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HINTS ON DEEP PLOWING.
deep. “Nearly half the crop was destroyed by grub That deep plowing is often very beneficial to many soils
worms; and the soil, being a close compact loam, the madoes not admit of a question among intelligent farmers.
nure under the sod was too inactive, so that the com The when and where is the only point of dispute. We
which did survive was backward in maturing." The next find in an English agricultural paper this subject discussed
year, the owner wishing to plant a piece of green-sward at some length, and think the points brought out will inter
adjoining, also infested by grubs, consulted Mr. H., who
advised as above. It was plowed in November, and in est and instruct American readers. We coudense them in the two following paragraphs, and add some facts from a
the spring harrowed lightly and then manured and crosspractical New-England farmer and writer. i .
plowed, turning under the manure from four to five inches Deep plowing is most effectual in the autumn, exposing
deep. The corn was planted in the usual manner, and soil to the influence of frost, rain and air, through the
produced a good crop. No traces of worms have been winter, which act upon the mineral ingredients of the soil,
seen, and the soil has been very mellow, and free from rendering them available for succeeding crops ; also, pul-1
grass and weeds, and easier to till every way than the verizing the soil and thus facilitating the passage of the
piece of the previous year. The subsoil was a close, lightroots into the subsoil. As regards the period of the rota
colored, clayey loam, bat by spring it bad changed to tion, it should precede root crops (or in this country, In
several shades darker color than when first exposed to the
air, and no doubt the good effects of this deep plowing will dian corn) or may be the first plowing for fallowing pre
pre last for many years. paratory to the wheat crop.
An instance of the renovation of old worn out plain Deep plowing is most beneficial to stiff clays, and, as a rule, we may plow deep when the subsoil is of the same
land by deep plowing accompanied by high manuring, is character as the surface soil, if both are tenacious, or when
given by the same writer:
| “The land had, for many years, been under the wasting the subsoil is composed of good clay, only requiring
18 effects of shallow plowing and severe cropping with rye, atmospheric influence to sweeten it. - Deep cultivation until at length it was quite exhausted, and abandoned to should be avoided on nearly all very light soils, and in pasturage, yielding a scanty herbage in the early part of plowing for crops after large applications of manure, thus the season, but becoming dry and sere by mid-summer, burying it too deeply, or in turning under clover or other and remaining so through the remainder of the year. My
friend found that the surface soil was of little or no account green crops. Deep plowing in autumn, on most clays, is!
any way, but thought there might be sonie hopes of making equal to a half dressing of manure. Clay from which the
productive land of the subsoil. He accordingly com. air is excluded, exhibits a dark blueish color. After drain- menced upon a piece of the tract, of about five acres, by ing, it is not advisable to bring up more than two inches at once putting in his universal sod and subsoil plow ten of clay subsoil at a time; otherwise more is brought up inches deep, in the month of November, and turned up a than the frost, &c., can fit for growing good crops.
subsoil of yellow loam, fine-grained and free from stone,
| and that had never before seen the day. In the spring Hon. F. HOLBROOK, writing of the advantages of deep | following the plowed land was manured broadcast, at the plowing on long cultivated soils, to the N. E. Farmer, says: rate of about twelve cords per acre, and cross-plowed with
" Where the land is of a close texture, with a strong a sharp steel plow, turning the manure under four or five compact subsoil, it is not unusual to find a better farm inches deep. The field was then harrowed, furrowed ou“ underneath, than that which has been worked so long and in rows each way, a tablespoonful of superphosphate pus 80 shallow on top. By breaking through this artificial in each hill, and the piece planted with corn. It yielded hardpan or crust, and bringing up a portion of the under about seventy bushels of shelled corn per acre, and the soil to the light of day and the influence of manure, the next year a good crop of oats, and is now well set in crops are by that operation considerably increased, even grass, for a mowing field. Other portions of the conthough no more than the customary quantity of manure demned old plain are now undergoing a similar process of per acre is applied. And if high manuring is practiced in deep plowing and high culture, with good results; and connection with the deeper cultivation, the crops will be this desert will doubtless soon blossom as the rose.” very much increased over what could be realized from the As we have remarked before, there can be no anestion old shallow plowing and artificial hardpan near the surface, accompanied by as high manuring. Then there is the dif
that a deep and fertile soil will produce much the largest ference, too, in the case of tilling the crops raised on deep,
and best crops. There must be room for the roots to go mellow land, as compared with those on hard, shallow down beyond the reach of a common drouth, and to find plowed land.
appropriate food for their use, and this is most largely If deep sod plowing is to be practiced, it is especially present in a deep and mellow soil. Deep plowing and desirable to do it in the autumn, that the atmospheric
high manuring will, on most soils, produce the profitable influences may ameliorate and modify the upturned sub-1 soil, preparatory to future cultiyation. Plow the green results, and as the present is a very favorable time for the sward in November, say eight to nine or ten inches deep, first, we hope these broken hints and gleanings will prove according to the quality of the subsoil. In the spring of service to our readers. spread a good coat of manure, which, if fine compost, can be sufficiently mingled with the soil and covered by the harrow and cultivator; or if coarse, can, by lightly cross
POTATOES-NEW VARIETIES. plowing, be turned under three to four or five inches deep, Editors Co. GENT. AND Cult.-For several years past according to the depth of plowing in the fall. If the
I have been interested in trying new varieties of Potatoes, plowing was, say nine inches deep, there will be no diffi
and have found none that have pleased me so well as culty in guaging a light plow, with a sharp share and
“Prince Albert” and “Davis' Seedling," both on account wheel on the beam, so as to cross-plow in the spring and
of productiveness and excellence, as well as freedom from cover the manure about four inches deep, without disturb
rot. I raised over two hundred bushels of “Prince Aling the sod underneath. Green manure, well covered that
berts" this year, the finest tubers I ever saw--their eating depth, will decompose readily, and be more active and
qualities unsurpassed; the yield being on a considerable effective on the succeeding corn or other hoed crop than
part of the ground planted (with ordinary cultivation) at if turned down under the sod.”
the rate of full four hundred bushels per acre. An instance is given where sod land was plowed in the I planted one peck of “Davis Seedlings "-putting from spring for corn, turning under the manure some six inches lone to three eyes in a hill, on land bighly manured, but
rather wet, the yield being twenty-eight bushels of per- It is only by means of a most abundant supply of water, fectly sound tubers-some hills nearly or quite filling a that so much solid matter may be carried out by means of peck measure. I think most varieties would have rotted this underground cartage. Of course the manure may be badly on this ground. The cating properties of this va- diluted in different degrees; it requires about fifteen tons riety are also first rate,
of water, I think I was told, to make one ton of the maThe above named varieties are white fleshed and on nure run easily, but in hot summer weather, when the account of their good qualities, great productiveness, and purpose is really one more of irrigation than of actual mamanifest freedom from rot, will eventually come into very nuring, as well as to obviate any danger from the too great general cultivation as market varieties. B. J. HARVEY. strength of the mixture, sometimes fifty hogsheads of water Adrian, Mich., Nov. 21. .
are admitted to one of manure. Not only does the water
thus float out all the stable accumulations, but whenever MORE ABOUT MR. MECHI'S MANURING. these fall short and guano is wanted, it is also sent by the
same road, and, still more strange, the carcasses of dead The following extract from our Foreign Notes, explains animals come likewise into this common receptacle. are Mr. Mechi's system of Liquid Manuring, to which allusion macerated by degrees, and pumped at length over the has been made in another column:
fields--so that at one time the tank actually contained, The first operation, as has been already intimated, is to says Mr.M., between 20 and 30 dead horses and cows. force a jet into the tank under the sparred or boarded During the winter, or upon fallow land, there is no danger floors. It thoroughly stirs up, dilutes and intermingles from the too great strength of the liquid, while in a dry the mass inere accumulated; and the whole runs off into time, on the contrary, it is perhaps true that the weaker the outside cistern-a structure 30 feet deep from the the solution, and consequently the greater its quantity, the crown of the dome which rises some feet above the ground. I better.'." and 30 feet in diameter at its widest part. The engine l ille ,'' force-pumps take the manure from the tank, and propel it' LW HARVESTING INDIAN CORN. through underground iron pipes over the whole farm, in
Although there has been considerable discussion upon the same way that the water in a city is carried around through its streets. A pipe of four inches diameter carries
the subject, I have noticed but one actual trial being made, it first a distance of several rods, where there is an air
and that has been published in nearly all of our agricul. chąmber to relieve and equalize the pressure; then three
tural papers, and the result was in favor of topping the pipes branch off in different directions, of threc-inch di
corn. So long as a difference of opinion exists in regard ameter, and distributing the liquid through hydrants, one
to the best mode of harvesting corn, farmers should be hydrant being allotted for every ten or twelve acres.
willing to give their opinions, even if they have not made They were employed in the irrigation of a field of rye
| an actual trial. That one way is the best under all circurngrass, containing eight acres, the day of my visit, and I
stances, we do not claim, although some editors as well as
farmers, think there is but one way. could have desired no better exemplification of the system. To the hydrant in the center of the field, is attached a hose
I was taught to cut the stalks, and practiced that mode long enough, with the force of the jet, to sprinkle over the
several years, and it was the usual custom among farmers whole area. A man, with the aid of a boy in moving the
in those days. But I have adopted the mode of cutting hose, &c. was giving all parts a most thorough wetting up my corn by the roots for the last few years, and and
satisfied it has several advantages over that of topping, or The droppings of the animals, instead of remaining to kill off the vegetation they chance to cover, are washed into
cutting only the portion of the stalks above the ears. In the surrounding earth by a minute's application of the
the first place the labor of cutting and binding staiks is
about the same as cutting and binding the whole; consestream. Seeds of all sorts, by the way, which get into this liquid manure, will do no harm when they come out
quently nearly one-half of the labor is saved by adopting upon the land, for a short saturation in the tank has been
the mode of cutting up by the roots. Again, the fodder
is worth nearly double, an item worth saving, especially shown to destroy their vitality. The vegetation around us Heems already to have received a new impulse of life
this season, where the hay crop is light, as it may save within the hour since it was showered, and yonder, where
many tons of hay in many cases. Most farmers fail in the hose is now in play, the herbage brightens up as it
stooking up corn, by making their stooks too small; acmight after a summer shower.
cordingly their fodder is injured much more. There is no
danger in putting fifteen to twenty-five bundles in a stook In 1858 this field was in wheat; I did not ascertain the lif put up right, that is by leaving a little space in the cenprecise yield obtained upon it, but the bailiff on consulting ter for the air to circulate-besides it will stand much his books for me, found that the average for the whole l better area under wheat upon the farm, was forty-six bushels per Many farmers also practice sowing winter rye upon their acre-rather a smaller production than a really good year corn ground, and by cutting it up it may be sown as soon will bring. In May, Italian rye grass had been sown upon as the corn is cut. I practice the following mode: I plow the wheat. After harvest it would probably have received and sow strips of land of sufficient width for stooks and an irrigation, and in March this year eleven bullocks, five at such distances as convenient, and stook it up as fast as horses and fifty sheep, began to feast upon it-continuing cut. Then the ground may be plowed and sowed between to graze here for three weeks. Then an intermission of a the rows of stooks at any time. Consequently you get fortnight was given for irrigation and growth; the stock |
your rye sown a number of weeks sooner than by the again admitted for about the same period as before, thus
Sother method-an important consideration. There is also terminating this second feeding about the middle of May. another mode adopted by a class of farmers called slovenly. After a fortnight of further respite, the third was begun; They let the whole remain in the field, and go round and it was nearly or quite concluded when I was there, and pick off the ears. If not worth anything for fodder, it the fourth was being urged along. The third feeding, would pay to cut and cart into the yard for manure. Behowever, was a longer and closer one than either of the sidest
sides they would be out of the way for the next crop. others, and full three weeks were then to be allowed
As our seasons are so variable, we are under the nebringing the fourth at harvest time, when a growth of full
cessity of adopting a mode which we should not under two feet would be ready for consumption. The grazing
more favorable circumstances. If a severe frost is apprecould then be continued at intervals according to the sea- hended, it ought to be cut to save it from that total diyson, the condition of the stubbles, &c.; occasionally, in-ling out of the juices, which seems to take place if allowed deed, a fifth regular cropping has been taken, but the to stand on the hills. J. B. B. New Braintree, Mass. yield of the second year would not probably be benefitted by pressing the first too closely. The second year, indeed, ! New Grapes.--We are indebted to SAMUEL MILLER of the produce has sometimes been larger than the first, but Lebanon, Pa., for a fine collection of plants of thirte Mr. Mechi's experience has not been favorable to more of the newer varieties of American grapes, sent to us for than two year's growth of this crop.
| trial in the climate of New-York.
dent and satisfactory, that we are impatient that every dweller in the country should make the most of his oppor
tunities, and labor not alone to put money in his pocket, WORKING-MEN'S COTTAGES.
Cut also to increase his knowledge, cultivate his apprecia
tion of the beautiful in art and nature, and attune his perGEORGE D. Rand contributes to the ANNUAL REGISTER ceptions to the fine harmonies of a well-ordered, refined OF RURAL AFFAIRS for 1860,* several original designs for life, which unites the whole family circle in constant efforts COUNTRY HOMES of different classes. We purpose to to promote the general intelligence and happiness. copy herewith a part of his remarks upon “Working
1 Our plans and descriptions in this number occupy so
Our plans and
much space, that we will not stop longer to discuss the Mens' Cottages,” accompanied with two or three of the
general theme, but proceed to the plans at once. First Designs—referring the reader for further information and we give three designs for Working-Mens' Cottages. for Designs of Farm Houses, &c., to the REGISTER itself.
It has been with the purpose of bringing to the aid of those not likely to consult more expensive and elaborate works on rural architecture-or if they should consult thein, should find everything on too costly a scale for their purposes—that we have introduced into these pages from year to year, such designs as, in our judgment, are calculated to improve the taste and furnish some available knowledge upon the subject of building a home in the country. We have some reason to believe that our previous efforts have been widely appreciated; and we hope this further contribution may be as favorably received and as extensively useful.
We have thought it of little use to publish designs of cottages containing, besides the pantry, closets, &e., less than three rooms. No good American housewife is for any long time content with less, and no industrious, intelligent working.man, need ask his wife to take up with
Fig. 1. less. Those who are willing to live in more straightened
In accordance with the preceding remarks, the first dequarters, would never look into these or any other pages sign we shall present, is one as compact and as moderate for a design for such a cottage, but would build something in size as will allow of the number of rooms specified. after the style of those they were familiar with, whether in the perspective view, (fig. 1.) we have chosen to reit were the log cabin or the Irish laborer's shanty of turf present a style of construction once very common in the and boards. Our designs, therefore, in this number of older States and across the ocean, and even now regarded the Register, will begin with a cottage, which, although by the best architects as peculiarly adapted to small picamall, has some claims to a pleasant style of living, and turesque cottages. The side walls are only one story in which can be made tasteful as well as comfortable. Such neight, which renders the style more suitable than story a dwelling will be found capacious enough to rear in much and a-half houses, when either stone, brick, or concrete is refinement an ordinary family, and if substantially built, to be used. The tie-beams go directly across from plate even of wood, will last two or three generations. ood, will last wo or three generations.
to plate, thus preventing all spreading from the pressure That the smallest of these designs may be the better of the roof, which is a fruitful source of trouble in oneappreciated, we wish to refer the reader to some remarks and-a-half storied houses. The steep pitch of the roof, to made in a previous number of this work, in relation to a height sufficient to allow of comfortable rooms in the building small cottages on large farms, for the occupation attic, makes the chambers nearly as large and pleasant as of the farm laborers and their families. Since the publi- l in a house of two full stories, while the cost is considercation of those remarks, we kņow of several instances ably less, and much is also gained, in our opinion, in the where they have been acted on, and have reason to rejoice picturesque appearance of the exterior, which harmonizes with those more directly interested, that so good and every so well with all our ideas of what a small unpretending way beneficial results have followed the adoption of the cottage should be. plan. We ask the owners of those large farms who take The main portion of the cottage is only 16 by 24 feet, into their own families the numerous laborers whom they A lean-to, 9feet m width, is added on the back side. It are compelled to employ, to consider a moment if they should be made of good height, coming just under the are pursuing the most judicious course. We acknowledge cornice of the main part, the roof rather flat, and hipped it may involve less immediate outlay than any other plan, at the ends. One end is left unenclosed for a veranda, and may in some instances be a trifle less expensive from as may be seen by reference to the design. year to year. But we will suggest once more, whether the saving be not made at the expense of many home
BEDROON comforts, much refinement in the increasing family, and
9 X 14 an untold amount of drudgery for the farmer's wives and daughters, that fearfully imperils their continued good
KITCHEN health, and reduces them to a servant's knowledge of the 20x10-6
9X10-6 world about them, and how to render home attractive, and
12 X 15
12X12 all its influences pure and healthily stimulating. We are among those who believe that a farmer's home may be as full of grace and beauty, and as suggestive of high hopes Fig. 2.--- PRINCIPAL Floor, Fig. 3.-CHAMEKK. as any other. We know of no good reason why they, The plan (figs. 2 and 3) needs little explanation. It more than others, should yield their lives and the lives of has one or two points of superiority over most plans their families, to the discomforts of a primitive style of usually adopted in so small dwellings, which may be menlife and the hard wearing monotony of thoughtless toil. tioned. It will be noticed that the front door opens into The easily attainable possibilities of a nobler life are so a pretty hall or entry, from wbich the chambers are reached, much greater than this—the way has been shown in so and which also gives access to the living-room and the many living instances, and the reward reaped is so evi- kitchen. This arrangement gives an air of elegance rarely
seen in such a cottage, and its mistress will readily appre* This valuable little work has been isgued annually for six years. and is pronounced a complete encyclopedia in miniatures of all ciate the difference between it and the more common way Rural Affairs. The Number for 1860 contains no less than Oxe Hux-l of compelling every person who wishes to an un
of compelling every person who wishes to go up stairs, to DRED AND EIGHTY ENGRAVINGS. See Advertisement in another part of this paper
I pass through the kitchen. The cellar, which should be
under the whole of the main part, is reached by a door leading from the kitchen, under the chamber stairs. Two good bed-rooms are provided in the attic, each with ample closets.
The window and door hoods, and the verge boards, are the only non-essentials of the exterior, But we believe that whoever builds a cottage like this, can poorly afford to dispense with them. Their cost need be very little, while the air of neatness, content, and rural fitness which they confer, can hardly be over-estimated. If the interior be made to correspond, by taste in its arrangement, by a few pictures and graceful curtains and flowers, a cottage as inexpensive as this may be made to express more of happiness and refinement, than can be got out of many statelier and more ambitious mansions.
The estimated cost of this cottage varies from $250 to $350.
Fig. 4. - PERSPECTIVE View.
Fig. 7.-PRINCIPAL FLOOR.
Fig. 8.-CHAMBERS. The accommodation afforded in this design, perspective cellar door is a small closet. The cost will vary from four view, fig. 4,) is the same as in the preceding one, with the hundr
th the hundred to five hundred dollars. exception of an additional chamber. The kitchen, how
DESIGN III. ever, is larger, and the living-room has a pretty window. This cottage is properly a suburban one, and should not seat and two closets. This way of obtaining closets in a be built far away from some town or village. Its form is
well adapted to brick or concrete, as it is nearly square,
and has a broad, overhanging cornice. The square bay in TERETA
front, the circular-headed door and the double windows, are the distinguishing features of this cottage. The accommodation is about the same as in the two preceding designs. The hall, however, has a more villa-like breadth, and the living-room has three cases of book-shelves, which should be enclosed by glass doors. The large bay increases the size of the room, and adds greatly to its elegance. The bed-room opens from this room in the plan, but can
STOOP Fig. 5.-Window SEAT. room which would otherwise be destitute of them, has much to recommend it. It improves the appearance of
BEDROOM the room, while it lessens but little its apparent size. The
9-6 X12 accompanying cut (fig. 5) will give a good idea of their
LIVING ROOM appearance and construction.
11 X 16 The exterior we have given to this design is a very HALLI common one, and requires no explanation. It may easily
Fig. 10.----PRINCIPAL Floor,
Fig. 11.-CHAMBER PLAN. be made to communicate also or solely with the kitchen, if desired. The kitchen has two good closets, from one of which the cellar stairs descend, and a good-sized pantry. This pantry, and the partly enclosed veranda, and space for fuel, is simply a piazza with enclosed ends. Where neighboring houses are quite near, as is often the case in in a suburban district, it is desirable sometimes that some means be adopted to ensure privacy, and we know of no
better way than that here indicated. Fig. 6.
The arrangement shown in the chamber plan (fig. 11) is be improved in appearance by carrying up the central por- a very happy one, as by no other way could so good room tion of the lean-to as high as the main building, as indi- be obtained in the same area. The corners cut off supply cated in figure 6. This arrangement would give an addi- the necessary closets. The hall has a closet and a windowtional room on the second floor. The dotted lines in the seat, and a bath-room is supplied on the left. chamber plan (fig. 8) show how it might be done. Thel The entire cost will be from $600 to $800.