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14 acres in oats, 1117 acres in rye,


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Winter Farming in Albany County. siguris might become far more generally a matter of getuisitiosis

It is precisely in sueh poinks as these that farmers should It is sometimes forgotten, in' reading an outline of the practice of one farñter, that seldom if ever can it be re endeavor to derive more benefit from our Agrienlineal

Shows. And the managers of one Agricultural Colleges garded throughout as more than a general guide in "tlić operations of others,And although every thoughtful should not overlook the necessity of securing shoroughly reader desires tó obtain all the details he can in such an qualified judges of live stock as assistants in the practical outline, it is in order to stndy more thoroughly and com- part of the instruction they are to convey. No one can prehend more exactly the basis on which Success has in attain success in this department of farming, except by one case been dependent, and the measures by which it skill in the selection of his stock as well as in the managers has there been actually secured, rather than with ans de themselves with an experiment at first upon a moderate,

ment of his resources, and new beginners should content sign or hope of putting himself in precisely a similar po

seale, sition, and working out again precisely the same

he same results.

It is five or six years since Ms. Winne first fed Thus the Calling of the Farner, is eminently one that

11 sheep one winter; in 1878 he fatteped some 200; about, exacts mental exertion in the development of its respues 330 in 1859, and this year be has carried the number to ces. He can rarely walk advantageously in the exact foot 600. He occupies a farm of a hundred neres, of which steps of his neighbors. ,, His best paths toward the same there are perhaps 75 under the plow. Of this there were ends may be very different from theirs, but their course, is in 1859 about

pre 1,3 to travel wi not the less instructive, if he learns from it the principles

I .

34 actes in meadow, by which everywhere it is really guided, and the modifi

10 acres in corn, potatoes and buckwheat, cations, which, in other circumstances, their application se. The product of the whole will probably be consumed quires. The skill of a good carpenter will last lim under by the stock-indeed most of it las been already-inanother sky: cælum, non animum mutatur ; but it is a chuding 850 bushels of oats and c7 loads of hay. Durnew study with the farmer in every new locality to which ing the season there had been purchased 500 boshels of he goes, to adapt to his new condition the experience else- peas for feeding, and 100 bushels of buckwheat; also ten where gained, and the old laws that probably underlie the or twelve tons of oil cake, the fatter costing him only $31 successful agriculture of every clime and kindred. per lon, although seldom to be had, we believe, for less

Now one of the prime lessons which we shall be inclin-than $35 to $40. About half an acre each of carrots and ed to draw from English Agriculture, if, before our “ For- mangolds, yielding some 1100 bushels altogether, had been eign Notes” are drawn to a close, the opportunity offers grown. The rotation in common use is corn, potatoes, of directing some attention to an examination of them and backwheat, followed the second year by oats, and the -will be that our farmers should devote themselves more third grass, the land then continned inder sod three or to the feeding of stock as an agent of improvement, sometimes four years. whether it is or is not in addition a direet source of impor. The stock on the place included two pair of horses, five tant profit.

head of cattle, and a store flock of two rams, seventeen Those who have thus far followed the accounts of Eng- ewes, four wethers and half a dozen lambs; besides thirlish farming that have appeared from time to time in the teen ewes now away from home. During September and correspondence of the CountRY GENTLEMAN, will have October Mr. Winne had also bought in the sheep for noted how all the results it accomplishes appear to hinge feeding, 507 in number, of which two head have been sub in some way upon this support; and farther exemples may sequently lost, leaving 505 as the present number in his hereafter be given, illustrating with additional variations the feeding sheds. correctness of that homely maxim which embodies in few The extent of accommodation which he finds necessawords the results of long experience abroad, every day ry for sheep, may be inferred from the dimensions of one receiving new verification in the practice of our best far or two of these sheds. There is one for example 21 by 36 mers in this country, "No cattle, no dung; no dung, no feet, with a narrow yard along the southern side 6 to 8 feet

wide, where a lot of 75 sheep were thriving very nicely. Any system of stock-feeding moreover, which will send A board on the north side near the bottom, is hung on in some degree to equalize the labors of the year, by car- hinges, and remains open for the admission of fresh air rying into the idle months something of the oxer-burden except during the most severe weather. The whole south * of other seasons, is especially an object in our climate. side along the yard is open, but provided with two or three And as an instance of winter farming, what has been said sliding boards to restrain the sheep under shelter when will prepare the way for a brief notice, pf, the operations necessary. Others of the sheds have much larger yartis," in sheep feeding of a reader in Albany county, Mr. JURIAN and others no yards at all. But Mr. Winne is careful in ! WINNE, of some of whose stock, we have heretofore pre- any case to provide ainply for ventilation—for the admiss.. sented an engraving-operations whiệh furnish another sion and circulation of the atmosphere—-point justly is example of the truth of the maxim quoted. , It may be considered of the greatest importance, while if it is suffiwell in addition to the remarks with which we commenced, ciently attended to, yards do not seem to be necessary to call attention, before proceeding any farther, to one the sheep "evidently thriving quite as well without other prefatory suggestion,

them as with them. When yards are provided, how. It has been objected to the practice of one of our most ever, the same amount of shed room will answer for'a experienced contributors, that after all he only owes what somewhat larger number of sheeps Seventy sheep were .. success he has obtained to a peculiar knack in picking out kept-in a lean-to 20 by 46. feet, with no pared, ventilated cattle it will pay to seed, as if it was by no means a part by an open board along the side as before and two trap of the farmer's regular business to acquire just this doors of considerable size in the roof, opening and shut"knack " in judging of any kind of stock the farın produces ting at will. This shed might bave contained five more il or supports. What may be here and there a natural gift, sheep without crowding; in that case allowing about 1270


any further

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superficial feet to each sheep, while in the shed with the ample ventilation. V. East autumn thirtf loads of leaves had narrow yard attached, 10-superficial feet under shelter has been drawn and spread in the yards for this purpose, and been quite enough

are found to answer admirably.'s Straw is spread during To speak of the space allotted for a sheep, without say: the winter as necessary, generally

twice a week, and Mr. ing anything of its size, is almost as definite, however, as Winne said that he would pay $5 per ton for it if necesit would be to talk of so mang* pieces of chalk." And sary, sooner than have his yards wete. When the straw still we confess that it is not entirely without apprehension began to run low this spring, upwards of twenty loads more that we approach this necessary point. The weights of of leaves had been collected. He has also bought pine these sheep were all accurately taken down, one by one, sawdust for the purpose, and likes it, and the chips, &c., partly upon the 3d of January last, and partly upon ' the as they, accamulate, very much as a manure, upon heavy 6th; a second weighing, with equal care, was made the land.

There is also a 3d of February: so that we are not proceeding upon estimlates or guess-work; although, knowing the incredulity putting it so a bed of muck which he tried one year, a

the yards to the amount of 150 loads. As with which a statement of the average was received by'a

are only

about two iveeks in the season when this dealer in New York to whom it has since been made, we

deposit is readily necessible, it is not always convenient might perhaps hesitate to publish it except upon personal to take it out at that time, but Mr. W. expressed a high knowledge rad 10 W0100 Tu

91 opinion of its tatue; he thinks it should be allowed to In January 504 of the sheep weighed 72,198 pounds freeze and tháw through one winter, and become thoroughaggregate, or an ak erage of 1434 pounds each, February 19 doy m Wie surintner before it is used under the sheep. 3, when the whole 507 were weighed, the aggregate was

The feeding trouglis in which the sheep receive all they 76,273, showing an average of about 1504 pounds per

Der eat; (except the salt,) are of simple construction, and head, or a gain in an interval of less than 30 days with possess sotne ad vantages worth a description. more than half the number, and just a month with the remainder, of 77 pounds per head throughout. About six weeks had elapsed since the last weighing at the time of our visit, so that 10 pounds per head would be probably no more than a fair average gain in this interval; and 500 sheep, as even in size and condition, and as handsomely fatted as these, averaging 160 pounds per head, are really quite a sight to see.

The evenness of the lot was not such, nevertheless, as to render a dozen of the best unworthy of a paragraph by themselves. There were thirteen which showed an aggregate, Feb. 3, of 2,955 pounds, or an average of 227] Ibs. per head—the lightest turning the scale at 205, and the heaviest at 252.

Engraving showing End of Mr. Winne's Sheep.Trough. The sheep are Leicesters, and come from Canada, cost

The engraving shows the end of the trough, which ing upon the farm, all expenses paid, a not extravagant is 22 inches wide. The lower board on the sides and ends price. Strongly in favor of grinding the grain fed to either is 12 inches wide, the upper board 8 inches. The length cattle or horses, Mr. Winne does not think it either neces of the trough is 12 feet. The posts of timber 2 by 21, sary or expedient with the sheep. Among the 500 head

inches, are six in number, one in each corner and one at he distributes for the morning feed about eleven bushels the middle of each side. In making the bottom, three"? of corn and oats in equal proportions, varying the amount bits of boards are nailed across—one at each end and one slightly, according to the particular circumstances of the case, such as weather, &c. After this they are supplied is securely fastened, and then two other boards are put in

at the middle; a 12 inch board rests upon them, where it * with what hay they want, and subsequently with water. Abont 11 o'clock they get a supply of oat straw, which is upon a bével, as stown by the dotted lines, which repre

sent their ends in the cut. The lowest part of the bottom this year very bright and nice, and relished by them as is thus the thickness of two boards from the floor, while well as hay., At 1 o'clock two bushels of sliced roots per the two inclined bottom boards are about 8 inches higher 100 sheep, are fed to them, and all their tubs and barrels

on the outer edge than at the other. Such a box as this are again supplied with water. The night food consists of accommodntes 20 large sheep; it is tipped over and thus 14 bushels for the whole, of peas and oil-meal

, half-and, cleaned in a moment, without any sweeping, and has been half. To contain their water, tar barrels are used, or if thought by several sheep men who have examined it, to these fail

, a little tar is put in with the water they drink. be a very simple and inexpensive way of combining all the * Sult is always accessible to them in one trough, and in an essentials in this much discussed article of shed furniture. other a mixture of two parts salt with one part ashes and a It is made with good long screws, and will stand wear and" handful of rosin to two quarts of the above, with the ad- tear admirably; it made with nails, they become loosened dition sometimes of a little nitre. ??

by knocking about, and constant tinkering is necessary, With these precautions he has had remarkable success The space between the two boards that constitute the sides, in maintaining the constant good health and thrift.of the it should be added, is ten or eleven inches. whole. The roots that are fed contribute to keep the sye- When the sheep are first bought in autumn, they are tem in ordec, rather than to add Alésły, in Mr. Wr's opinion. pastured a while before they go into the sheds, receiving

The manure remains undisturbed until spring, enough a half bushel of corn or peas per 100 head daily while litter being added to keep the yards as well as sheds as com. in the field. If pasture is hired for them, the current rate pletely dry as possible point not less important than I has been about $12 per 100 head per month.


goes to a

The land upon the farm is mostly a pretty heavy clay,

(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivatos.) but if well worked and kept dry becomes friable; one ex

VERTIGO IN HORSES. periment in draining has been made with the best results, Messrs. EDITORS-A friend called my attention to an and Mr. W. proposes to drain a larger area the coming article in the "COUNTRY GENTLKMAN" of Jan. 26th, viz., He likes to plow as soon as the oats are off, and

* Vertigo in Horses.” The description given by “ A Subpth of seven or eight inches. The ground scriber," corresponds entirely with a disease that prevails then lies till the Ist to 10th Sept., according to season, among horses in this viehity, and for want of a better

name, is denominated "Chest Staggers,” but “ Vertigo." when the manure is brought out and spread ; it is turned is its real classification. The cause is a fermentation of in with a Share's Coulter Harrow about two inches, the food in the stomach, and the effect upon the animal very rye sown and dragged in lightly, and then timothy seed, similar to that which is produecd npon “bipeds” under succeeded by another dragging About the last of the like conditions of liver, stomach, &c., and the remedies to

be employed the same. A dyspeptie man cannot eat next Mareh or first of April, clover is sown. He likes to Indian meal in any foru-with impunity, neither can a seed tolerably thickly; one field of abont sis acres, for dyspeptic horse--and whether it be raw or cooked, matinstance, receiving in autumn a bushel and a half of timo- ters not in either case, inasmuch as the digestive agents thy, and in spring a mixture of about a bushel and a peck in both cases are repelled by it-consequently fermenta--one-third timothy and two-thirds clover. No matter

tion follows, and chotic, vertigo, debility, &c., &c., are

developed. I was once a confirmed dyspeptie, and after how high its price, true economy teaches him to buy uni- exhausting almost every resource for relier, finally becanje forinly the best and cleanest seed,

my own physician, and for twenty years have enjoyed unWith the 330 sheep fed a year ago, there was, as might, interrupted health, partaken of my full share of "good be supposed, a considerable quantity of manure provided, things," and now stand firm in my boots, strong, 190-Ibs. and an opportunity offering for purchase in addition, Mr! in bulk. I had a horse in same condition as the one de

scribed by "A Subscriber"--called in the aid of a veteW. bought 150 loads, at a dollar per cord, which lie rinary bubug-eminent in his profession, who pronounced deemed a very good bargain. The manure in the yards it an incarable case of " chest staggers," assaring me that is heaped under the sheds as soon as the sheep go, and a horse once affected could never be cured ;' he would, there protected from exposure. It will need turning to however, try, and if in a few days there was no inproveprevent fire-fanging, unless wetted from time to time, and head. No improvement was manifest—$10 out for sek

ment apparent, I had better have him knocked on the for this purpose a cistern has been provided for the recep- ence—and a horse I valued highly, pronounced fit only for tion of liquid manure, and a force pump, by which it is use as a fertilizing agent. thrown over the heaps from time to time, before they are I took the animal under my own special charge, watched finally drawn out for use.

every symptom, and thought he wanted to tell me that Such operations going on upon any farm for a few years not describe my own sensations. On examination I found

he felt just as I did when I was a dyspeptie, when I could cannot fail to be felt in enlarging its productiveness, while his feet were cold-(mine were just so,)his ears were in addition since Mr. Winne has been engaged in feeding, cold, (so were mine,) bis breath was sour, (mine the same,) prices have been such as to pay a good pecuniary profit. his heart seemed to palpitate with undue force at one moThe markets scarcely promise returns as large this year, ment, and at the next was scarcely to be felt, (I had had although we doubt if the produce of the farm could bave ciently to swell out the body as it onght, (I had the same

the same,) and his breath did not indate the lungs suffibeen put to any other use so remunerating. A letter re experience,) and I determined in any own mind that my ceived from Join JOHNSTON, while these notes were in horse was living the same kind of death that I had risen course of preparation, says: “Catile won't pay for feed-fron. I treated him for dyspepsia--cured him in three ing this winter, unless they advance materially from present months and for four years a healthier avima has not priecs; in fact they must meet with a serious loss who have restoring a dozen others to health that were similarly dis

lived in Massachusetts, and since his case, have aided in been selling of late, and what is worse, I fear the drovers eased. Now for the treatment--but first let me refer to bave also been losing. Sheep generally must have paid for the character of food he had been kept on. He came to feeding; the high price of pulled wool has kept up the price we, green from Vermont, where hay (and but an occaof sheep. I seldom or never sold sheep higher per pound sional feed of oats) was luis ration. I placed him on cut than this spring, but I fed higher and they cost me bigh; appetite for, and on which for a year he seemed to thrive,

feed, (hay and corn meal mash,) which he had a glorious still they pay for what they have consumed, and I always although worked hard. Towards the close of his first allow the manure made by them to be worth a dollar per year of civilized life, I noticed a degree of languor at sheep."

times that was so entirely inconsistent with his ordinary A favorite food with Mr. Winne for horses, is rye and elasticity of spirit, that I was apprehensive that all was not oats ground together in equal proportions, and mixed with described by your correspondent, and I refer to it as an

well with him. This was followed by the development cut hay wetted; it fits a horse for work, he says, better than incident in the association of cause and effect—but to the anything else, and he believes four buşlıels of grain ground remedy. I cooked his hay by steaming, and instead of to be fully equal to five whole. As above stated, be also corn nical used tine feed--one quart to each feed of mash grinds and cuts the feed of cattle or pigs, but never for with twenty of the little Belladonna pills of Homeopasheep-giving them straw and hay, as well as grain, in its thists, three times a day for three days, giving him water natural bulk.

but once in twenty-four hours, and that late in the eve

ning. I followed this with cut bay and fine feed (one A Hint.-It would be worth more than the price of quart at each feed three times per day,) and added a teayour valuable paper, to many, to have their attention spoon of mustard seed for one week, then substituted called to the fact that to pitch manre containing long grond oats with same quantity of mustard seed for fine straw or cornstalks, they will save much time and hani foed in the mash for a week, all this time barely exercising labor by cutting the heap of manure with a hay-knife, in him around the bouse. I then put him to his work, using the same way that we cut a cheese of pomace at a cider double quantity of ground oats, xiz.: two quarts to each mill. This treatment does away with the objection to feed, and from that time forward to the present, he has cornstalks in the inanure beap-consequently to that of not lost an hour from liis work on account of sickness, feeding them in the barii.

P. P. PECKHAJI. and weighs nearly 1400 lbs. ; in fact, is esteemed one of Bradford Co., Pa.

the best working horses in the State.

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1860.123: enverslaga9410?

147 7.33; 116177 y segugal Time Bord7777 3:1 sud (For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator,}

-3.1-st trivalen warnth BALLOON FRAMES.IIL **The Balloon Frame is one of those innovations, which,

je mi se des in like the sewing machine, the busking machine, and the 34T biti

1* This notis apple-parer, is destined to put ao end to those social gatherings, which, in by-gone days, assembled to accomplish by united efforts that which by the advent of machinery is now performed with far greater ease and rapidity,

Me 983 Balloon Framing is not, however, a manner of effecting by machinery what læs formerly been done by hand, but.


. 2-Klevation section-manner of Fig 3.-Upper edge of B erubraces a series of improvements in the art of building, nailing-A. corner, studi 4 by B.

joist-L. stud, 14. 1199 which time and experience have shown to be thoroughly joist, 5 by 3--C. 2 by f. practical--that which has bitherto called out a whole neigh all the timbers abote the first floor joists are ripped from borhood, and required a vast expenditure of labor, time, coton 14inch floor plankthus make studding, ceiling noise, hifting, hoisting, and the attendant danger, can, by joists, and rafters, 14 inches by 5 inches "Tibet the adoption of the balloon frane, be done with all the » For large barns, storehouses, &c, larger sizes will be quietness and security of an ordinary day's work. A man required. The weight and power necessary to injure a

and boy can now attain the same results with ease, that building withi 3 by 8 studding, with a double row of bridg? twenty men would ou an old fashioned frame.

ing, is more than is ever practically applied to any store

เFYY (131:: Suppose we compare the lieavy, cumbersome bain frame house. of to-day with the barn of fifty years ago, with its rotten

The lining of a balloon frame adds immensely to its tenons, bulging sides, and broken-backed roof. Can we strength, particularly so if put on diagonally; it may be Hoe one single mark of improvement? Has 50 years ad- done outside or inside, though on the whole the inside is yanced the art of building frames? What change is there preferable. If done outside, it should be carried over the for the better?

sill and nailed to it; the sill being wider than the studding, - What is demanded, is something in keeping with the in order to get a larger bearing on the masonry, and the progressive spicit of the day. We want really better and door joists being in the way, does not admit of inside lin, stronger frames, and we want them to cost less, If our ing being put on in the same manner. Close or continuous houses, barns and out-buildings can be built for less money, lining is not necessary for strength, but for dwelling houses and be just as good, as convenient, and as safe, it is au adds much to the warmth. Large buildings, not used as improvement that will suit us.

dwelling houses, can be sufficiently well braced by diagonal ist The Balloon Frame answers these requirements. It has strips of 1 inch board, 6 inchies wide, nailed to the studlong since ceased to be an experiment; and where its ding inside, 6 feet apart. Where vertical siding is used, principles are understood, no other style of frame is used. these same strips can be put on in the same nianner out

side the studding. Let the strips run over the sill and pail to it. Between the strips on the sill, nail an inch board, and it is then ready for upright or battened siding. Small out-buildings, barns, &c., do not require any diagonal bracing.

Every stick of timber in a balloon frame not only las a weight to support, but its tensile and compressible strength, which theoretically is 11,800 pounds per square inch of its end area, is taken advantage of. This is not the case with the old style of frame. A balloon frame looks light, and its name was given in derision by those old fogy mechanics who had been brought up to rob a stick of timber of all its strength and durability, by cutting it full of mortices, tenons, and auger holes, and then supposing it to be stronger than a far lighter stick differently applied, and with all its capabilities uniinpaired.

The balloon frame has been known in the newer sections of our country for many years; it has been tested and found to stand the test. It is not, nor cannot be patented; there is no money to be made out of it except as a public benefit in which all share alike.

The following are some of the advantages claimed for it: 2010 !!!

1. The whole labor of framing is dispensed with.
2. It is a far cheaper frame to raise.

3. It is stronger and more durable than any other frame. *, Fig. 1. --Isometrical Perspective View of the Balloon Frame.

4. Any stick can be removed and another put in its The engraving shows a portion of a Balloon Frame, place without disturbing the strength of those remaining drawn in isometrical perspective. This is sufficient to in fact the whole building can be renewed, stick by stick. show the whole manner of construction, the other parts of 5. It is adapted to every style of building, and better the building being a repetition. The manner of securing adapted for all irregular forms. the different timbers is shown in figs. 2 and 3-the nails 6. It is forty per cent. cheaper than any other known being driven diagonally, and in a manner to secure the style of frame. greatest amount of strength.

7. It embraces strength, security, comfort, and economy. The sizes of the different pieces of timber in a frame of Architects, builders, mechanics, and practical men, are this size, are sills 3 by 8-corner studs, 4 by 4-other respectfully invited to prove the contrary. studding, 2 by 4-plate, 1 by 4-side strips, or side girts,

Gro. E. WOODWARD, 1 by 4-rafters, 3 by 6, or 2) by 5 will dos-collars, 1 by

Architect and Civil Engineer, 335 Broadway, N. Y. floor joists, 8 by 8, or may be 2 by 7. Rafters, studding, and joists, are 16 inches between centers.

Officers BAINBRIDGE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY for Small buildings of this cliaracter, 'not calculated for 1860:beavy storage, may have all timbers two fect between cen

hora ters." Small buildings of one story, as tool-houses, grana- Secretary and Treasurer-Joseph Juliand, 20.

Directors-Charles Bixby, Walter Higly, Daniel Bristol, John F ries, cottages, &c., will be perfectly strong and secure, if Landers, Reuben Searles, Charles P. Kirby.


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President-Hon. JOSEPH Bush,
Vice-President-A. J. Sands.




CALLANAN'S TRENCHER, of obviating the trouble of turning the teams when there

is the trench between them and i fence close at their heads. * The difficulty in the way of accomplisising the We have not space to speak at present more at length

of ; 18 of upon . By promoting the rakind: the labor required in excavating eten er for tile or pidity of the operation it doxes a great deal ; by enabling stone is not only expensive, but ordinary farm workmen the farmer to put any laborer at work who can handle a have not load the experience necessary to do it well. It shovel

, it does still more, and in the saving of labor and : -is a task which they almost uniforinly undertake with bad money, as well as of time, it seems to 119 to justify entirely

the anticipations of its inventor. A team or two, accordgrace, on the one hand, and which on the other is quite ing to the soil

, can be employed for an liour in the mornas often slighted if let out at contract, except muder care. ing in loosening op as muell as there are hands to shorel fal watching, in auy event it is a protracted, tedioits and fout during the forenoon or during the day, if the bosses costly prelude to the advantages which the farmer is told on a large scale, a heavy force of inen; witb their aid, must

or oxen are required for other work ; or if it is to be done the is going to secure when once the water is frisly, on its be able to go over the ground with wonderful rapility, as Way out of the soil.

11.10130397 ") compared with the slow process of hand labor. Mr. c. We have already alinded casually to a new contriranice has also a contrivance for filling drains, somew bat. simitar for facilitating the operation of Bruining, which has now to a reversed snow plow, which does its work completely, been "so far perfected that we think we may reasonably as easily as a plow would turn in one furrow, and which is hope from it results of considerable 'importance. Mr. also of use in leveling the surfact of a field, by filling bolDaviv Callanan, a hard-working and energetic farmer Jows, and scraping off hillocks or eleratioue. residing about 'twelve miles from Albanty, became 'a con- A part of Mr. Callanan's land rests 'upon å stiff atid vert to the theory of thorough drainage some years ago, compact clay, and we were assured tlrat the Trencher here and began in 1853 to carry it into practice. He entered accomplishes an equal saving, while its work is done still upon the manufacture of tile at that tine maiuly for the more neatly than among the stones, where we saw it tried. sake of securing what he wanted for his own use; and, The farm comprises some 200 acres, with a work-shop and from then until now, he has been adding to the extent of forge; 'where Mr. C. has had a number of machiites conthe undergronnd channeling of his farm, until he has laid structed to supply the orders of those who hare seen its " in all something like nine miles of tile beneath its surface. opération Jast autumn and this spring. His address, we

The obstacles with which he had to contend in perform- may add to save farther inquiries, is Callanan's Corners, ing this labor and in getting it done, were such as to set Albany Co. him to thinking how they might be more advantageously There is much that we should like notice, if our fufts encountered. After namerous experiments, the resulting permitted, in Mr. C.'s general farni-operations. Alltidagh invention has taken its present form; and we introdnee it still a young man, he is entitled to rank as one of the most to the notice of our readers thus prominently, because Mr. thorough and enterprising farmers in the county. En s:3 c. is not by trade a manufacturer of implements or a

il 957 speculator in patents, and, having no interest whatever

***) Hill; 4*

FARMER'S CLUBS. ourselves in his invention-except as it may become a matter of benefit to the public, -We wish to lighten if Quietly progressing in numbers and influence, we possible the labors of those who are now engaged in drain. ing, and to do anything we can to put the process within are inclined to think that Farmers' CLUBS are beginning the reach of others who have not as yet begun.

to assume an importance they have never before possessThe object of Callanan's Trencher is to loosen the ed. In some parts of Massachusetts, and in one or two ground so that it can be rapidly sboveled ont. As the counties in this State, we might point to several examples patent is not yet secured, we defer a complete description of excellent management and remarkable prosperity. In. until hereafter, but may say that by cutting down at both deed our attention has been particularly attracted to the sides of the ditch, and having also a third cutter in the middle, it detaches the soil to be thrown out, and tho subject by the receipt of a number of copies of the Greenroughly loosens it, to the depth of from 8 to 10 inches at field (Mass.) Courier, in one of which alone we find inonce in the upper soil, and to a proportionately smaller ex- teresting and valuable reports of the proceedings of four tent at each passage through the harder substances below. different clubs—those of Greenfield, Ashfield, Bernardston We visited Mr. C.'s farm last week for the purpose of seving and Heath. Another contaivs a report from the Wapping its operation in a field which he is now preparing to drain. The sub-soil at a depth of from 10 to 13 inches, was a Farmer's Club, and we do not know but there are still complete "hard-pan"--perhaps more than a third of it others beside these five in that same region. that stones of various sizes, so compactly packed in together. JAMES GRENNELI., Esq., Secretary of the Greenfield nó digging could have been done withogt a pickaxe, and Club, to whom we are indebted for the papers alluded 10, many of the stones so large that it would be a long and has taken a great interest in organizations of the kind, arduous task to dislodge and remove them by hand. aud by lectures before them, as well as letters through

The form of the cutters or teeth in this instrument, the press, has been laboring earnestly to promote the which are steel pointed, is such as to keep them constant- agricultural advancement of his locality. A Fariner's

ly in the ground at their work. When we came to the Club, to tell the truth, may often fail--not for lack either hardest of the sub-soil, it was a good pul for two teams to of the right materials in ample quantity, or of a spirit of scratch out three or four inches over, but it was success harmonions co-operation, but simply because, like a well fully accomplished; upon coming to a boulder wo firmly made watuh lying idle, it is not properly wound up; and fixed to be moved at once, the return of the Treneher, fortunate is the cab which, with intelligence and kindly striking it on the other side, in no case failed to complete feeling, inclndes also among its members some who are its dislodgment. Several of the stones were split and bro- willing to be ever on the alert to do this winding. It is ken as though a crowbar had been employed, and we a task which cannot be accomplished once for all, but rewatched the process with increasing satisfaction until the quires a frequent exèrcise of the faculties and tact, that ditch was from 30 to 36 inches in depth.

interest may never fing; and some good be constantly The width and length of the cutters can be adjusted at developed. pleasure, and the whole is so perfectly simple and strong Kindred in some degree to Farmor's Clubs, are associathat there seems to be nothing father to desire in either tions of another kind, which are also growing up, one by of these respects. As its weight is some 200 pounds, it one, over the country. A prospectus before us affords a would be difficult to list it out of the ditch for turning, but case in point-that of the "Homer Rural Improvement the horses or oxen themselves do this, while by making Association ” in Cortland County.* The _Objects of this the tongues detachable, Mr. C. has contrived an easy way Society," are indeed worth copying, because it is now just

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