« AnteriorContinuar »
focks which are the sheet anchor of the occupiers of these trimmed thorn hedges, and tilled with garden-like precis
lands." Here the poppy, which I had seen so extensively ion and cleanliness.". It is an expensive style of agriBlooming on the continent, is also a troublesome pest, in culture," as Mr. Read calls it, that one finds here; and the the wheat-fields particularly. By plowing the “ley" or soil, naturally weak, is of that kind " that if farmed badly, grass land, early, and setting it lie for some time after a will ruin any man," but so long as those results with an light rolling, the winter annuals get quite a start before the account of which this chapter was commenced, are here harrowing and heavy rolling take place to prepare the accomplished, it is worth some time and study to look into ground for wheat sowing. As early in the succeeding sea the means that are employed to produce them. son as February, the field is well horse or hand hoed; the The story of the improvements wrought out by Mr. wheat, if buried, soon grows through its covering, while Coke, afterwards the Earl of Leicester, has been so often the poppy, which is as tender when young as it is tough in told, that we shall not care to recount it here at length. more advanced stages of its existence, is either pulled up Finding his tenants throwing up their leases at $1.25 per or turned under, and after its eradication, together with the acre when
ti he can
came into the estate, he was able finally to consolidation and manuring of the land, even a blowing command a rental of $5 and $6. It became his object
sand produces fair crops of wheat, which is said to be less to secure the best of tenants, and through their enlighten
affected by dry seasons here than either barley or oats. ment to develope the agricultural resources of his property, Sainfoin is highly esteemed here-proving less likely to because he soon found it to require a degree of personal fail, or to suffer from drouth, than clover and other supervision which no one man could possibly bestow. At “ seeds.” Rye is sown largely for sheep feed, it is stated, the ITolkltam skeep-shearings, he invited leading practical I suppose to be eaten off before other grazing is ready; men'to meet his tenants and himself in discussing his turnips follow advantageously, and are mainly fed to fat- measures ; was found an essential pre-requisite that ting sheep, while after the rye is used, “the sainfoin and more stock should be kept, and to this natural source of other layers, with a run on some of the sheep walks,“ sup. increasing fertility was added the application upon the surply the wants of the breeding flock, and, when finally the face of the marl which was found to be underlying it almost lambs are weaned, they continue during the day to keep everywhere. Then came Art, scattering rape-cake as a well on the heather, and at night are folded over the “ley fertilizer for the wheat, introducing clover and artificial ground for wheat."
grasses, and thus enabling the fariner to keep better live The experiment has recently been made of planting stock, while at the same time enlarging bis production of belts of firs across these open sandy districts, to break the the cereals. The Devons and South Downs were accordwind, and I judge from Mr. Rcad's remarks, quite suc- ingly brought into the county and the four-course or cessfully.
Norfolk system of husbandry was established.* The wise The best soil of Norfolk lies to the north-eastward of and far-sighted views of Mr. Coke not alone effected these Norwich-a “ free working loam of capital texture and immediate changes: but, by the liberality he showed his great depth.” There is also a strip of still stiffer loam run. tenants, and the spirit of improvement he fostered among ning from the southeast to the middle portion of the coun- them, the future as well as the present was embraced withty-not stubbornly stiff, however;, requiring drainage, but in the sphere of bis influence; and, although passed away with good management favorable both for sheep and for from the scenes of his exertions, his example still survives, all the grains. The two improvements that have taken and is conducive of farther progress not only there, but place here, Mr. Read observes, are a greater growth of wherever in other counties the better systems are supplantroots, and better draining. Bush drains are of ancient ing the worse. date, and still somewhat in use, although pipe are now
We shall resume bereafter the subject of Norfolk agri
culture. most common; the ordinary depth heretofore has been from 2 to 3 feet—"now the general depth is 31 feet, or
CULTURE OF CURRANTS. from that to 4 feet.” To complete our glimpse at the Norfolk soils, we should the cultivation of the currant. I got some plants from To
I would be glad to see in your paper, a complete article on not omit to mention the other marshy district that skirts ronto last fall, called White Grape and Red Cherry currants, the rivers Yare and Bure in the cast, where windmills are and would like to know how to treat them, and what sort of largely used for draining, and where grass is the chief pro
soil is best for them, J. D. W. Kingston, C. W. duct. It will thus be seen that there is quite a variety of
No fruit will more certainly grow under adverse treatsurface in this one county—that on which its most noted ment than the currant--or to use the quaint phrase of our improvements have taken place, and which forms the most facetious friend Brooks of Wyoming county, which will extensive and important part, I have reserved until after "stand grief” better. Planted under the fence of a neg. enumerating the others, for it is there that my time was lected and weedy garden, or enveloped in tall grass, and ehiefly spent, and of which I have therefore the most to never pruned, currant bushes still continue to afford yearly say. One difference between it and the richer land in the crops. But these crops are very puny fruit-such as they north-east is, that it bears more forcing without producing are, however, they are better than the owners deserve, straw instead of grain ; indeed it is said that while the ap- who ought to be willing to devote to them a small share pearance of a field in the one will lead to an over-esti. of the cultivation which other crops receive. For no fruit mate of the crop, a stranger travelling in western Norfolk is more improved under right management than the curwill often place his figures four bushels below the actual
We have known the berries to be increased at least result obtained. “The general appearance of the coun.
ten to twelve times in size by pruning, manuring, and cultry,” says Mr. Laird, “is fat and unpicturesque to the eye
tivation. The annexed cut is an exact representation of of the tourist, though the experienced agriculturist will the size of common red currants grown on neglected find much to admire in the large, open, well cultivated * In this summary I have followed the outline presented by Mr. fields divided from each other by straight lines of closely I to.
Caird in his Notes on English Agriculture, already frequently referred
251 i st/
bushes, and on those ander proper treatment, (Fig1) not so perfect a mode as the tree form, is well adapted to Those new varieties, the Cherry catrant, which grows five ordinary culture, where it may prove inconvenient to make eighthis of an inch in diameter, and the White Grapey new, plantings frequently. But successive pruning and which is often an inch in diameter, **hen both are fairly good and enriching cultivation are especially necessaryeros treated, often greatly disappoint purchasers, who totally - VÁRIETES.--The common red and white currants, as neglect them, when they become but little farger than we have already remarked, are capable of great improves other sorts. a 21 bytest: "In vorfs cards ment by pruning and cultivation. The Red and White jodi hits sista 10! opiskant 98-1009 !ls ingat in Dutch are much like these, but the bunches are much 1.78:1 dislomba!, 90144 iso kosa ambasca no longer, and they are consequently greatly preferred. The
b) z pas boniga 13 bita Cherry Currant is the largest red variety, (Fig. 3,) being
W3 6*? bride drie bis
Et pusd bolynius
bates XULIO 2017 Downsva
ฯ: 31) Noch ni balizing. His ut sint 11
TO TOT bodent Os 51, 116-97
onds ፡ ን ይ ር ! ሃe
tails Ephrs at amb mit
11 to buih 7:12 Dv747
n bas ells
2.10 noi The currant is propagated by cuttings. A one year's
Side 09 10 shoot is taken, seven or eight inches long, cutting it off
VIIDIDO close to the old wood, and set about two-thirds of its length
04 Je suidwin in the earth, which is closely packed about it. As roots
3:44 of builqgs are apt to be thrown out at each bud, all the lower ones are taken off. (Fig. 2.) It will make a good well-rooted
e brio 03
Fig. 3--Cherry Currant. Fig. White Grape Currant. plant by autumn. Scarce varieties may be layered at midkummer, if growing rapidly, and will root the same season.
usually about half an inch in diameter under good culture,
and five-eighths with the best management. It is a vigor: The bushes will grow in any good soil. It should be kept rich with frequent manuring. The ground must be but this has proved to be a mistake. A row, thirty feet
ous grower, and was formerly supposed to be a poor bearer, kept clean and mellow, the same as for a cabbage or hill long, three years planted, bore last year one bushel of of potatoes. The best way, both for facilitating cultiva
fruit. The White Grape is perhaps the largest white sort tion, and for neatness of appearance, is to allow but a single stem to grow at the surface of the ground, the branches --being usually nearly half an inch in diameter. (Fig. 4.)
It is not a very vigorous grower, and is of rather a spreadspreading out into a regular bead a few inches up. These branches should be kept thin by pruning, or at regular bunches and red berrries; under good culture they are
ing habit. The Victoria, a late, rather acid sort, has long distunces, so as to admit air and sun to the leaves and branches in every part. If the growth is allowed to be quite large, but if neglected, no larger than the common come dense and thickly shaded, the fruit will be smaller, red currant. Knight's Sweet Red, is light red, and rather
insipid but not sweet. Prince Albert is a rather new of inferior flavor, and less in quantity. As the branches
variety, a vigorous grower, 'fruit red, quite large, late in become old, they should be cut out, and new and vigorous ripening, productive and valuable. The Versaillaise is a ones, which have been allowed to grow for this purpose,
new sort, deep red, very large, next in size to the Cherry take their place—somewhat similar to the renewal prun. ing of the grape—but with this exception, that while the currant, and productive--but its merits are not yet estal)
lished. The Black Naples is the largest of the black grape bears on the present year's wood from last year's varieties, but its strong musky flavor is agreeable to bat shoots, the currrant bears on shoots one year or more older ; few. hence the renewal should not be so frequent. Some skill must be exercised, when shoots are left for'new branches, WORMS IN HORSES.—A correspondent of the Southern to leave them on the lower parts of the bush, in such a Cultivator recommends copperas as a remedy for wornis in position as to fill up regularly the future vacancies.
horses. He administers ą tablespoonful, pulverized; in Bushes preserved, as here described, in the tree form, or lieved of the worms at once-eats and thrives, and his
three or four days the dose is repeated; the horse is re. with but a single stem at bottom, loge their vigor in a few hair becomes sleek. years, and should be replaced by new plants, which will HAY REQUIRED TO KEEP A Horse. -A correspondent of give larger fruit. But if allowed to grow in the bush form the Wisconsin Farmer, who has given careful attention to with several stems springing up from the earth together, the “subject, says that five" pounds of hay at a feed, or fifthey may be thinned out and pruned at the surface in such teen pounds per day, with twelve quarts of oat meal, or a manner as to afford a continued guccession of new fine condition for all road or farm work, and is amply
its equivalent in shorts, will keep a good sized horse in branches with roots, to take the place of the older portions sufficient
. Some will keep on considerably less ; this , as they are successively cut out. This, therefore, although however, is a fi
pod nadzi onadto
o 19:36 Honor
(For the Cotintas Centleman and Entivator:)ata meal, more or less of the nutrimentlig Ivoided in the oxamHow to Make Farming Pay-r-IIL: excrement, which, had it been bedugtrtis in contacts with Another step towards rendering farming a paying busi
: thus supplying the waste of the body or going to make fate
other food during digestion, would have been assimilated, ness, was then, as it now is, the adoption and carrying out of a renovating systems My idea was that if twenty tons So with feeding stock; if we grind together oats, rye, of grain and straw were removed from a field, not less barley, and Indian
of each than that number of tons of good manure must be returned will derive much more nutriment from the meal thus minto it. To carry out this theory, were so arranged and constructa stables and barn-yard /gled, than they will if each kind is fed separately. So
that no manure, either with feeding all coarse fodder. I have always found that fiquid or solid, was lost. The manure from the horse I can make my stock cat more, by feeding cornstalks, hay, ställs, instead of being thrown out in a heap, where it would and straw, when well mingled together, than they will eat soon heat and become fire-fanged, was taken on a wheel- when each kind is sed separately; and more nutriment barrow from the stable and scattered about the yard under will be assimilated when thus fed out, than if they are not the open sheds. The manure from the cattle stalls was
There will be much nutriment voided in the excrement, treated in the saine manner. The liquid manure was, and now is, collected beneath the stable floor, and pumped even when we exercise all possible economy in mingling into wooden conducters which carry it to any desired part and feeding the produce of the farm. Consequently, of the sheds, where it is absorbed by the stable manure. everything that has not been nssimilated by animals shouiá This aids its decomposition and keeps it from being fire- be carefully deposited in the soil, where it will build up a fanged ; and as it is all under shelter, there is no danger crop of grain or grass for the succeeding year. For this that the manure will be saturated with water, 80 as to reason, all mapure should be sheltered; and I am satisfied make it unnecessarly heavy to haul out, nor will it lose that it pays quite as well to protect manure as it does to any of its fertilizing qualities by leaching. When manure protect stock: The better
an animal-is kept, the more is exposed to the influences of the weather, where it can valuable will be the manure, and the better it pays to leach, the best part of it is always carried away first. protect it from the influences of the weatlier! The ordure Arother step in carrying out a renovating system is
, to of cattle, which consume several pounds of any kind of consume as much course grain as possible, iu making beef meal per day, will be worth twice as much as a fertilizer, and mutton. A farmer, in order to make farining pay as that is from very poor cattle, which are compelled well, must be a consumer as well as a producer. Point to subsist on straw and fodder that is not very nutritious. us to a farmer who does not consume, yearly, a good por
I have always considered raising stock one of the most tion of his coarse grain in making beef and mutton, and important steps towards making farming pay. But when of course does not make a good supply of barn-yard ma
a man computes appearances in the matter, and nure, and we will point out a system of management influenced by what seems to be the present cost to prowhich will soon impoverish and ruin, for one generation, duce a given result, his farm will soon become impover. any good farm, unless a vast amount of foreign manure is ished and ruined, and his stock will seem more like the applied to the soil
. Every farmer should make his own "lean kine," spoken of by Moses, (Gen. 41:19,) than like manure as far as is practicable. It is a most ruinous policy the stock of a thriving farmer. to expend large sumg, annually, for foreign manure or for In the autumn of 1848, I had a lot of rather good steers, any kind of fertilizers, when all the available substances two years old, which I wished very much to dispose of for of a farm are not wisely used up in making manure in needed cash; but no one was willing to give me $25 per some shape
head for them. I had but little bay that season, and but One of my first steps towards renovating my farm, when a limited quantity of cornstalks. Every one who came I commenced farming, was—and I have never abandoned into my barn and saw my fodder and the number of cattle, it-to keep as many steers or bullocks during the winter would shake his head, and say, if you keep all those cattle as I could conveniently, so as to consume all the coarse until spring on this quantity of fodder, I would like to fodder and coarse grain, ground.into meal, that could be see them, &c. One good old farmer, who now rests from used up economically. Of course, my cattle have always earthly toil, when he saw how much each animal received, been fed in stalls, and nothing is wasted. I always en- said: “It is a piece of consummate folly for you to feed deavor to have all their food palatable, and make them your animals so much. You will never see half the value eat everything up clean. And while multitudes of far- of what you feed.” And then went on to tell how he mers aim to keep their stock during the winter on the kept his stock, &c., without feeding any meal or hay until least possible allowance, my aim is to make them eat as towards spring. I kindly told him that if I could not much as I can, by feeding a variety of food every day. make such an operation pay, I would have the satisfaction . It is by no means an economical way to consume fod- of doing one thing as it ought to be done. Now for the der or grain of any kind, by feeding only one kind at a result: time. Some farmers confine their stock for a long time Those steers received, night and morning, a bushel each on cornstalks, for instance; and then keep them on bay of cut straw, cornstalks, and a little bay cut with it, and
two of -meal, mingled . Stock of all kinds great inconvenience many times, from such changes of tity of meal was increased to about four quarts per day. food; just as a man would whose food for one month Eacii steer conßuined about twelve bushels of meal, which might be mush and molasses, and the next month nothing would then have sold for about forty cents per bushel say but wheat bread, and the next month bean broth, or beef $0 worth of meal forcach steer, I managed to have a field soup, or nothing but potatoes, squash, or something else. of early pasture, sufficiently large for the cattle to fill them
There is one very important consideration in feeding selves, before most other people had even thought of havanimals and this is all intimately connected with my ing pasture.
e. Each steer received as much meal for two subject—which not one farmer in a bundred ever thought weeks, when in the pasture, as he did before they were of, until it has been pointed out to him, which is, mingling allowed to feed on grass. After they had run to grass two different kinds of food, for the purpose of rendering a weeks, I received fifty dollars per head for them; and larger amount of the nutriment contained in them assimi- they made a large lot of excellent manure, which increased lable.
the grain crop of my farm full one-quarter more than there Suppose, for example, that a man were to subsist for would have been without manure. I will not stop to foot one day on beef, the next day on pork, the next day on np the account,' to determine whether or not: " it paid;" beans, and the next day on scheat bread. He will not for the data are before us. Fifty dollars per head aras then feel as well, nor be able to labor as many hours each day, thought to be an exhorbitant price for such stcers. Such as he would if he should eat a portion of every kind of has ever been my system of management; and it has the food mentioned at each meal. Now, the true reason always seemed to pay so well, that I have followed it from for the fact, is this : when only one kind of food is eaten year to year, and when distributing seventy-five cents
for a number of weeks and enten det experience as very with the straw after wetting it. Towards spring the way
J. G. C.
worth of meal among a few calves per day, or among any tent may do ; but is, as in this case, the surface is loan, other stock, this question often arises, “will it pay?" and the subsoil pure cold clay, it is rouons.
Experience always answers, that if a calf or steer he led * Deep plowing and high niánaring produce profitable during the winter, five or six dollars worth of meal of results." Which, the plowing or the manaving? Try the several kinds of grain, in addition to the straw and other manuring, with a depth of plowing suitable to the soil.fodder which he eats, he will be worth in the spring, not plowing up clay or yellow loan--and my word for it, enough more to pay for the meal he has eaten, than he it will be found the most profitable.. would have been without having eaten any meal. And I know a farmer who is a large and successfal grower of besides this, the good effect of the meat will be seen in an Indian corn, (his subsoil is a yellow loam, sarfiee flat and animal until the next winter, just as the effeet of manure free from stone,) who insists that five inches is the propes on a field is seen from year to year.
depth to plow for that crop, and no deeper, and he says A neighbor of mine spent a day with me a few days experience has taught him this. He certainly always raises since, wbo, seeing the meal, and cut straw, and turnips, extra good crops, which after all is the true test of good which my cattle received, laughed heartily at me when I farming. told him I fed everything regularly, three times per day, in order to induce them to eat all they could. Said he,
For dle Country Gentleman and Calitater.) my practice is directly the reverse of yours: " I endeavor African Poultry--New Way of Raising Chickens. to have my cattle live on as little as they can...
As this respected friend takes no agricultural paper, I MESSRS. EDITORS—The amusement, delight and instrue. have no hesitancy in penning what I replied to him that tion, weekly derived from the well killed pages of my welcome such a system of feeding would never do for me, nor for visitor, the Country GENTLEMAN, and the freedom bieb any other farmer whose aim is to make farming a paying each one seems to bave to its columns, induoct me to offer to business. This esteemed friend scouts at everythiug which add my experience to that of others upon the subject of misis publisbed on agricultural subjects, and if a friend supplies him with the best of agricultural reading, gratuitously, ing poultry--a subject associated, in my mind, with
domestic he will not read it. But mark the difference.
quiet, and at all times fraught with mapy happy reflections. He commenced farming on new land, and mine was old,
My lot consists of two cocks and fifteen pullets, bronght from impoverished land. He never believed it will pay
the coast of Africa, in the early part of January, 1959. Io make such a fuss about manure,” nor to make animals eat color they are dark blue dominiques, with bright yellow legs all they will in winter, &c. Now, to sum it all up briefly, led, and never surpassed. As layers and settors they are
and bill. In point of beauty I bave rarely seen them equal he complains that, “ for some unknown reason,” his erops as good as any. On or about the 20th of March following of all kinds “ seem to be rather lighter from year to year, their arrival, they commenced laying in a warm, dry, and while I know that my crops increase ason, and I above all clean house, made entirely of sassafra timber-uputi shall be greatly disappointed, if my fields do not produce which, by the by, lice cannot, or at least will not, live.) The more the coming season than they ever did before. stables for my carriage and saddle borses were adjoining, so
S. EDWARDS TODD. that an unlimited supply of worms and maggots was at hand, Tompkins Co., N. Y.
found in the manure. They had access at all times to trongtis filled with corn, wheat and barley mixed. Confinement was
unknown to them. Their range was over the cotton field and (For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.]
horse pasture of ten acres. of one thing only were they do: DEEP PLOWING.
prived--their young. These in two or three days after being
hatched, or as soon as they were strong enough, were given MESSRS. EDITORS-Almost everything in this country to a capon, for the reason that he can be made not only a betreems to run into extremes—whether it is fashion or farm- ter purse, but that he would farber or mother, as you please, ing, politics or religion. The disposition of our people any number of chicks of different ages. The hens too, som tends to be extravagant in all things, if they can get the forget their young and return to laying. One of my en pons means to become so. Some agricultural writers incline in has had following him at the same time as many as a hunthe same direction, and would not a more conservative!
dred and fifty, no twenty of which were of the same nge. In tone in many respects be more conducive to our prosperi; their shells but a few days. The same fellow is now clucking
fact, while some were large enough to broil, others had left ty? Many of our journals have for a long time rode hard to fifty, and will get as many more as soon as they are batched. the hobby of deep plowing—"plow deep” has been their Now for the result of the year. From 15 bens I raised I,motto, no matter what the soil may be-soine recommend 374 chickens--478 being males-470 of them soon found theining from 12 to 14 inches as the proper depth, while our solves capons, worth, at six months old, 50 cents each of the famous “ Professor" insists that three feet are little enough, remaining 896 pullets, 150 wore kept, and the rest disposed but our farmers are generally cautious, and but few have of at an average price of 25 cents-making the handsome swn, been deluded into doing a thing that, on many farms, not counting those kept for my own use, minus $1000 for food, would be perfectly ruinous. I admit that on some soils à and $30.00 for attention, of $351.50. 'Many eggs, of course, small portion of the subsoil plowed up and mixed with the sur not know. The pleasure of watching the growth and progress
were used for household purposes--the exact number I do face soil may be beneficial-particularly if a large quantity of of these birds was worth treble the money. znavure is added at the same time—and on bottom lands tending to the plantation, many hours of leisure were left une no injury can result; but I caution farmers to be careful to devote to this small but pleasant experiment. how they turn up and intermix clay with the surface soil Shall I or not prepare myself to report the result of the -it may do sometimes, but the contrary, is the rule. coming year ? You say—page 14, current rol. Cultivator--that “ deep If a few of your correspondents would like to get them, so plowing is most beneficial to stiff clays, and, as a rule, we as to try thein in a more northern climate, it would be a gratimay plow deep when the subsoil is of the same character fication to me to send several pair. In fact, as they are not as the surface soil.” I greatly questiou the first; the latter raised for sale, bat for pleasure alono, ten or twenty couples
would be most willingly given, with the condition, however, is no doubt true.
that at the end of the year the results be made public through I know a farmer in this town, who had a lot of rich land the Country Gentleman.
Ww. P. G. near the sea, to which he thought too much sea-weed had Ridgeland, Washington Co., Miss. been applied, and as deep plowing was so much recommended he would try it upon this lot. So he put in his LIVE AND Dead Weight or CATTLE.–Eight Ibs. ont plow and turned up a few inches of clay—the subsoil was of every 14 lbs., or four-sevenths of the wbole live weight a stiff clay. The effect was his land was that scason like of sheep and cattle, represents, when the animal is promortar, (as be expressed it;) he got no crop from it that perly fat, the net weight of the fore quarters, exclusive of season of any account, and but little the next, and I am offaltbree-fourths of the live weight of pigs, if fat, repre informed it has not since produced as well as before. If sents the weight when dressed; but pigs have frequently the surface and subsoil are the same, as you say is some been killed of which the offal was only one-fifth their live times the case, turning up the subsoil to a moderate ex- / weight and even less.
An overseer nt
food, and all the conveniences for saving and composting
Farm Improvement-III, Keeping Stock. merly. With a good suppiy of well-cured coinstalks and Improvenzent based on More Manute, and hence More Stock-or a portion of the grain grown upon the same, we can bring
rather, Better Kept Stock - The Coarse Grains shoukl be led Out our cattle through the winter in good order without any not Sold—Jolma Johnston on High Feeding and its Results-Dela- recourse to the hay-inow. It is true, however, that it refield on Reform in the Treatment of our Grass Lands-Seeling Down before Running Down-Top Dessing, eta-Wintering Stock quires more labor to grow the corn than the hay; but it is on Corn-Stalks-Stock Barns Wanted–The Lesson of the Scarcity also true that the increased value of the former will pay of Fodder may be a Valuable Ope.
well for the greater labor necessary,
"It is true also, that The Improvement of the Farm, as shown in our previous articles, depends to a great extent upon the amount of to get the greatest benefit from feed of this character, manure annually applied to the same, and we have already preparation of cutting and steaming is requisite, as well hinted that keeping stock presented the best means of as the grinding of the grain; but stock may be well win
tered, with a little more corn, without either of these procheaply securing efficient fertilizing material. It is our present purpose to offer a few thoughts on some of the cesses best methods of increasing the forage product of the farm,
We can winter stock most cheaply when supplied with and thus compassing the end desired-an increased capaci- good barris and sheds, with all the means and appliances
for their shelter and comfort, and the preparation of their ty for stock-feeding-and hence an increase of manure and greater fertility and productiveness of the soil.
We must premise, here, however, that an increase of manures; and some attention to these requisites is of stock is not, as a general, thing, as necessary at first as an considerablerattention in this journal, so we will not ex
prime importance. These subjects have already received increase of feed and care. Were cattle and shęcp fed
tend our remarks in tliis connection. higher on the majority of our farıns, they would not only the scarcity of winter fodder this season, has done thrive more profitably, but would produce more and bet- much toward inculcating proper ideas of the economy and tér manure, and thus help on the enrichment of the farm value of fodder, and if well pondered, will enable our farand enable an increased number of animals to be kept on the same. As we have said before, we must feed out our
mers to keep more stock at a greater profit than hereto
fore. " The 'real value and uses of straw, the policy of cutcourse grains upon the farm if we would make them pro- ting and steaming coarse fodder, and the benefits of feedductive; it will not answer to starve our stock that we may have a little more corn, barley, oats, or roots to sell - ciated than they liave been, and better provision will be
ing grain and roots, willl be better understood and apprewe starve our land thereby, and reduce our means of mak- made for husbanding every resource of this character and ing good and profitable crops from the same. "High applying it to the best advantage. This will all tend to feeding,” says Johu Johnston, “will make higher manur- extend our Farm Improvements—and on the reliable basis ing, both by making a larger quantity and a much better of more manure, the advancement must be certain and
permanent. quality. *
It pays, thoroughly to feed young cattle and sheep, so that they are worth more at two years than
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.] an immense majority of the cattle in this State are worth CORN RAISING IN PENNSYLVANIA. at four years old. Manure is the one thing need
MESSRS, L. Tucker & Son—The following statement of ful, after underdraining, for making profitable farming.” a crop of corn, raised in this neighborhood last year (1859,)
But to return to the ways and means of increasing the was furnished to me at my request. capacity of our farms for stock keeping. Years ago the The crop was raised on land belonging to Mr. Samuel late John Delafield, Esq., told the farmers of New-York Isett, and the account kept by Mr. Gifford, his manager, that a reform must take place in their treatment of mea- lar business operations. I having heard of it, asked a
not with the view of having it published, but in their reguidows and pastures, before they could breed or fatten cat- copy of account to send you, so that a voice may be heard tle and sheep to the greatest advantage. It is equally true from the interior of the old Keystone State. at the present day. In “ seeding down” we are are often To interest on 38 acres @ 850 per acre @ i per c........
8114 00 too sparing of grass seed—we delay the process too long, until our fields are too poor to give a "good catch " or
35 days plowiug, breaking up ground,
harrowing, preparing ground, product of grass—and we neglect to top-dress with plas
scoring and planting, ter, ashes, etc., even when we know them to be largely
39 days plowing corn,,
setting up and weeding corn, (by boys),.. beneficial. There must be a reform here. We must bave our land in good tillage, and seed down while the field is 1 ton plaster and plastering corn,... still in good heart, with plenty of seed; and top-dress in Total, all cases when it has been found to prove beneficial; then By 2100 hushels corn, a 50c, per bush... we shall get a full crop of grass for hay or pasture, and our acre of land so treated will bear double the stock, yea, quadruple which our common pastures now feed. And
The corn was all cut off at the ground, and put up in their fertility may be kept up by care in feeding off neither shocks, as we call it--which will account for
so much time required in husking.
JAMES M, KINKEAD, unseasonably or unmercifully, and occasional applications
Blair Co., Pa., March 22, 1860. of manure-fine compost applied early in the fall, and well harrowed, with another sprinkling of grass seeds. DUTCHESS Co. AG. SOCIETY. --Officers for the year 1860:
We can winter more stock, withont increasing the area of our meadows, if we give the latter good treatment, as man: Thomas Doty, Clinton; Valentine U. Hallock.
Stockholm, East Fishkill; Philip Vanderbilt, Fishkill; Wm. B. Dins. above indicated, and thus increase their productiveness, more, Hyde Park: James Howard, La Grange; B. B. Brothwell, Milan;
David Bryant, Northeast; William Akin, Pawling; Anth. liefluan. by providing liberally of cornstalks as a substitute for hay Pine Plains; Geo. L. Dennis, Poughkeepsie; Ira Howland. Pleasant in feeding cattle. Farmers are turning increased attention fred Mosher, Stanford, George Duncan, Union Vale; Milton Irvi,
Valley; Abram Staats, Red Book; C. S. Wainwright, Rlinebeck; A. to the corn crop, as a means of keeping stock better and
Secretary-George Sweet, Washington. more cheaply than by depending on hay as largely as for- Asst. Secretary-John U. Able, Union Vale.
taxes on land......
18 00 70 00 16 00 36 0
4 (0) 89 50 10 60 92 70 40 00 12 00
husking corn,.. Hauling corn from field
30 00 81090 00
10 loads fodder $3 per load....
Profit on crop...
President JAMES HAVILAXD, La Grange.
Treasul or-Jclin G, Kulstid, Cinion.