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the season of the year when simtlar bodies may be most time of the mediante el govern bree hours aving down the throne of

the animal, and also three quarts of gruel given in the same way twice seffectively organized. They are was admitrinda to * To improve the condition of the village of Homer and its green food the animat

writer further added, that in his own locaiity he had known arsenio 1. To beautify the Publte Park, by making and properly sustaining all to fail biut her apprehended it had been

wrongly hdministered," necessary and convenient walk aan de overhenti shrubbery and

Another gentleman present, Dr Stronge,

had known of threo 95. fpur

doses" of By making such other improvements from time to tirge as shall be four times a day," "and seen it arsenic given three or

greatest possible deemed useful and practicable, BIL. To imprdre and beautify the whole town and vicinity:

use To "He thought it in all cases of great importance that 1 By encouraging and aiding where necessary, the plan ing of shade the first symptoms of the disease should be detected, and By securing the removal from puplic places and highways, any pox

that further investigations should at once be made into its ious reeds and other puisances, that may detract from the beauty of real eharaefer, et au divna, 9.1 9.1; In To encourage the introduction into the town, by exchanges and

Was that it was fever that went on for several days, and fruits, &c 911 In addition to the annual meetings, three other stated Fionner untitman having suggested that there should be no

en una based

the memed, the disease ** as theft almost incurable." meetings are provided for EN 1: A Spring Gala day on the saturday preceding the 1st of May, for haylofte sin

tenttle sheds, with the view of promoting betGeneral tree planting and for such oblier exercises as the offioens inny ter ventilation, Dr. S. Wad no doubt that this would operate appoint

2. A Sammer Festival in Jutie, Y A Fall Floral and Fruit Festival

the usenic remedy to act so favorubly until some thing aj The concluding provision is also an important ones es þetter, was discovered this course of treatment was -LA tree plantinks in Attie Public Park and along the highways ris doubtedly the most rational. among the most proming blant at least one tree or shrub annually, in rom the regarks that followed we infer that this dis.

objects of this Society, it is made the duty of each male inember to t such places as the pligen mag director sit

ease is spreading in Ireland, and that it was carried there 9. Both these subjects have been passed by from week originally by importation.

: si w te week under the pressure of other matters, until it is 9 il .991TTTTTT

ni ugod bas now too late to give to them with advantage thespace which is Western N. N. Ag. and Mech. Association, s 1 at one time we hoped to have douie. Spring with its labors in is already upon us, and another sowing and ceaping, will soon A meeting was held at Rochester pursuant to nobave been numbered with those of years, gone-by. But tiče, March 18, for the purpose of inaugurating a.“ Westowe should like to bespeak the assistance of our correspondents another autumn, in discussing the best plans for

ern New-York Agricultural and Mechanical Association." Farmers' Clubs, and to elicit then from those that have From the report in the next day's papers, we learn that e been successful, any experience that is likely to prove ad-Gen. Jacob Gould of Rochester, was chosen President, and

Fantageous to younger bodies. Who will take a little Jacob Hinds, Orleans ;- C. K. Ward, Geneseę; J. E. Patpains to collect for us during the summer some facts as to terson, Monroe, Orange Sacket, Livingston ; Wm. S. the number of such organizations in active operation, their Clark, Ontario, and C. B. Rogers, Wayne, Vice Presidents

of system of proceedings, times of meeting, &c. ? We, and we think our readers, too, would be greatly obliged for the meeting. A number of speakers took part in the dissuch information, and it could not fail, toward the close of cussions that ensued. the active labois of the year, to produce an excellent effect

On motion of P. Barry, a committee of five, consisting of the follow. in providing new means of improveinent for the quieter Amicultural. Ilorticultarat and Mechanical Society for Western New

ing gentlemen. was appointed to present a plan of organization for an months. Those who appreciate

Farmer's Clubs will

please York, and report at the opening of the afternoon session : P Barry. not permit us to forget the cause, five or six months. Monroe Martin Bris Monroe : P. P. Bradish, Geriesee; R. B. Pier:

son, ; MMonroe hence, and we shall hope at that time to put them The Report of this committee, presented in the afterin the way of doing much good unto others.

noon, mentions anjong the peculiar features which it is

desired to present in the new association, the continuance PLEURO-PNEUMONIA IN CATTLE. of its shows for a longer period than has heretofore been

customary, and “connecting with them a Fair for the salo REF The recent supposed appearance of a contagious and exchange of farm stock, implements, machinery, &c." Pleuro-Pneumonia among cattle in Massachusetts, renders They distinctly repudiate, as several speakers had preany additional light that can be thrown upon the subject viously done, "any appearance of antagonism to the State at this time particularly acceptable. Even if the disease Society.”... They recommend that appeared was not that which has occasioned so much more els perisa Norte de Rochester, to have a capital of at least

the plan of a Joint Stock Association, to be designated the Western Joss in other eountries, or if, being the same, it has al. 840,000 to shares of ¢16 each; to obtain a charter from the State: to ready mostly passed away,-it will still be advantageous. Procure Centre one hundred acres of suitable land for Show Grounds, Dow to place on record any thing that can be learned from of articles in the varions departments." its ravages abroad, in order that we may be prepared to ted. ifrom the remarks of D.D. T. Moore, Esq. of the

After some spoeches pro and con, this report was adopgive it a proper reception if it should come among us Rural New-Yorkel; the design entertained is apparently to hereafter.

merge the present County Society in the new Association. 5°1 Col. B. P. JOHNSON has received through the Russian Whether Ontario and other neighboring counties are to Consul General at New York, M. DE NATTHIEK, a quarto imitate Monroe in this respect, is not stated. They are l volume of over a hundred pages, printed at St. Peters- expected, however, to subscribe towards its support. Mr. burg in 1854, containing an official report upon the sub- Barry was careful to point out that no idea of rotation ject, with two colored plates. As this is in German, and from one point to another in Western New-York could be extends over ground so wide, we pass it by for the pre-entertained for a moment. We have no doubt that there sent, but if further examination renders it expedient, shall are resources enough in that region of country to render endeavor at some future period to review the facts and the new Society

, the most flourishing and successful local recommendations it on 104105409) W den organization in the State, and it now seems to be in the 21. We are also indebted to Col. Jo for a copy of the "Jour right hands to call these resources into activity. nal of the Chemico-Agricultural Society of Ulster,.". Ireland, for February. From the proceedings at the January


President-ADDISON P. JONES. meeting of the Council, we learn that Dr. Hodges had re- | Vice Presidents--Lewis Sherrii, Burton G. Morss, Elijah P. Bushnell. rceived a letter from the county. Tyrone, stating that its Prentiss W. Hallenbeck, Lucias Pond,

Treasurer-Danforth R. Olney.

W 1998 rodo ads swriter " bad never lust an animal by the disease, and that Secretary-loratio L. Day.

13.0097 9e9du lo the only medicine he administered was arsenic."

Directors - Thoinas R. Holcomb, Horace B. Kirtland, John Veeties. ziri+'He mixed Ave gralds of it with white sugar, and gave a teaspoon- Isaac J. Van Allen, Luke Roe, Edward Johnson. od ads Ba| 10: 81

Its son sifat



May, boog endada rien 9108 foiz toga Tot A A PEACH BORER---Egeria Exitiosa.k" The remedy that I will now advance may not prove in

fallible everywhere, but it has succeeded well with me, and EDITORS Co. GENT ---Every one who has cultivated the has fully convinced me that this plague, as well as others of peach must be familiar with the mischief done the trees like nature, can be most successfully overcome by me. by the larvæ or worm of this beautiful insect. Without chanical processes. We know that in the case of the plum, going into a long scientific description of the male or jarring the tree bas been decided to be, thus far, the most female larvæ, the pupa and follicle, which would be inter effectual preventive of the ravages of its great enemy. My esting only to the entomologist, I shall merely remark that plan is to give the peach trees a thorough hand worming the insect or fly which lays the eggs on the tree might be in June, then to pack the clay (which in planting was taken for a wasp. The ouly difference consists in its not thrown from the bottom of the holes) firmly around the having the divided body, which, in the fencale of this in, trunk, from six inches to a foot in height, conically, and sect, is of a very dark steel-blue, with a purplish tinge and hoe it away again in October. I had this mowding opera a yellowish band across the body about two-thirds of the tion performed about two years ago, (neglecting, however, way down, being provided with two blue wings, and two to remove the clay until last fall,) when in about 1,000 half blue and half transparent. The male is all blue, with trees we found but three worms! The rationale is this the transparent wings." They are rarely seen, and when 'scen insect requires and searches for tender bark on which to are ever in an active and restless state. In eighteen years lay its eggs, and to find tlis will remove loose soil at the I have not seen half a dozen; but that is not material

base of the tree for half an inch and even an inch down. the worm is the principal obj of interest, and he may when the base is thus mounded they find nothing but be found on the root of almost any peach-tree, varying in hard bark-another is then tried, when finding things in number from one to a dozen or more, Eighteen years the same condition, they finally abandon the field alto ago I planted 2000, of these trees, and having already gether. It is but seldom we find worins above ground in heard something of this destroyer, thought it must cer, the hard bark, although they do sometimes resort to the tainly be an casy matter to head him, and without regard forks of the main limbs where the bark is tenderer, but one to the numerous preventives prescribed by the knowing there is soon detected. ones, began with an original experiment, which consisted Now, as above stated, I do not put this forth as an inin binding strong paper about the lower part of the trunks, fallible remedy applicable to all climates, soils, aud situawhich, in order to prevent the destructive effects of tions; but it has succeeded in iny case, and being both weather, I painted on the outside with coal-tar, that gene- cheap and simple, certainly deserves a trial. rally supposed bane of the inseet-world. Haviug treated Mt. Carmel 0.

T. V. PETICOLAS: about 200 of the trees in this manner, I resorted to the old methods with the remainder-putting ashes about

(For the Country Gentleman And Cnitisator.) soine, dosing soine with lime, painting some a foot high

SCRATCHES IN HORSES. with coal-tar, and planting others around with that sovereigns't remedy of all-tansey. But it was all in vain; the I frequently see articles in the agricultural and other eggs would be laid and the cruel work go on,

papers headed " A Cure for Seratehes in Horses," in which If there was any desirable difference in the vigor of the a great variety of remedies are recommended. Some of attack, I fancied it to be in favor of those to which the them have the appearance of being based upon scientific lime had been applied; though I believe the paper and principles, wbile a majority partake more of quackery than tar treatment would have proved effectual could it have

One man calls it a local disease, and been preserved, but in most cases it was sufficiently gone treats it with a variety of ointments and washes; another by fall to permit the deposit of the eggs; for it must be says it is constitutional, and drenches his horse with all remembered that this insect lays two distinct crops of sorts of nostrums. Thus they jog along, no two agreeing eggs, one in June and the other in September, and hence in regard to the nature of the disease, its eause, or its the only certain preventive is one that will be active be treatinent. This diversity of opinion bas induced me to fore and after these months. Now, with all respect for give my experience, that others may be saved the vexathe general belief in the virtues of coal-tar in such cases, I tious disappointments which the majority of these “artiwould advise every one to let it alone. I have killed both cles" will encourage. apple and peach trees with it, and not, as may be sap: portion of my father's horses as my part of the chores,"

While yet a lad, I had charge during the winters of a posed, from any poisonous quality in the tar, but simply because being black it becomes such a powerful absorbent and the first indication of the scratches would send me of heat as literally to bake that portion of the bark which delving in the pages of Mason, or Hinds, or “Every Man it covers. If any one would test this, let him place his his own Doctor," to find a remedy, and when found 1 as hand on the side of the tree any time in June or July and eagerly applied it. What was the result? Well, to tell he will know why coal-tar kills trees about which it is the truth,” I did not have very good success; for if they used. To be sure, the latter-day practice of low-limbing healed they would soon appear again, and as might be ex. does much to obviate this difficulty, and yet I have long pected, I was lead to believe it constitutional, and turned been convinced that the popular idea that powerful and to dosing the poor animals with like effect. And thus bé. disagreeable odors have any terror for the insect tribe, is tween eight or ten horses, I was pretty sure of having one a popular error; they either have no olfactories at all, or

or more patients on my hands nearly the whole time. You what they have are exceedingly limited in the capacity of can imagine my disappointment, and I abandoned all discriminating

applications, "threw physic to the dogs," and commenced Tar is, doubtless, useful in keeping off rabbits, &e., but had no trouble with the scratches.” It is something over

to keep my horses' legs clean; since which time I have it should be mixed with sufficient whitewash to give it a twenty years since I have made au -application or given a color resembling the bark.

dose of medicine for this disease, and though I have had A correspondent of the Scientific American in a late no. more or less borses during the whole time, I have had no recomniends coal-tar to be used at the base of plum trees difficulty in keeping my horses free from this malady, unas a preventive of the curculio, but he does not seem to less I trusted them to other hands to groom. know that that insect has wings. I tried that same plan many But I have said enough; and now for my course of years ago, when the opinion prevailed that the carculio treatment-both preventive and cure. It is simply this: was too sluggish to fly, and although it did not kill

the when grooming the horse, lo clean his legs and heals with trees outright, wherever the sun bad access, there the bark a common horse brush, "I do not stop brushing when the was destroyed. Boiling water will kill the peach-worm, thickest of the dirt is off, but continue to brush until the bnt the tree goes with them.

hair and skin are perfeetly clean. This is done every Caustic lime packed around the root, and then watered, morning, and as I have already suid, I am never troubled has been recently prescribed, but if beat enough is thus with their appearance. I now owo a liorse, which when generated to cook the worns, you may depend upon losing purchased two years since, was badly troubled in this way, the tree at the same time.

and had been for three years previous to my personal

CODmon sense.

knowledge. With my usual care in cleaning, he was re-examine the udder and see if it is not sore, when she has good tieved in the course of ten days or two weeks, since which reason to do so, and attention should be directed to the case time there has not been the slightest appearance of "the at once; even then she should be milked gently; slowly or seratches.”

fast, as appears best; fand, by the way, in ordinary milk5. Nor would I advise washing the sores with castile soap ings the faster it is done the better ; by all means milk with as is generally recommended, because it is rarely done as considerable rapidity on many accounts. If the cow kicks it should be, and the same end can be attained. by brush- when her uddor is not sore, it iust be owing to previous rudeing, unless ointments have been applied. And wuless the persuasion. If the animal is wild, and has lately coine into

ness of treatment, and should be overcome by gentleness and soap is perfectly rinsed off, and the legs rubbed until they your possession, baving become in other hands an inveterato are perfectly dry, the washing

is positively injurious. I kicker, do not discard hor at once. We have known the most would say to all," take the brush and try that, and if it desirable cows to be addicted to this habit

. She only requires, operates in other hands as it has in mine, they will be in adultion to the above gentle treatment, which should indeed satisfied with the result.".

never forsake the milkman or waid in their management of Some may ask, “What is your theory--the modus cattib, under any circunstances -(kindness and attention to Operandi-of the brushing ?” if there are any such, to his abimals being a great resource and a continual reward to them I would say, " throw both theory and modus oper stunds in an easy position-not bound together tight or strained,

the farmer) try that the hind legs be tied to cach other as she accompanied by a senseless and unintelligible theory, as been so many people come valuable


, yielding a large quan sandi to the dogs," and not discand a fact because it is not but separated at the usual distance when untied. Many have is too often done risiko 3 I intended to have spoken of the too common practice lity of milk, aud very docile and quiet. of dosing horses to keep them healthy," but find my article is already too long, land refrain. Not a V. S.

(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) We hope the writer will resume this subject, as the

TRANSFERRING BEES. proper treatment of horses is one which needs discussion.

Messrs. Edirons--I see in the Co. Gent. of Jan. 5, that

some one wishes information in regard to driving bees, or CAULIFLOWERS.

whether it is possible to move them from one hive to another. The Gardener's Chronicle, London, quotes from a German I will give solue of my experience the past season. paper the following description of the method used by the In May last I purchased the right to use the Langstroth Dutch to obtain their Cauliflowers, which are famous for their got that live, cause to see me, as he had heard and read

bee-hive. Shortly after, one of my neighbors, bearing I had size and delicacy :

about them, and also that bees could be moved from the old * In the autumo they dig deep some ground that has not been box bive into them, and to see the experiment tried. He manured; at the beginning of May they sow the large Eng- offered to give me a culony of bees in one of the box hives, if lish Cauliflower upon a bed of manure, and cover it with straw I would move them into the Langstroth. So I got my bive mats at night. When the young plants are 3 or 4 inches high, ready and started to my neighbor's, with doubts in my own thoy karrow the ground that had been prepared the autumn mind as to the result, as I had never seen anything of the before, and with a wooden dibble, 18 inches long, they make kind myself, but the experiment was entirely successful. holes about 10 inches deep, at proper distances apart, and en. Now the way it was done was this. I took the hive conlarge them by working the dibble round till the hole at the taining the bees some five yards from where it stood, and top is about three inches in diameter. They immediately fill turned it bottom upwards, and placed over it an empty hive these holes with water, and repeat this three times the same of corresponding size, after which I gently drummed the bot. dny. In the evening they fill them with sheep's dong, leay. tom hive with a couple of small sticks, for about fifteen ing only room enough for the young plant, which they very minutes, when I found the bees had all ascended to the top carefully remove froin the bed of maiure, and place in the hive. I then set it on a sheet and tied it up. I then cut the bole with a little earth. Directly afterwards they give them combs loose from one side of the kive, and with a saw blade a good watering, and as soon as the sun begins to dry them, forced of the side of the hive, took out the combs, fitted them water them again. Furthermore, as the plants grow, they into the moveable frames, adjusted them in the hive, and dig round them and earth them up in rows. When the head closed it up all but the entrance. I then placed the new hire is forming, they pinch off some of the lower leaves of the on the old stand. I took the hive containing the bees, and plant, and use them to cover the young head.

shook thein out on a cloth, and with a large feather swept

them gently toward the entrance of the hive. In a very (For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.)

short time they all went in. Since then I have transferred CLEAN MILKING OF COWS.

fifteen colonies froin old hives in the same way. I have also

moved two colonies together, with their combs and stores, from One of the most common improprieties of dairy mannge-hollow trees-one of them the 19th of the present month. ment, and one of the secrets of success in butter making, lies

Zucks Co., Pa.

11. M. TWINING. just here. It is well established that the last drawn gill is nenrly all cream, and when one of these little measures of

(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) milk are left in the adders of several cows, say ten, as is often

COTTON SEED MEAL. done, ao less than a quart and half a pint of the richest milk is lost every morning aed eveniag, a perfect waste, and more Eps. Co. Gent, I have been using the above, for cows than a waste; for if this were all the matter would not be so bad that gave milk, through the winter and thus far in the as it really is ; but leaving milk in a cow's bag has a most de- spring, viz., one farrow cow and two that are coming in some leterious effect upon the cow, causing her gradually to produce time in May, which I have before let go dry through the a less amount to such a degree in the end, that it becomes clear. winter, but see no prospect of their being dry as long as ly inanifest in a period of two or throe months that there is a I feed three pints of cotton seed meal to each per day. rapid falling of, and cows, naturally good, are much injured, to say the least. This neglect is fruitful of garget and other ! took six bushels of oats, three of corn, and two of rye disease, and, if long continued, the cow never recovers her had them ground together, trying that first, three pints full milking powers. This matter is worth more than a each per day, which increased the quantity, but by putting casual thought, and every effort should be made, without into the feed three pints of cotton seed meal it nearly being severe upon the animal, as the thing can be accom- doubled the quantity, besides adding materially to the plished with the utmost ease by a good milker, to milk cows ty, six quarts making one pound of good sweet butwell and perfectly. If the cow is disposed to hold up her ter. Cows doing better as it regards flesh, than I bave milk for any reason, do not leave her side at on. To guard against this, it is a very good plan to adopt ever had them. Begin with a little in bran or any feed the practice of feeding with great regularity at the time of you use, as they do not like it at first, but will soon be milking.

very fond of it, stirring it in cold water. I intend trying Regularity in feeding is very importants. Mír. Stephens, in it with calves by scalding it, and have no doubt the effect the Farmer's Guide, relates on instance of serious falling off will be advantageous. I say to brother farmers, try it till áo the product of a dairy, resulting from a single failure to higher than $1.75 per cwt. JUDSON WADSWORTH, feed at or near the usual time, If a cow is inclined to kick, West Winsted, Conn.






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foar bh. I gribliud THE WOODWARD GATE.”---For Parks Country Seats, Farms, &c. 1.900 Sestol is

10 110119979 9dt og eit Ens. COUNIRY GENTLEMAN-It perhaps never has uc

Dino 2 99981*. 20301291 bored curred to the gate-building community, and more espe cially those who are studying economy, that the well known principle of the Truss affords the best combination of strength, durability, and beauty.

In the application of the Truss to a gate, there is nothing new but the application. It is therefore unnecessary to advocate any of the good qualities claimed for the

1 Truss; they have been so thoroughly proved and adopted

IND in all the best forms of bridges and roofs, as to leave no doubt of its superiority. The enormous tensile strength

(Fig. 2.) 09387002 799017 9:nad of iron, being about 60,000 pounds per surface inch of

Fig. 2 shows a gate on the same prineiple, but double end area, being brought in opposition with the compressi- trussed, and with double braces, instead of halvinig braces ble strength of wood, renders a Truss almost as rigid and

into each other. They are used too, unyielding as a solid plate of iron.

one way from lower rail towards latch The figure at the head of this, illustrates the principle.

post, and one between running the oppoia In each panel are two braces of 2 by 4 stuff, balved edge

site way, as shown in fig. 3. These braut ways into each other, the ends of the braces resting

ces are of white pine, 1 inch squarepand! against small triangular blocks, as shown—the iron rods,

have proved to be all that is necessary. Iths to th inch in diameter, as may be required, pass

This gate, fig. 2, was erected for the Rev. through the top and bottom rail, and through the triangu

C. B. Wyatt, at New-Windsor on the lar foot blocks; the heads of these rods are countersunk entirely novel appearance, and unlike any other gate yet

(Fig. 3.) Hudson, in July, 1859. It presents an in the top rail, and are not seen in the engraving. Mortices are sometimes made at each corner of the gate, and

erected. are the only ones about it. Nails are entirely unnecessary. of gate required, from the plainest farm gate to the mag.

This principle in gate building is applicable to any kind The braces are all of equal length, and cut square at the nificent entrance gates of parks or country seats. It is end, the bevel being made on the foot bloek. The style of hinge shown in the above figure, is pecu- made elaborate and ornamental in a high degree.

susceptible of innumerable changes in design, and can be liarly adapted to this gate ; the rod next to the heel-post secures the hinge, as well as performs its duty in the truss, The other bolts in the hinge are carriage bolts, with nuts, and are every way better than ordinary screws or bolts, the extra cost being but a few cents. When the iron rods are tightly screwed up, each brace is held firmly in its place by compression, and does not need nailing or any other manner of security. The braces might have a small tenon or dowel on each end, or better still, if the triangular foot blocks were made of cast iron, with a small lip raised on each end, they would be necessarily secure. If the timber shrinks or works loose in any manner, it can be

(Fig. 4. )

o low bas brought back to place by turning the nuts. If the braces « Keewaydin," near Newburgh, N. Y.; braces halved

into Fig. 4 shows a farm gate erected in November, 1859, at

rfa ters, the gate can take no position in a vertical plane, but each other, and withont foot blocks. One day's work, 93 the one in which it is originally placed--it must always be though after a person has made one, he can make two in square at the corners. The only condition in which it can sag, is when a weight is applied sufficient to compress the small scale, have been failures; but with this application

Rustic gates, and rustio work generally, except on a

on) 1997 braces and extend the iron rods." If

, however, by the un- rustic work of any kind can be made immensely strong. not equal shrinkage of the timbers, or from any cause what For farin gates

, &c.,

nothing is cheaper, more appropriate, ever, the gate should sag, it can be easily remedied by unscrewing the nuts, and placing a thin piece of wood under

and durable. eaclu brace, running from lower rail towards lateh post; in is no patent

on it. It is merely a hint for those who know

The principle is not new, but the application is. There this manner the forward end of the gate can be raised, at how to appreciate a good thing when they see it. any time, as high as may be found desirable. Any brace may be taken out and replaced, and the whole gate rebuilt

Geo. E. WoonwARD, as fast as the timbers decay.

toodi Architeet and Civil Engineer, No. 29 Broadway, N. v. The work on this style of gate is but little, as most of

- 1897 aadaa the stuff is got out with square ends ; the cost of the iron

Western Hog-House and Corn Crib rods is about 30 cents each, and the labor saved is a good

OBUS was bad deal less than their cost; the cost of hinges, such as find the principle of Balloon Frames pretty well illus-999

Ens. Co, GENT. In the Co. Gentes of Dec. 15 last, we us shown, and the manner of securing them, is less than any trated by G. E. Woodward of the city of New-York. other equally as durable. Small horizontal rods, or any orna- The cuts and explanations there given, are worthy the lo mental arrangement, can be introduced to make it pig tight. careful study of all who ever intend to erect any frameb


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buildings. His descriptions and explanations are so plain The upper tier of joists are eight feet long and 2 by 9 that any man who can read figures on a square, saw a stick

inches, and rest on edge on the inor board off square at the end, and drive a nail with a

side oak slats, nailed and spiked to hammer, can put up the frame of all his barns, corn cribs,

the slats and studs. The rafters, hog-houses, sheds, stables, dairy-houses, and even the

13 by 5 inches, rest upon the narframe of his house, without a brace or mortice, no augur

row plate directly over each stud, or pin being needed. The tools necessary are a squave,

and also spiked to the inside row of saw, one paring chisel, hand axe, and hammer, with a

studs, which reach the rafters in the plano to plane the door and window casings for his out

center; Rafters projecting from buildings, and a leveler to level the sills. This may seem

plate 18 inches. Our frame is strange to some, but if they will look at the number of

now complete. Board vertically the Co. Gent. referred to, they can readily see how studs

- with planed boards, and batten. and joists can be put together, and make very substantial buildings. If I had had the information referred to, preerection of

in the bered regions, where small round timber is abundant, it 90 251097 A equipe A 3 may be well to follow the mortice and tenon praetice; but trips Phot bos ziures web de Diberia as a general thing most of our buildings are and must be 19 ani),2030. gustinusse low. 920 Vllaig made of sawed lumber, particularly in our great west. WL1702 120 od 10 EXIT to sign won Since receiving Mr. Wi's deseription of Balloon Frames,

und in demba 20 I have planned for myself a corn-crib and hog-house, doing start toiminees I which I send you, with a request that you will suggest such 771223 91019

motings # Jun gai alterations for the better as will be suitable to your long bomisis egipto 22 ha of experience.

69190 bar 199707

901 Von: 22:17 There are no improvements more needed in the west OT 9n of 100 lasitet Toegd Ils di than the proper storage of our large corn crop, and I can da ga slienos en

ORD Sdwch but revert to the too shameful waste in feeding it out. 2o 99817312 790 swois gaindogio suggest the following plan, hoping that it will be carefully ang POP bulan criticised and reported upon by others. I am no mechanic, bus 320 319) Bouw 10 having never built a building of any kind, but have a desire to see less waste and more profit among our western PANADI di farmers. The usual question is, how much do we raise ?

2 Pun97 39 al It should be rather, how much do we sare ? 7152249911 ei niille .798 9di 102 b93979 Pro Orls 110 muehai

Main Floor and Rooms. os ons on your

A. Feeding Rooms, 8 by 10 feet-B. Sleeping Rooms, 5 by 8 feet-01 1 211929 19 1 A

Entrance door for hogs-d. Blind

windows-E. Driveway, 30 by 10 ft, 197 9ing z9iAL

-F. Feeding Troughs.

For each feeding-pen and sleeping-room, put in a heavy blind, hung on hinges, to allow ventilation when opened or shut. Through this place the manure is removed from the pens. Lower floor made of two inch plank. Troughg and spouts of oak stuff. Other lumber can be all of pine.

For ceiling on the outside row of studs around the pens! and partitions, use inch boards, ceiling on each side of driveway 24 feet high. Doors 8 feet square, or double, fas-T ened in the center of each. One large glass window in each gable. The four pens will hold each from 6 to 8 common sized fatting bogs. The space over hog-rooms, will hold,

if 8 feet wide and 8 feet high and 30 long, 625 bushels of End View of Frame before Boarding.

corn in the ear on each side of the driveway. If more The building is 24 by 30 feet, resting upon four parallel corn is on hand and wants a shelter, nail a few narrow 31 walls (no walls are needed across the end)—well raised boards to the center and outside studs, just below the al from the ground. These walls should be laid with mortar plates-ceil up with any culls of boards, and put up the and well done, as we will have considerable weight for corn even against the rafters. Then if there is more com them to support before we get through. Our wall and still, take joists 2 by 9 inches, and put them over the d timber being ready, we will now commence to put it to-driveway, eight feet from the floor; lay on some loose is gether. Sills 2 by 6 inches, halved and nailed at the cor- boards, drive in the load and throw it up. Put in the ners. Two studs 4 by 4, for corners, and eighteen studs joists as you proceed, and a few of the last loads can be do 2 by 4 each, 12 feet long, with gains 1 by 4 inches, four put up while the team is out of the back door and the-p3 feet from each end for outside, and also one gain 1 by 4, wagon inside. Fill up, even to the very ridge. serw ai five feet from the lower ends for inside. Into these gains By this time we have a building 24 by 30 feet, 30 fatasto are put oak slats 1 by 4 inches, and nailed. On the ends, ting hogs, and about 2,000 bushels of corn. When you pe for upper part, nail ou a board 1 by 4 inches. Make an- wish to prepare corn for market, the corn-sheller is placed vs other to match. We now have the two outside bents in the alley, the corn shelled and sacked. Two men, with 10% Raise plumb and stay lath, The two inside rows of studs a good machine, will sack from 100 to 150 bushels per 19 or bents, made of studs 3 py 4 inches, and same distance day. The alley can also be used to put in many farming is apart of the outside rows. The outside or end ones, must tools, or even will make a good and convenient place for nie be 4 by 4; to these the doors are hung. Gains are cut i the carriages, sleighs

, &c. After the hogs are butchered by 4, five feet from the lower ends, into which are placed there will be room in the hog-rooms more than the store es oak slats to correspond with the outside slat. These studs hogs will need. There will be a fine place to shelter and are of sufficient length to reach and unite with the rafters feed calves.

i to jog a Mus era The end studding, 2 by 4, are now put up. The corners The amount of lumber, all in board measure, will bebor and door-posts 4 by 4, as already described, with slats as about 7,000 feet. Entire cost of materials, paint, & represented in the end view. adolna to Igroung on

about $140. As there are many a western farmer who orla The floor joists are 2 by 6, placed edgewise by the side fattens over thirty hogs, if he builds after this plan all he do of the studs, and spiked to the sills and studs. Nails has to do is to add in length to suit his convenience. Ind 496 driven as represented in annexed figure

Rock Island Co., Ili


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