in a bot-bed or propagating house. --| teaspoon of soda, and nutmeg. While warm spread with They also propagate themselves by suckers. The plants are jelly, cut it in slices, and roll them quick as possible. sold by nurserymen generally at $5 or $6 per 100 ]
CAKE WITH OR WITHOUT EGG8.- One cup of butter-2 cups Diseases of HORSES -- Will you inform me through the of sugar-1 sup of sweet milk- cup of sour milk, or butter, Co. Gent. of the title of the best work on the Diseases of milk-i teaspoonful of saleratus-flour to make it thick, and Horses, and where it can be bad? I want a work that will fruit if you choose. give me a full description of the diseases they are subject to,
RED RASPBERRY LEAF TEA-18 valuable to allay inflamand the remedy. J. C. m. (We know of no better work than mation, internally or externally, especially week and inflain, Dr. Dadd's "Morlorn Horec Doctor,” which we can send you ed eyes, fever, &c. If people know its value they would post paid for $1.25.)
prize it. DraininG SIDE-HILL. I am about making some side-bill CURE FOR DIARRHEA.- One teaspoon of salt-1 tablespoonditehes on a piece of ground on which I shall plant fruit ful of sharp vinegar-mix with water. Repent the dose withtrees. I would thank you most kindly, if you will tell me in a few hours if necessary. MRS. ELIHU BROWN. how much fall they should have, the distance apart to put Blandford, Mass.