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34 acres in
14 acres in oats, 1117 acres in tye,
Winter Farming in Albany Countyo, siamis might become far more generally a matter of getuisitions b. It iß sometimes forgotten, in reading an oftline Urther!
It is precisely in suel points as these that farmers should practice of oñe farater, that seldom if ever can it be re endeavor to derive more benefit from one Agricultnad garded throtghout as more than a general gtide' in " the shows
. And the managers of mar Agricultural Colleges operations of others. And although every thoughtful qualified judges of live stock, as assistants in the practical reader desires to obtain all the details the lean Insuch an outline, it is in order to study more thoroughly and com- part of the instruction they are to convey. No one end, prebiend more exactly tlie basis on which Success kas in skill in the selection of bis stock as well as in the managets
attain success in this department of farming, except by: one case been dependent, and the measures by *hich it has there been actually secured, rather thaw wflany
de ment of his resources, and new beginners should content,
themselves with an experiment at first upon a moderate sign or hope of putting himself in precisely a similar position, and working out again precisely the same re
It is five or six years since Ms. Winne first fed itsa Thus the Calling of the Farmer, is eminently one that
Er 918 513 sheep one winter; in 187$ he fatteped some 200, about, exacts mental exertion in the deselopment of its resour3330 in 1859, and this year he has,,carried the number sa ces . He can rarely walk advantageously in the exact foots 500. He occupies a farm of a hundred arres, of which
of his neighbors. 3, His best path, toward the game, there are perhaps 75 under the plow. Of this there were ends may be very different from theirs, but their course, is
* 19.13 9d 10 kommet ! not the less instructive, if he learns from it the principles by which everywhere it is really guided, and the modifi
10 acres in corn, potatoes and buckwheat, cations, which, in other çircumstances, their application re: The product of the whole will probably be consumed. quires . The skill of a good carpenter
, will last him under, by the stock-indeed most of it has been already inanother sky: cælum, non animum mutatur ; but it is a chuding 850 basbels of oats and 67 loads of hay. Durnew study with the farmer in every new locality to which ing the season there had been purchased 500 bushels of be goes, to adapt to his new condition the experience else- peas for feeding, and 190 bushels of backwheat; also ten where gained, and the old laws thạt probably underlie the or twelve tons of oil cake, the fatter costing him only $31. successful agriculture of every clime and kindred. per ton, althóngh sellom to be bad, we believe, for less
Now one of the prime lessons which we shall be inclin-than $35 to $40. About half an acre each of carrots and ed to draw from English Agriculture, if, before our “ For- mangolds, yielding some 1100 bushels altogether
, had eign Notes", are drawn to a close, the opportunity offers grown. The rotation in common' use is corn, potatoes, of directing some attention to an examination of them and backwheat, followed the second year by oats,
(ana the? will be that our farmers should devote themselves more third grass, the land then continned under sod three or to the feeding of stock as an agent of improvement, sometimes four years. whether it is or is not in addition a direct source of impor- The stock on the place included two pair of horses, five tant profit.
head of cattle, and a store flock of two rams, seventeen Those who have thus far followed the-acoounts of Eng- ewes, four wethers and half a dozen lambs; besides thirlish farming that have appeared from time to time in the teen ewes now away from home. During September and correspondence of the COUNTRY GENTLEMAN, will have October Mr. Winne had also bought in the for noted how all the results it accomplishes appear to hinge feeding, 507 in number, of which two head have been sube in some way upon this support; and farther exemples may sequently lost, leaving 505 as the present number in his hereafter be given, illustrating with additional variations the feeding sheds. correctness of that homely maxim which embodies in few The extent of accommodation which he finds neccssawords the results of long experience abroad, every day fry for sheep, may be inferred from the dimensions of one receiving new verification in the practice of our best far or two of these sheds. There is one for example 21 by 36 mers in this conntry, "No cattle, no dung; no dung, no feet, with a narrow yard along the southern side 6 to 8 feet
wide, where a lot of 75 sheep were thriving very nicely. Any system of stock-feeding moreover, which will send A board on the north side near the bottom, is hung on in some degree to equalize the labors of the year, by car hinges, and remains open for the admission of fresh air rying into the idle months something of the over-burden except during the most severe weather. The whole south of other seasons, is especially aŋ, object in our climate. side along the yard is open, but provided with two or thiree And ag an instance of winter farming, what has been said sliding boards to restrain the sheep under shelter when! will prepare the way for a brief notice of the operations necessary. Others of the sheds have much larger Fartis * in sheep feeding of a reader in Albany counts, Mr.JURIAN and others Do yards at all. But Mr. Winne is careful in!! WINNE, of some of whose stock, we have heretofore pre- any case to provide amply for ventilation—for the admissi! sented an engraving-operations which furnish another sion and circulation of the atmosphere-a-point justly example of the truth of the maxim gyoted. It may be considered of the greatest importance, while if it is suffiwell in addition to the remarks with which we commenced, ciently attended to, yards do not seem to be necessary to call attention, before proceeding any farther, to one the "sheep 'evidently thriving quite as well without other prefatory suggestion,
them as with them. When yards are provided, how.' It has been objected to the practice of one of our most ever, the same amount of shed room will answer for'a experienced contributors, that after all he only owes what somówhat larger number of sheeps Seventy sbeep were .: success he has obtained to a peculiar knack in picking out kept-in a lean-to 20 by 46 feet, with no pard, ventilated cattle it will pay to feed, as if it was by no means a. part by an open board along the side as before and two trpa of the farmer's regular business to acquire just this doors of, considerable size in the roof, opening and shut"knack” in judging of any kind of stock the farın produces ting at will. This shed might bave contained fiye moreuil or supports. What may be here and there a natural gift, sheep without crowding; in that case, allowing about 1241
superficial feet to each sheep, while in the shed with the sample ventilation. V East autumn thirty soads of leaves had narrow yard attached, 10 superficial feet under shelter had been drawn and spread in the yards for this purpose; and been quite enorgtz 4 ****** *20*2 gurah tauverim are found to answer admirably.'s Straw is spread during E'To speak of the space allotted for a sheep, without say the winter as necessary, generally twice a week, and Mr. ing anything of its size, is almost as definite, however, as Winne said that he would pay $5 per ton for it if neces it would be to talk of go wianý" pieces of chalk. And sary, sogner than have his yards wet. When the straw still we confess that it is not entirely without apprehension began t9.fun low this spring, upwards of twenty loads more that we approach this necessary point. The weights of of leaves had been collected. He has also bought pine these sheep were all accurately taken down, one by one, sawdust for the purpose, and likes it, and the chips, &c.g! partly upon the 3d of January last, and partly upon the as thex, accamulate, very much as a manure, upon, heavy 6th; a second weighing, with equal care, was made the land. 3d of February : so that we are not proceeding upon esti
. There is also a bed of "muck which he tried one year,
ng it into the yards to the amount of 160 loads. As with which a statement of the average was received by a there
are only two weeks in the season when this dealer in New-York to whom it has since
been made, we deposita is readily nocessible, tt is not always" convenient might perhaps tresitate to publish it except upon personal to take it out at that time, but Mr. W. expressed a high knowledge. 2. 10.w010 si robato Se 91914 opinion”of its value;" he thinks it should be allowed to
In January 504 of the sheep weighed 72,198 pounds freeze and trawthrough one winter, and become thoroughaggregate, or an attrage of 1434 pounds
each. Februáry ly dry in die suintner before it is used under the sheep. 3, when the whole w7 wetë 'weighed, the aggregate was
The feeding trouglis in which the sheep receive all they 76,273, showing an average of about 1504 pounds
inde bepeat; (except the 'salt,) are of simple construction, and head, or a gain in an interval of less than 30 days with possess some
' ad vaňtages worth a description
7661 more than half the number, and just a month with the remainder, of 77 pounds per head throughout About six weeks had elapsed since the last weighing at the time of our visit, so that 10 pounds per head would be probably no more than a fair average gain in this interval; and 500 sheep, as even in size and condition, and as handsomely
no be fatted as these, averaging 160 pounds per head, are really
commagis quite a sight to see.
tib to. The evenness of the lot was not such, nevertheless, as to render a dozen of the best unworthy of a paragraph by
131 03 themselves. There were thirteen which showed an aggregate, Feb. 3, of 2,955 pounds, or an average of 2274 lbs.
1 tip per head—the liglitest turning the scale at 205, and the heaviest at 252.
Engraving showing End of Mr. Winne's-Sheep-Trough." The sheep are Leicesters, and come from Canada, costing upon the farm, all expenses paid, a not extravagant is 22 inches wide. The lower board on the sides and ends *
The engraving shows the end of the trough, which price. Strongly in favor of grinding the grain fed to either is 12 inches wide, the upper board 8 inches. The length cattle or horses, Mr. Winne does not think it either neces of the trough is 12 feet. The posts of timber 2 by 24 | sary or expedient with the sheep. Among the 500 head inches, are six in number, one in each corner and one at he distributes for the morning feed about eleven bushels the middle of each side. In making the bottom, three"? of corn and oats in equal proportions, varying the amount bits of boards are nailed across—one at each end and one slightly, according to the particular circumstances of the
at the middle; a 12 inch board rests upon them, where it case, such as weather, &c. After this they are supplied is securely fastened, and then two other boards are put in Abont 11 o'clock they get a supply of oat straw, which is upon a bével, as shown by the dotted lines, which repre
sent their ends in the cut. The lowest part of the bottom this year, very bright and nice, and relished by them as is thus the thickness of two boards from the floor, while well as hay. At 1 o'clock two bushels of sliced roots per the two inclined bottom boards are about 3 inches higher 200 sheep, are fed to them, and all their tubs and barrels on the outer edge than at the other. Such a box as this are again supplied with water. The night food consists of
accommodntes 20 large sheep ; it is tipped over and thus 1 l bushels for the whole, of peas and oil-meal
, half-and, cleaned in a'moment,
without any sweeping, and has been half. To contain their water, tar barrels are used, or if
thought by several sheep men who have examined it, to these fail, a little tar is put in with the water they drink. be a very simple and inexpensive way of combining all the * Salt is always accessible to them in one trough, and in an essentials in this much discussed article of shed furniture. other a mixture of two parts salt with one part ashes and a It is made with good long screws, and will stand wear and handful of rosin to two qnarts of the above, with the ad- tear admirably; it made with nails, they become loosened, dition sometimes of a lisele nitre." ross River by knocking about, and constant tinkering is necessary.
With these precautions he has had remarkable suecess The space between the two boards that constitute the sides, in maintaining the constant good health and thrift.of the it should be added, is ten or eleven inches. whole. The roots that are fed contribute to keep theisys- When the sheep are first bought in autumn, they are tem in ordec, rather than to add fleshy in Mr. Wi's opinion. pastured a while before they go into the sheds, receiving
The manure remains undisturbed until spring, enough a half bushel of corn or peas per 100 head daily while litter being added to keep the wards as well as sheds as com in the field. If pasture is hired for them,
the 'duirrent rate pletelyidry as possible point not less important than | has been about $12 per 100 head per monthi.
For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator? The land upon the farm is mostly a pretty heavy clay,
VERTIGO IN HORSES. but if well worked and kept dry becomes friable; one experiment in draining has been made with the best results, MESSRS. EDITORS-A friend called my attention to an and Mr. W. proposes to drain a larger area the coming article in the "COSNTRY GENTLEMAN" of Jan. 26th, viz., season. He likes to plow as soon as the oats are off, and Vertigo i Horæs." The description given by “ A Subgoes to a depth of seven or eight inches. The ground seriber;" corresponds entirely with a disease that prevails
among borses in this vichiity, and for want of a bettor then lies till the 1st to 10th Sept., according to season, name, is denominated “Chest Staggers,” but “ Vertigo." when the manure is brought out and spread ; it is turned is its real classification. The cause is a fermentation of in with a Share's Coulter Harrow about two inches, the food in the stomach, and the effect npon the animal very rye sown and dragged in lightly, and then timothy seed, shvilar to that which is produeed upon "bipeds" under succeeded by another dragging. About the last of the like conditions of liver, stomach, &c., and the remedies to
be employed the same. A dyspeptie man cannot eat next Marel or first of April, clover je sown. He likes to Indian meal in any forin-with impunity, neither can a seed tolerably thickly; one field of about six acres, for dyspeptic horse-and whether it be raw or cooked, matinstance, receiving in autumn a bushel and a half of timoters not in either case, inasmuch as the digestive agents thy, and in spring a mixture of about a bushel and a peek in both cases are repelled by it-consequently fermenta-one-third timothy and two-thirds clover. No matter tion follows, and cholic, vertigo, debility, &c., &c., are
developed. I was once a confirmed dyspeptic, and after how high its price, true' economy teaches him to buy umi
um: exhausting almost every resource for relier, finally beennje forinly the best and cleanest seed,
my own physician, and for twenty years have enjoyed'un. With the 330 sheep fed a year ago, there was, as might interrupted health, partaken of my full share of " good be supposed, in considerable quantity of thanure provided, things, and now stand firm in my books, strong, 190
. and an opportunity offering for purchase in addition, Mr? in bulk. I had a horse in same condition as the one de
scribed by “A Subscriber" _ called in the aid of a veteW. bought 150 loads, at a dollar per cord, which lie rinary bumbug-eminent in his profession, who pronounced deemed a very good bargain. The manure in the yards it an incurable case of "chest staggers," assuring me that is heaped under the sheds as soon as the sheep go, and a horse once affected could never be cured ;' he would, there protected from exposure. It will need turning to however, try, and if in a few days there was no improve prevent fire-fanging, unless wetted from time to time, and head. No improvement was manifest—*10 out for sci
ment apparent, I had better' have him knocked on the for this purpose a cistern has been provided for the recep- ence-and a horse I valued highly, pronounced fit only for tion of liquid manure, and a force pump by which it is use as a fertilizing agent. thrown over the heaps from time to time, before they are I took the animal under my own special charge, watched finally drawn out for use.
every symptom, and thought he wanted to tell me that Such operations going on upon any farm for a few years not describe my own sensations. On examination I found
be felt just as I did when I was a dyspeptie, when I could cannot fail to be felt in enlarging its productiveness, while his feet were cold—(mine were just so,) his ears were in addition since Mr. Winne has been engaged in feeding, cold, (so were mine, his breath was sour, (mine the same,) prices have been such as to pay a good pecuniary profit. his heart seemed to palpitate with undue force at one moThe markets scarcely promise returns as large this year, ment, and at the next was scarcely to be felt, (I had had although we doubt if the produce of the farm could bave ciently to swell out the body as it ought, (I had the same
the same,) and his breath did not inflate the Jungs suffibeen put to any other use so remunerating. A letter re experienee,) and I determined in any own mind that my ceived from John JOHNSTON, while these notes were in horse was living the same kind of death that I had risen course of preparation, says: “Catile won't pay for feed- from. I treated him for dyspepsia-cured him in three ing this winter, unless they advance materially from present lived in Massachusetts, and since bis case, have aided in
months—and for four years a healthier animal has not prịces; in fact they must meet with a serious loss who have restoring a dozen others to health that were similarly disbeen selling of late, and what is worse, I fear the drovers eased. Now for the treatment—but first let me refer to have also been losing. Sheep generally must have paid for the character of food be had been kept on. He came to feeding; the high price of pulled wool has kept up the price me, green from Vermont, where hay (and but an occaof sheep. I seldom or never sold sheep higher per pound sional feed of oats) was his ration. I placed him on cut than this spring, but I fed higher and they cost me high; appetite for, and on which for a year he seemed to thrive,
feed, (hay and corn meal mash,) which he had a glorious still they pay for what they have consumed, and I always although worked hard. Towards the close of his first allow the manure made by them to be worth a dollar per year of civilized life, I noticed a degree of languor at "sheep."
times that was so entirely inconsistent with his ordinary A favorite food with Mr. Winne for horses, is rye and elasticity of spirit, that I was apprehensive that all was not oats ground together in equal proportions, and nised with well with bim. This was followed by the development cut hay wetted; it fits a horse for work, he says, better than incident in the association of cause and effect—but to the
described by your correspondent, and I refer to it as an 5 anything else, and he believes four bushels of grain ground remedy. I cooked lis hay by steaming, and instead of
to be fully equal to five whole. As above stated, he also corn meal used fine feed-one quart to each feed of mash grinds and cuts the feed of cattle or pigs, but never for with twenty of the little Belladonna pills of Homøopa, sheep-giving them straw and hay, as well as ginin, in its thists, three times a day for three days, giving him water natural bulk.
" but once in twenty-four hours, and that late in the eve
ning. I followed this with cut hay, and fine feed (one A Hint.— It would be worth more than the price of quart at each feed three times per day,) and added a tea. your valuable paper, to many, to have their attention spoon of mustard seed for one week, then substituted called to the fact that to pitch mannre containing long ground oats with same quantity of mustard seed for fine straw or cornstalks, they will save much time and hard feed in the mash for a week, all this time barely exereising labor by cutting the heap of mannre with a hay-kvife, in him around the bouse. I then put him to his work, using the same way that we cut a cheese of pomace at a cider double quantity of ground oats, xiz: two quarts to each mill. This treatment does away with the objection to feed, and from that time forward to the present, he has cornstalks in the inanure heap--consequently to that of not lost an hour from liis work on account of sickness, feeding them in the barn.
P. P. PECKHAJI. and weighis nearly 1400 lbs. 2 in fact, is esteemed one of Bradford Co., Pa.
the best working horses in the State.
tau liur! Item2 *T90
1860.223 dor notalsas 3 mm.1500 - THE CULTIVATOR.
79 ; sidorn 290ound you depoil has bed107 19idud DE of setingite [For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.} and erit titie ohange dem tristh simiga siv, BALLOON FRAMES---III no 1945. brush W 2930437W 7 b.la
The Balloon Frame is one of those innovations, which, like the sewing machine, the husking machine, and the 41
O syge in 20 apple-pater, is destined to put an end to those social gather-OES inge, which, in by-gone days, assembled to accomplish by ti srivit united efforts that which by the advent of machinery is now performed with far greater ease and rapidity,
Balloon Framing is not, however, a manner of effecting 1990 19111 by machinery what luas formerly been done by hand, but.
Fig. 2.--Hevation section manner of Fig 3.–Upper edge op 18 eiabraces a series of improvements in the art of building, nailing—A. corner stud, 4 by B. joist-E. stud. Muren which time and experience have shown to be thoroughly
joist, 5 by 3-C. 2 by 4. practical--that which has hitherto called out a whole neigh- all the timbers above the first floor joists are ripped from borhood, and required a vast expenditure of labor, time, common 19 inch floor plankthus make studding, ceiling noise, lifting, hoisting, and the attendant danger, can, by joists, and rafters, 14 inches by 5 inches. Min ji bus will the adoption of the balloon frane, be done with all the For large barns storehouses, &c, larger sizes will be quietness and security of an ordinary day's work. A man ending withs by botuar dhe power necesibile proto orijentace twenty men would ou an old fashioned frame.
ing, is more than is ever practically applied to any store.
de 3d tipp Suppose we compare the heavy, cumbersome bam frame house. tenong, bulging sides and broken-backed roof Santere strength, particularly so if put on diagonally, it may be sve one single mark of improvement? Has 50 years ad- done outside or inside, though on the whole the inside is vanced the art of building frames? What change is there preferable. If done outside, it should be carried over the for the better?
sill and nailed to it; the sill being wider than the studding, - What is demanded, is something in keeping with the in order to get a larger bearing on the masonry, and the progressive spirit of the day. We want really better and floor joists being in the way, does not admit of inside lin, stronger frames, and we want them to cost less. If our ing being put on in the same manner. Close or continuous houses, þarns and out-buildings can be built for less money, lining is not necessary for strength, but for dwelling houses and be just as good, as convenient, and as safe, it is au adds much to the warmth. Large buildings, not used as improvement that will suit us.
dwelling houses, can be sufficiently well braced by diagonal do The Balloon Frame answers these requirements. It has strips of 1 inch board, 6 inchies wide, nailed to the studlong since ceased to be an experiment; and where its ding inside, 6 feet apart. Where vertical siding is used, principles are understood, no other style of frame is used. these same strips can be put on same nianner out
run over the sill and nail to it. Between the strips on the sill, nail an inch board, and it is then ready for upright or battened siding. Small out-buildings, barns, &c., do not require any diagonal bracing
Every stick of timber in a balloon frame not only lias a weight to support, but its tensile and compressible strength, which theoretically is 11,800 pounds per square inch of its end area, is taken advantage of. This is not the case with the old style of frame. A balloon frame looks light, and its name was given in derision by those old fogy mechanics who had been brought up to rob a stick of timber of all its strength and durability, by cutting it full of mortices, tenons, and auger holes, and then supposing it to be stronger than a far lighter stick differently applied, and with all its capabilities unimpaired.
The balloon frame has been known in the newer sections of our country for many years; it has been tested and found to stand the test. It is not, nor cannot be patented; there is no money to be made out of it except as a public benefit in which all share alike.
The following are some of the advantages claimed for it:
1. The whole labor of framing is dispensed with.
3. to b. Fig. 1. -Isometrical Perspective View of the Balloon Frame, 4. Any stick can be removed and another put in its des The engraving shows a portion of a Balloon Frame, place without disturbing the strength of those remaining
drawn in isometrical perspective. This is sufficient to in fact the whole building can be renewed, stick by stick. show the whole manner of construction, the other parts of 5. It is adapted to every style of building, and better the building being a repetition. The manner of securing adapted for all irregular forms. the different timbers is shown in figs. 2 and 3—the nails 6. It is forty per cent. cheaper than any other known being driven diagonally, and in a manner to secure the style of frame. On greatest amount of strength.
7. It embraces strength, security, comfort, and economy.. The sizes of the different pieces of timber in a frame of Architects, builders, mechanics, and practical men, are this size, are sills 3 by 8-corner studs, 4 by 4-other respectfully invited to prove the contrary. studding, 2 by 4-plate, 1 by 4–side strips, or side girts, 1 by 4-rafters, 3 by 6, or 2 by 5 will do-collars, i by
Architect and Civil Engineer, 835 Broadway
, n. Y. 4floor joists, 8 by 8, or may be 2 by 7. Rafters, studding, and jeists, are 16 inches between centers. JPO
IF Officers BAINBRIDGE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY for
e meno 2. Small buildings of this cliaracter, not calculated for 1860:
i wedi gibso? beavy storage, may have all timbers two feet between cen
40 brolhord ters. Small buildings of one story, as tool-houses, grana
Secretary and Treasurer-Joseph Juliand, 20.
Directors-Charles Bixby, Walter Higly, Daniel Bristol, John F ries, cottages, &c., will be perfectly strong and secure, if Landers, Reuben Searles, Charles P. Kirby.
e VW Transit 16 odr
CALLANAN'S, TRENCHER. of obviating the trouble of turling the teams when there
is the trench between them and i fence close at their heads. E The difficulty in the way of accomplisiving the We have not space to speak at present more al length DRAINAGE ' of Qur' farms more perfectly; 18 of a double upon the merits of this invention. By promoting the rakind: the labor required in excavating
avating either for 'tile or I pidity of the operation it does a great deal'; by enabling stone is not only expensive, but ordinary farm workmen the fartier to put any laborer at work who can handle havé uot had the experience necesagry, to do it well. It shovel
, it does still more, and in the saving of labus and is a task which they almost uniforinly undertaké with bad the anticipations of its inventor. A team or two, accord
money, as well as of time, it seems to us to justify entirely grace, on the one hand, and which on the other is quite ing to the soit, can be employed for an liour in the mornas often sliğlted if let olit at contract, except mider care: ing in loosening up as muely as there are hands to shorel "ful wrtching; in any event it is a protracted, tedious and out during the forénoon or during the day, if the horses castly prelude to the advantages which the farmer, is told or oxen are required for other work o or if it is to be done
on a large scale, a heavy force of inen; with their aid, must she is going to secure when once the water is fairly come its be able to go over the ground with wonderful rapidity, as
way out of the soil. For 4.2.1(1.noijali31197 "93 compared with the slow process of hand labor. Mr. c. 2W We have already alinded castálly to a Hew&battivatice has also a contrivance for filling draines somewhat simitar
for facilitating the operation of Difaining, which has now to a reversed snow plow, which does it work comipletely, Bedri "so' far perfected that we think we thay reasonably as easily as a plow would turn in one farmiw, and which is
hope from results of considerable importance." Mr. also of use in leveling the surface of a field, by filling bol• acon vert to be theory of thorough "drainage some years ago to a paret clay, and we were assured that the Frencher here
A part of land rests "upon a stiff and began in 1853 to carry it into practice. He entered accomplistics an equal saving, while its work is done still upon the manufacture of tile at that time mainly for the more neatly than among the stánes, where we saw it tried. sake of securing what he wanted for his own use; and, The farm comprises sone 200 acres, with a work-shop and from then until now, he has been adding to the extent of forge; 'where Mr. C. bas had a number of machitres conthe underground channeling of his farm, until he has laid structed to supply the orders of those who have seen its in all something like nine miles of tile beneath its surface. operation last autumn and this spring. His address, we
The obstacles with which he had to contend in performs may add to save farther inquiries, is Callanan's Comers, ting this labor and in getting it done, were such as to set Albany Co.
to thinking how they might be more advantagcously There is much that we should like notice, if our kiufts encountered. After numerous experiments, the resulting permitted, in Mr. O.'s general farmi-operations. Alliðagh invention has taken its present form; and we introdnce it still a young man, he is entitled to rank as one of the histost to the notice of our readers thus prominently, because Mr. thorough and enterprising fariners in the county.ouvu sri3 C. is not by trade a manufacturer of implements or å
i lo $719337 speculator in patents, and, having no interest whatever ourselves in his invention-except as it may become a
mavit store matter of benefit to the public, we wish to lighten if possible the labors of those who are now engaged in drain. are inclined to think that FARMERS' Clubs are beginning
T Quietly progressing in numbers and inÄuence, we ing, and to do anything we can to put the process within the reach of others who have not as yet begun.
to assume an importance they have never before possessThe object of Callanan's Trencher is to loosen the ed. In some parts of Massachusetts, "and in one or two ground so that it can be rapidly shoveled out. As the counties in this State, we might point to several examples patent is not yet secured, we defer a complete description of excellent management and remarkable prosperity. In. until hereafter, but may say that by cutting down at both deed our attention has been particularly attracted to the sides of the ditch, and having also a third cutter in the middle, it detaches the soil to be thrown out, and tho- subject by the receipt of a number of copies of the Greenroughly loosens it, to the depth of from 8 to 10 inches at field (Mass.) Courier, in one of which alone we find inonce in the upper soil
, and to a proportionately smaller ex- teresting and valuable reports of the proceedings of four tent at each passage through the harder substances below. different clubs—those of Greenfield, Ashfield, Bernardston We visited Mr. C.'s farm last week for the purpose of sewing, and Heath. Another contains a report from the Wapping its operation in a field which he is now preparing to drain. The sub-soil at a depth of from 10 to 12 inches, was a Farmer's Club, and we do not know but there are still complete "hard-pan"--perhaps more than a third of it others beside these five in that same region.
+ 329 that stones of various sizes, so compactly packed in togetlier JAMES S. GRENNELI., Esq., Secretary of the Greenfield nó digging could have been done withogt a pickaxe, and Club, to whom we are indebted for the papers alluded 10, 9 many of the stones so large that it would be a long and has taken a great interest in organizations of the kind, arduous task to dislodge and remove thom by hand... aud by lectures before them, as well as letters through
The form of the cutters or teeth in this instrument, the press, has been laboring earnestly to promote the which are steel pointed, is such as to keep them constant- agricultural advancement of his locality. A Farmer's ly in the ground at their work. When we came to the Clubs
, to tell the truth, may often fail-not for lack either hardest of the sub-soil, it was a good pan for two teams to of the right materials in ample quantity, or of a spirit of scratch out three or four incles ovens, buit it was success harmonions co-operation, but simply because, like a well fully accomplished; upon coming toʻa boulder to firmly made watuli lying idle, it is not properly wound up; and fixed to be moved at once, the return of the Trencher, fortumate is the onb which, with intelligence and kindly striking it on the other side, in no case failed to complete feeling, includes also' antong its members. some who are its dislodgment. Several of the stones were split and bro- willing to be ever on the alert to do this winding. It is *ken as though a 'crowbar had been employed, and we a task which cannot be accomplislied once for all, but rewatched the process with increasing satisfaction until the quires al frequent exercise of the faculties and taet, that ditch was from 30 to 36 inches in depth...
interest may never flag, and some good be constantly The width and length of the cutters can be adjusted at developed." pleasure, and the whole is so perfectly simple and strong Kindred in some degree to Farmor's Clubs, are associa
that there seems to be nothing farther to desire in either tions of another kind, which are also growing up, one by of these respects. As its weight is some 200 pounds, it one over the country. A prospectus before us affords a xwould be difficult to lift it out of the ditch for turning, but case in point that of the Homer Rural Improvement the horses or oxen themselves do this, while by making Association” in Cortland County. The -Objects of this the tongues detachable, Mr. C. has contrived an easy way Society,” are indeed worth copying, because it is now just