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HINTS ON DEEP PLOWING.
That deep plowing is often very beneficial to many soils does not admit of a question among intelligent farmers.— The when and where is the only point of dispute. We find in an English agricultural paper this subject discussed at some length, and think the points brought out will inter
est and instruct American readers. We condense them in the two following paragraphs, and add some facts from a practical New-England farmer and writer.
deep. "Nearly half the crop was destroyed by grub
deep. The corn was planted in the usual manner, and
Deep plowing is most effectual in the autumn, exposing soil to the influence of frost, rain and air, through the winter, which act upon the mineral ingredients of the soil, rendering them available for succeeding crops; also, pul verizing the soil and thus facilitating the passage of the roots into the subsoil. As regards the period of the rota-colored, clayey loam, but by spring it had changed to tion, it should precede root crops (or in this country, In- several shades darker color than when first exposed to the dian corn) or may be the first plowing for fallowing pre-last for many years. air, and no doubt the good effects of this deep plowing will
paratory to the wheat crop.
An instance of the renovation of old worn out plain land by deep plowing accompanied by high manuring, is given by the same writer:
Deep plowing is most beneficial to stiff clays, and, as a rule, we may plow deep when the subsoil is of the same character as the surface soil, if both are tenacious, or when the subsoil is composed of good clay, only requiring effects of shallow plowing and severe cropping with rye, "The land had, for many years, been under the wasting atmospheric influence to sweeten it. Deep cultivation until at length it was quite exhausted, and abandoned to should be avoided on nearly all very light soils, and in pasturage, yielding a scanty herbage in the early part of plowing for crops after large applications of manure, thus the season, but becoming dry and sere by mid-summer, burying it too deeply, or in turning under clover or other and remaining so through the remainder of the year. My green crops. Deep plowing in autumn, on most clays, is friend found that the surface soil was of little or no account equal to a half dressing of manure. Clay from which the any way, but thought there might be some hopes of making productive land of the subsoil. He accordingly com air is excluded, exhibits a dark blueish color. After drain-menced upon a piece of the tract, of about five acres, by ing, it is not advisable to bring up more than two inches of clay subsoil at a time; otherwise more is brought up than the frost, &c., can fit for growing good crops.
Hon. F. HOLBROOK, writing of the advantages of deep plowing on long cultivated soils, to the N. E. Farmer, says: "Where the land is of a close texture, with a strong compact subsoil, it is not unusual to find a better farm underneath, than that which has been worked so long and so shallow on top. By breaking through this artificial hardpan or crust, and bringing up a portion of the under soil to the light of day and the influence of manure, the crops are by that operation considerably increased, even though no more than the customary quantity of manure per acre is applied. And if high manuring is practiced in connection with the deeper cultivation, the crops will be very much increased over what could be realized from the old shallow plowing and artificial hardpan near the surface, accompanied by as high manuring. Then there is the difference, too, in the case of tilling the crops raised on deep, mellow land, as compared with those on hard, shallow plowed land.
If deep sod plowing is to be practiced, it is especially desirable to do it in the autumn, that the atmospheric influences may ameliorate and modify the upturned subsoil, preparatory to future cultivation. Plow the greensward in November, say eight to nine or ten inches deep, according to the quality of the subsoil. In the spring spread a good coat of manure, which, if fine compost, can be sufficiently mingled with the soil and covered by the harrow and cultivator; or if coarse, can, by lightly crossplowing, be turned under three to four or five inches deep, according to the depth of plowing in the fall. If the plowing was, say nine inches deep, there will be no difficulty in guaging a light plow, with a sharp share and wheel on the beam, so as to cross-plow in the spring and cover the manure about four inches deep, without disturbing the sod underneath. Green manure, well covered that depth, will decompose readily, and be more active and effective on the succeeding corn or other hoed crop than
if turned down under the sod."
An instance is given where sod land was plowed in the spring for corn, turning under the manure some six inches
at once putting in his universal sod and subsoil plow ten
As we have remarked before, there can be no question that a deep and fertile soil will produce much the largest
and best crops.
EDITORS CO. GENT. AND CULT.-For several years past I have been interested in trying new varieties of Potatoes, and have found none that have pleased me so well as "Prince Albert" and "Davis' Seedling," both on account of productiveness and excellence, as well as freedom from rot. I raised over two hundred bushels of "Prince Alberts" this year, the finest tubers I ever saw-their eating qualities unsurpassed; the yield being on a considerable part of the ground planted (with ordinary cultivation) at the rate of full four hundred bushels per acre.
I planted one peck of "Davis Seedlings "-putting from one to three eyes in a hill, on land highly manured, but
MORE ABOUT MR. MECHI'S MANURING. The following extract from our Foreign Notes, explains Mr. Mechi's system of Liquid Manuring, to which allusion has been made in another column:
The first operation, as has been already intimated, is to force a jet into the tank under the sparred or boarded It thoroughly stirs up, dilutes and intermingles the mass there accumulated; and the whole runs off into the outside cistern-a structure 30 feet deep from the crown of the dome which rises some feet above the ground, and 30 feet in diameter at its widest part. The engine force-pumps take the manure from the tank, and propel it through underground iron pipes over the whole farm, in the same way that the water in a city is carried around through its streets. A pipe of four inches diameter carries it first a distance of several rods, where there is an air chamber to relieve and equalize the pressure; then three pipes branch off in different directions, of three-inch diameter, and distributing the liquid through hydrants, one hydrant being allotted for every ten or twelve acres.
They were employed in the irrigation of a field of rye grass, containing eight acres, the day of my visit, and I could have desired no better exemplification of the system. To the hydrant in the center of the field, is attached a hose long enough, with the force of the jet, to sprinkle over the whole area. A man, with the aid of a boy in moving the hose, &c., was giving all parts a most thorough wetting, The droppings of the animals, instead of remaining to kill off the vegetation they chance to cover, are washed into the surrounding earth by a minute's application of the stream. Seeds of all sorts, by the way, which get into this liquid manure, will do no harm when they come out upon the land, for a short saturation in the tank has been shown to destroy their vitality. The vegetation around us seems already to have received a new impulse of life within the hour since it was showered, and yonder, where the hose is now in play, the herbage brightens up as it might after a summer shower.
It is only by means of a most abundant supply of water, Of course the manure may be that so much solid matter may be carried out by means of this underground cartage. diluted in different degrees; it requires about fifteen tons of water, I think I was told, to make one ton of the manure run easily, but in hot summer weather, when the purpose is really one more of irrigation than of actual manuring, as well as to obviate any danger from the too great Not only does the water are admitted to one of manure. strength of the mixture, sometimes fifty hogsheads of water thus float out all the stable accumulations, but whenever these fall short and guano is wanted, it is also sent by the same road, and, still more strange, the carcasses of dead animals come likewise into this common receptacle, are macerated by degrees, and pumped at length over the fields so that at one time the tank actually contained, says Mr. M., between 20 and 30 dead horses and cows.During the winter, or upon fallow land, there is no danger from the too great strength of the liquid, while in a dry time, on the contrary, it is perhaps true that the weaker the solution, and consequently the greater its quantity, the
HARVESTING INDIAN CORN.
Although there has been considerable discussion upon the subject, I have noticed but one actual trial being made, and that has been published in nearly all of our agricul corn. So long as a difference of opinion exists in regard tural papers, and the result was in favor of topping the to the best mode of harvesting corn, farmers should be willing to give their opinions, even if they have not made an actual trial. That one way is the best under all circurnstances, we do not claim, although some editors as well as farmers, think there is but one way.
I was taught to cut the stalks, and practiced that mode several years, and it was the usual custom among farmers in those days. But I have adopted the mode of cutting up my corn by the roots for the last few years, and am satisfied it has several advantages over that of topping, or cutting only the portion of the stalks above the ears. the first place the labor of cutting and binding staiks is quently nearly one-half of the labor is saved by adopting about the same as cutting and binding the whole; consethe mode of cutting up by the roots. Again, the fodder is worth nearly double, an item worth saving, especially this season, where the hay crop is light, as it may save many tons of hay in many cases. stooking up corn, by making their stooks too small; accordingly their fodder is injured much more. danger in putting fifteen to twenty-five bundles in a stook if put up right, that is by leaving a little space in the center for the air to circulate-besides it will stand much better.
Most farmers fail in
There is no
In 1858 this field was in wheat; I did not ascertain the precise yield obtained upon it, but the bailiff on consulting found that the average for the whole his books for me, Many farmers also practice sowing winter rye upon their area under wheat upon the farm, was forty-six bushels per acre-rather a smaller production than a really good year corn ground, and by cutting it up it may be sown as soon I practice the following mode: I plow will bring. In May, Italian rye grass had been sown upon as the corn is cut. the wheat. After harvest it would probably have received and sow strips of land of sufficient width for stooks, and an irrigation, and in March this year eleven bullocks, five at such distances as convenient, and stook it up as fast as Then the ground may be plowed and sowed between horses and fifty sheep, began to feast upon it-continuing cut. Then an intermission of a the rows of stooks at any time. Consequently you get to graze here for three weeks. fortnight was given for irrigation and growth; the stock your rye sown a number of weeks sooner than by the again admitted for about the same period as before, thus other method-an important consideration. There is also terminating this second feeding about the middle of May. another mode adopted by a class of farmers called slovenly. After a fortnight of further respite, the third was begun; They let the whole remain in the field, and go round and If not worth anything for fodder, it it was nearly or quite concluded when I was there, and pick off the ears. the fourth was being urged along. The third feeding, would pay to cut and cart into the yard for manure. however, was a longer and closer one than either of the sides they would be out of the way for the next crop. As our seasons are so variable, we are under the ne others, and full three weeks were then to be allowedIf a severe frost is appro bringing the fourth at harvest time, when a growth of full cessity of adopting a mode which we should not unde two feet would be ready for consumption. The grazing more favorable circumstances. could then be continued at intervals according to the sea- hended, it ought to be cut to save it from that total dry son, the condition of the stubbles, &c.; occasionally, in- ing out of the juices, which seems to take place if allowe J. B. B. New Braintree, Mass. deed, a fifth regular cropping has been taken, but the yield of the second year would not probably be benefitted by pressing the first too closely. The second year, indeed, the produce has sometimes been larger than the first, but Mr. Mechi's experience has not been favorable to more than two year's growth of this crop.
to stand on the hills.
NEW GRAPES.-We are indebted to SAMUEL MILLER O Lebanon, Pa., for a fine collection of plants of thirtee of the newer varieties of American grapes, sent to us fo trial in the climate of New-York.
GEORGE D. RAND contributes to the ANNUAL REGISTER OF RURAL AFFAIRS for 1860,* several original designs for COUNTRY HOMES of different classes. We purpose to copy herewith a part of his remarks upon "Working Mens' Cottages," accompanied with two or three of the Designs-referring the reader for further information and for Designs of Farm Houses, &c., to the REGISTER itself.
It has been with the purpose of bringing to the aid of those not likely to consult more expensive and elaborate works on rural architecture-or if they should consult them, should find everything on too costly a scale for their purposes-that we have introduced into these pages from year to year, such designs as, in our judgment, are calculated to improve the taste and furnish some available knowledge upon the subject of building a home in the country. We have some reason to believe that our previous efforts have been widely appreciated; and we hope this further contribution may be as favorably received and as extensively useful.
We have thought it of little use to publish designs of cottages containing, besides the pantry, closets, &c., less than three rooms. No good American housewife is for any long time content with less, and no industrious, intelligent working-man, need ask his wife to take up with less. Those who are willing to live in more straightened quarters, would never look into these or any other pages for a design for such a cottage, but would build something after the style of those they were familiar with, whether it were the log cabin or the Irish laborer's shanty of turf and boards. Our designs, therefore, in this number of the Register, will begin with a cottage, which, although small, has some claims to a pleasant style of living, and which can be made tasteful as well as comfortable. Such a dwelling will be found capacious enough to rear in much refinement an ordinary family, and if substantially built, even of wood, will last two or three generations.
That the smallest of these designs may be the better appreciated, we wish to refer the reader to some remarks made in a previous number of this work, in relation to building small cottages on large farms, for the occupation of the farm laborers and their families. Since the publication of those remarks, we know of several instances where they have been acted on, and have reason to rejoice with those more directly interested, that so good and every way beneficial results have followed the adoption of the plan. We ask the owners of those large farms who take into their own families the numerous laborers whom they are compelled to employ, to consider a moment if they are pursuing the most judicious course. We acknowledge it may involve less immediate outlay than any other plan, and may in some instances be a trifle less expensive from year to year. But we will suggest once more, whether the saving be not made at the expense of many home comforts, much refinement in the increasing family, and an untold amount of drudgery for the farmer's wives and daughters, that fearfully imperils their continued good health, and reduces them to a servant's knowledge of the world about them, and how to render home attractive, and all its influences pure and healthily stimulating. We are among those who believe that a farmer's home may be as full of grace and beauty, and as suggestive of high hopes as any other. We know of no good reason why they, more than others, should yield their lives and the lives of their families, to the discomforts of a primitive style of life and the hard wearing monotony of thoughtless toil. The easily attainable possibilities of a nobler life are so much greater than this-the way has been shown in so many living instances, and the reward reaped is so evi
This valuable little work has been issued annually for six years, and is pronounced "a complete encyclopedia in miniature" of all Rural Affairs. The Number for 1860 contains no less than ONE HUNDRED AND EIGHTY ENGRAVINGS. See Advertisement in another part of this paper.
dent and satisfactory, that we are impatient that every dweller in the country should make the most of his opportunities, and labor not alone to put money in his pocket, but also to increase his knowledge, cultivate his appreciation of the beautiful in art and nature, and attune his perceptions to the fine harmonies of a well-ordered, refined life, which unites the whole family circle in constant efforts to promote the general intelligence and happiness.
Our plans and descriptions in this number occupy so much space, that we will not stop longer to discuss the general theme, but proceed to the plans at once. we give three designs for Working-Mens' Cottages.
In accordance with the preceding remarks, the first design we shall present, is one as compact and as moderate in size as will allow of the number of rooms specified. In the perspective view, (fig. 1,) we have chosen to represent a style of construction once very common in the older States and across the ocean, and even now regarded by the best architects as peculiarly adapted to small picturesque cottages. The side walls are only one story in height, which renders the style more suitable than story and a-half houses, when either stone, brick, or concrete is to be used. The tie-beams go directly across from plate to plate, thus preventing all spreading from the pressure of the roof, which is a fruitful source of trouble in oneand-a-half storied houses. The steep pitch of the roof, to a height sufficient to allow of comfortable rooms in the attic, makes the chambers nearly as large and pleasant as in a house of two full stories, while the cost is considerably less, and much is also gained, in our opinion, in the picturesque appearance of the exterior, which harmonizes so well with all our ideas of what small unpretending cottage should be.
The main portion of the cottage is only 16 by 24 feet. A lean-to, 9 feet in width, is added on the back side. It should be made of good height, coming just under the cornice of the main part, the roof rather flat, and hipped at the ends. One end is left unenclosed for a veranda, as may be seen by reference to the design.
Fig. 2.-PRINCIPAL FLOOR,
Fig. 3.-CHAMBER. The plan (figs. 2 and 3) needs little explanation. It has one or two points of superiority over most plans usually adopted in so small dwellings, which may be mentioned. It will be noticed that the front door opens into a pretty hall or entry, from which the chambers are reached, and which also gives access to the living-room and the kitchen. This arrangement gives an air of elegance rarely seen in such a cottage, and its mistress will readily appreciate the difference between it and the more common way of compelling every person who wishes to go up stairs, to pass through the kitchen. The cellar, which should be
under the whole of the main part, is reached by a door leading from the kitchen, under the chamber stairs Two good bed-rooms are provided in the attic, each with ample closets.
The window and door hoods, and the verge boards, are the only non-essentials of the exterior. But we believe that whoever builds a cottage like this, can poorly afford to dispense with them. Their cost need be very little, while the air of neatness, content, and rural fitness which they confer, can hardly be over-estimated. If the interior be made to correspond, by taste in its arrangement, by a few pictures and graceful curtains and flowers, a cottage as inexpensive as this may be made to express more of happiness and refinement, than can be got out of many statelier and more ambitious mansions.
The estimated cost of this cottage varies from $250 to $350.
[ chimney is located in the center of the house where all heat is saved, and where it is accessible to the stove funnels on every side. The passage between the kitchen and the living-room may have a door on each side, so as effectually to exclude all noise, heat and odors from the kitchen. The cellar is reached from this passage, and opposite the
The accommodation afforded in this design, perspective view, fig. 4,) is the same as in the preceding one, with the exception of an additional chamber. The kitchen, however, is larger, and the living-room has a pretty windowseat and two closets. This way of obtaining closets in a
cellar door is a small closet. The cost will vary from four hundred to five hundred dollars.
This cottage is properly a suburban one, and should not be built far away from some town or village. Its form is well adapted to brick or concrete, as it is nearly square, and has a broad, overhanging cornice. The square bay in front, the circular-headed door and the double windows, are the distinguishing features of this cottage. The accommodation is about the same as in the two preceding designs. The hall, however, has a more villa-like breadth, and the living-room has three cases of book-shelves, which should be enclosed by glass doors. The large bay increases the size of the room, and adds greatly to its elegance. The bed-room opens from this room in the plan, but can
Fig. 11.-CHAMBER PLAN.
be made to communicate also or solely with the kitchen, if desired. The kitchen has two good closets, from one of which the cellar stairs descend, and a good-sized pantry. This pantry, and the partly enclosed veranda, and space for fuel, is simply a piazza with enclosed ends. Where neighboring houses are quite near, as is often the case in in a suburban district, it is desirable sometimes that some means be adopted to ensure privacy, and we know of no better way than that here indicated.
The arrangement shown in the chamber plan (fig. 11) is a very happy one, as by no other way could so good room be obtained in the same area. The corners cut off supply the necessary closets. The hall has a closet and a windowseat, and a bath-room is supplied on the left.
The entire cost will be from $600 to $800.
along the opposite side of the field from that on which it is | An experimental trial with a Wilkie Plow (swing) gave a itself placed. A line of wire cable is drawn, by means of dynamometrical result of 51 stones, or 6 cwt., as the the windlass attached to the engine, backwards and for- traction power required to turn a 6 by 9 furrow, thus showwards upon the pulley on the anchor. For example, ating it to be fully equal to a strong three-horse soil. The
daily working of Fowler's Machines we estimate as follows:
starting the windlass is turned so as to draw the set of
£0 38 0d. say $1.25