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drains than stones, but in my neighborhood stones are the
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) plentiest and cheapest. I have known drains made with
VENEERED HOUSES. stones last twenty years. If the drain that I have made
| Eng. Co. GENT. I notice that spany of your correspon. should get stopped up in twenty or thirty years, I have no doubt but that there will be stones enongh to make another
dents are very grateful to Mr. Woodward for his articles onę. A SMALL FARMER, Glenville, N. Y. ..
on Balloon houses. I shall in this article try to tell you how they veneer those same balloon frame houses in this
city and county, which gives them the appearance of solid CULTURE OF BROOM-CORN...
brick houses, and in many respects far superior, " cost Messrs. L. TUCKER & Sox-Will you be so kind as to
about the same, or nearly so." give me some information through your excellent paper
It is done as follows: house built as all balloon frames as to the culture of Droom-corn-when and how to plant,
-lined with one inch boards on ontside-tbe foundation gather, &c., also bow much seed is required to plant per
wall must extend far enough bevond the sills for the brick acre. It is entirely a new crop to me, and any informa
to rest on, the brick all laid up in good mortar, so as to tion you can give concerning it will be thankfully received.
present a face of 2 by 8 inches ; and when the wall is laid Is it considered a paying crop, and what is the average
up five brick high, drive a 5 inch spike into each studding; product per acre ?
J. W. DANNER.
let the head of spike be held close to the brick, that it Highland Home, Va.
may in driving, scrape itself into the brick, thereby huld
ing it firm and tight. Spike every tier of 6 briek, until We can give some general information on the subject, finished. Studding here are generally 15 inebes aparts but many particulars required for its successful culture it will therefore take 1 spike for every five brick bigh, can be only, learned by experience. As it requires better and 15 inches long; 74 brick lay up one square foot. soil and more skill than ordinary crops of common corn,
| Old frame buildings with weather boarding on can be
veneered the same way, and if not plumb can fill space beit also pays better under proper management. Broom
tween boards and brick with mortar, to keep out rats and corn will yield from 500 to 800 lbs. of the brush per acre,
mice. In an old frame house you will have to make the which if prepared in the best manner, will sell for a hun- foundation wall wider, that the brick may have a resting dred dollars or more a ton—it has in some instances place. brought two hundred.
The advantages claimed over a brick house are that they The land should be rich-it cannot well be too rich.
are much safer in a storm, and always dry and no damp
ness whatever ; and over a frame house they are much Alluvial flats are especially adapted to its culture, as they warıner, and do not need painting every few years, which are warm, fertile, even, and free from stone. The land is quite a saving; and lastly, will last at least one genera; should be well plowed, and if after a previous crop, with tion longer; and I inay add to those coming from houses a deep running plow to turn under the stalks. The soil in cities, that to veneer them with brick saves quite a nice should be harrowed and rolled, to have a smooth surface. I pe
percentage in insurance against fire. It may then be neatly and accurately marked out with a will be news to many of your readers, please give it to
I f you think this manner of veneering balloon houses marker, in rows a little more than three feet apart. A them. W. S. HAND. Milwaukee. drill follows these marks and deposits the seed. A greater
(For the Cultivator and Country Gentleman.) crop may be raised by planting in drills, but unless the
Remedy for Cracked Hoofs. land is previously quite free from the seeds of weeds, it will be attended with too much hand labor, and hills will Messrs. L. TUCKER & Son—Please allow me to give be better. The quantity of seed required is about one my ex
pont one my experience in reply to an inquiry by J. C., on the
| treatment of a cracked or split hoof in a horse. It has peck per acre, but many plant more, and thin out the sur-| beer my misfortune to own such a one, and to discover a plus plants. The ground should be kept well cultivated - most infallible cure; and from the construction of the horif previously clean, it will need no hand hoeing-especially se's boof, I think that any rational mind, however inexpeif the proper kind of cultivators are employod to throw rienced, cannot fail to coincide with me. If not, let them the earth against the stalks as soon as they are stout
try the experiment as I did, and then deny it if they can.
I am no veterinary surgeon, nor did I ever employ one enough for the operation.
more than three or four times in my life; yet I use the Two periods are selected for harvesting—the first, as horse in as many shapes as any other one person of our soon as the brush is formed, while it is yet green, which neighborhood. Fast and slow, heavy and light, old and furnishes the best material, but no seed ; and the second, young, are all inbabitants of my stable at once, and I am while the seed is in the dough state. If left any later, the
content with the number that have so far proven “out of
fix.” My theory and practice is, to study as nearly as I brush will be too brittle for value. The stalks are bent can the nature of that with wbich I am dealing, and treat down, by laying those of two rows across each other it accordingly to the best of my knowledge, be it horse, obliquely, so as to form a kind of table of two rows, with fowl, soil, or what-not. a passage betwern each table. Six or eight inches below! But to the subject-my cure for which is: Simply make the brush the stalk is cut off in harvesting, and carried in,
an incision at the extreme top of the horny substance,
cross-wise of the crack, and parallel with the horny hoof, and the drying completed on poles spread one or two some two inches each side of, (across and above) the crack. inches thick. Such of our readers as are successful culti- The old crack, if left to its way, will continue to grow up vators of this crop, may be able to furnish valuable details as fast as the hoof grows down-if not checked by a crossof the various parts of the operation, or improvements on cut. After this, with careful treatment till there is a new this mode of management, in which case we should be
hoof formed, the horse will be as sound in that as any other
foot be's got. glad to hear from them.
If J. C., or any one else, wishes to try this method, and
takes care not to allow the old crack to tear its way upA CHEAP PAINT.- Make a thin paste of wheat or rye flour ward after the new boof forms, he will most assuredly ef-strain it, add sufficient venetian red or ochre to make a thiek | fect a permanent cure, of which I would be bappy to hear, paint-put on one or two coats. Dissolve one pound of glue in three gallons of water-mix in your paint, and put on for
| as I know the troubles and trials of such cases to my enthe last coat. It will look as well as oil paint.
tire satisfaction. Frank RUFFNER. Hamilton Co., O. For CHEAP OIL Cloth, Ochre, mixed with paste, makes a
CLOTH, Ochre, mixed with paste, makes a WHITEWASH your young apple trees with good fresh slackgood foundation; it fills up the cloth and makes it better to ed lime before the buds start. It will scale off, and take the paint upon.
I bark-louse with it.
"BARLEY AND ITS CULTURE. ter harrow would be the best implement for the purpose.
The culture of barley has been practiced, as far as is When green-sward is to be sown, the double plow gives known, as long as that of any other grain, and it flourish- the best prepared seed-bed. We have known good crops es in widely diverse situations. Though evidently a native grown on sward turned under as deeply as possible with a of warm climates, it will grow in very cold ones-matur- large plow, and the seed then covered with a shallow bet ing in favorable seasons as far north as 720, and in the gang-plow-to be barrowed and rolled afterwards. If seedHimalayas at an elevation of from ten to thirteen thousand ed to grass, the seed should be sown before rolling--the feet above the sea. In the high valleys of the Adirondacs, passage of this implement covering the ground sufficiently. as mentioned by a writer in our State Transactions, luxu
It should be borne in mind by those who would grow riant crops of barley flourish where Indian corn was never
this grain, that thorough tillage, a deep, well pulverised the seasons being too short and subject to frequent soil—is very important. Maturing quickly, it requires frosts.
good culture, that the soil may give it immediate and Barley suits itself to varied soils as well as climates, but abundant supplies of nutrition throughout its growth. ' the best barley is grown on warm, rich and mellow loams. Ag to the time of sowing, it should be about as early, as. In England the terms barley-land and wheat-land are the the season will allow of adequate préparation. The crop usual designation of light and heavy soils adapted espe- stands about three months on the ground, and it is imporcially to the growth of these grains. On clay lands the tant that it gets a fair start before the summer drouth produce of barley is greater, but it is of a coarse quality comes on. Too great haste, in sowing, however, may and does not malt as well-on loams it is plump and full prove injurious, especially if followed by cold, sour weathof meal, and on light caleareous soils, the crop is light, the er, unfavorable to the germination of the seed, for some grain thin in the skin, of a rich color, and well adapted to weeks, as in that case the soil becomes so liardened as to malting. These are the characteristics of English barley, / hinder the success of the crop. where great attention is given to this grain, and very fine. The amount of seed usually given to an acre, varies qualities produced, but they are also true of the differing from two to three and four bushels-poor, early sown and product of the soils of this country. A soil that will grow mellow soils requiring least. If drilled in, a less quantity tolerable rye, will produce inferior barley, and a heavy is required; and the practice of rolling when the young soil better suited to wheat, as already remarked, will do plants are a few inches in height, if the ground is dry and“ the same. Mucky soils will occasionally produce good porous, has lately been practiced to a considerable extent, barley--(we have seen some very heavy crops grown the and is found serviceable in giving support to the roots, next year after the surface muck had been burned over, and in causing the plants to tiller and increasing their thus giving the land a large dressing of ashes,) but they vigor. We question the utility of heavy seeding, if proare far from sure for this crop. It may appear favorably per care is taken in selecting good seed and properly covuntil near heading, and then turn yellow and produce noth- ering the same. The best seed barley is that of a lively ing, particularly if hot, dry weather occurs. In our expe- color, free from blackness at the germ end, and with a thin rience, a deep gravelly soil in the best condition for giv- skin. It is advisable to change for that grown at a dis. ing vigorous vegetation—which will bear drouth and pro tance, and on different soil, occasionally—as without atduce a full growth of straw-if favored by a properly tention to these cautions, barley often deteriorates, bemoist and warm season, will produce a large crop of bar coming coarser and lighter, with thick skin and little flour, ley-from forty to sixty bushels per acre.
from year to year. In a rotation, barley should not follow wheat or oats. In harvesting barley it is important to cut it at the right nor should a second crop come in immediately after the stage, when neither too green nor too ripe. If rather green, first, without applying a liberal dressing of decomposed the grain shrinks, and is of light weight; if fully ripe, it manure; and we think it the best course to seed to clo-shells easily, is liable to become discolored, and the straw ver, which succeeds well when sown on barley and dressed is of less value. When the head begins to assume a redwith plaster. Pasturing or mowing this for two years, we dish cast and drops down upon the straw, the proper period may then manure for corn or roots, and afterwards re-crop of harvesting has arrived-and as after this the grain with barley.
ripens rapidly, it should at once be cared for. It may be • The preparation of the soil for barley as already notic mown or cradled, or cut with a reaper; if the straw is ed, should be thoroughly made, as a deep, mellow tilth is long it should be bound; if short, with proper forks it can most favorable to productiveness, and barley suffers much be pitched at once from the swath, and stored without from a foul state of the soil. In those sections where bar- / binding. Barley should be secured as soon as thoroughly ley has been grown most extensively, it is largely the dry, which will not be long in favorable weather. practice to sow barley after a hoed crop, when the earth Barley straw, well cured and not over ripe, is readily is left light and free from weeds. After such crops-well eaten by all kinds of neat stock, and is thought worth manured and thoroughly cultivated, of course-a good about the same per ton as corn-fodder or interior hay. By yield generally follows, larger often than if the same ma- elevating the straw-carrier above the lower sieves of the nure had been applied directly to the barley. These corn separator when threshing, the bearded chaff may be thrown stubbles are generally plowed in autumn, especially when aside, and thus it may be fed to sheep without the injury of rather retentive soil, and care is usually taken to pro- to the wool which otherwise occurs. vide proper surface drainage at this time, that no stagnant The diseases and insects attacking this crop are not water may remain upon them during the winter. A fall- numerous, but when they prevail, often destroy the profit plowed clover ley answers well for this purpose, but should of its culture. A kind of smut called the barley brand, be well worked in the spring. We would first barrow well wbich sometimes prevails in cold, wet seasons, proves a lengthwise the furrow, and then work with the gang-plow serious discase. It is a fungus parasite, having its seat in or wheat cultivator before sowing-or, perhaps, the coul- I the ear, and developing a sort of woody tissue between
the layers of the fungus. The outer covering of the grain feet, and then flat against the boards to the top. Now the remains sound, but the internal structure is blackened and kiln is complete; the space around the block in the basedestroyed. A species of smut, differing, we think, from |
we thinks from ment serving to store charcoal in, and the objeet of the
wall being that of security against fire. Two kilns are that above described, was largely developed in some sec
necessary to dry hops economically, and not more than tions last season. Just before ripening the barley fields one acre-good hops-must be attempted with only one were black with smut heads, which in a few days fell to kiln. The cost of such a building is, I think, about $41) the ground, leaving the bare stalk in its place. There are in Wisconsin; and it is useful for many other parposes also two or more species of barley fly, which pass their than drying hops, though I have not time to specify. larva state in the straw, injuring largely the yield of grain, Hops are usually fit to pack between the 5th and 10th
The wheat ||
* of Sept. If tagged as they prevail to a greater or less extent.
as the brown appearance given them
by threshing and bruising by the wind when damp or wet, inidge is sometimes found in the heads of grain, especially is called--they must be pieked before fully ripe. They in situations near wheat fields, or where the midge was are ripe when the yellow powder about the seed is easily found the previous year.
shaken out; when the seed is nearly black; when the Where the ravages of the above named enemies of the hop itself is firm and somewhat stiff, and rattles like dry
| leaves in handling. barley crop are slight or entirely unknown, (as they are,
They are picked over frames, divided into compartwe believe, in many sections where it has been but recentments or boxes, the measure being known at so much per ly introduced as a general farm crop,) the average yield bushel or box. The vines are cut as the poles are pulled; and profit of barley compares favorably with that of other but not before, as they wilt rapidly; and the less they are grains. As feed for stock, it ranks next to rye and Indian wilted before drying, the better will the sample be therecorn, and mixed with these grains and with oats, and after. An hour in a yard at picking time will give the ground, is excellent food for all kinds of stock.
whole details better that it could be explained in a whole
column of this page. The hops are put from the boxes (For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) into large sacks, in which they are conveyed to the kiln ; HOPS---PICKING AND CURING--II.
and the less they are crushed and broken by these pro-
cesses, the better the dried product will appear. There are many varieties of the Humalas lupulus There is a difference of opinion as to how thiek they some large, others smaller; some of red tinge, others of should be laid on the kiln. Six inches is, according to n greenish white color; some grow at irregular intervals, my experience, thick or deep enough, but it should not be others in somewhat close clusters. The same sort is some much less than this, or a larger portion of charcoal will be times known by different names in different places. In constmed by tbe rapid passage of heat through them after some districts, the Mayfield grape, a white hop that sets they are about half dried. The fire must be small at first, in compact clusters, very similar to some varieties of the and gradually increased until about the fourth hour, when : grape, and denominated simply the grape bop, is a favorite the maximum heat is required. It requires eight hours ! variety; but there are improved sorts that are considered nine if they are wet-to dry a kiln of hops, and the last superior to this even, it is reported. I should prefer, how-hour or upwards the heat is reduced; the water of the ever, a good medium sized white hop, that grows in large hops having been before this driven off or evaporated. clusters, both because those of this description yield well, Sulphur, in powder, is used by many about the third hour, and are more quickly and economically gathered-a very to bleach the hops or give it a bright, whitish green tinge, material consideration--when the time for that important and from its well known effects in bleaching straw bonnets, operation comes round, just previous to the annual return etc., we can generally anticipate some improvement in of the "sere and yellow leaf," in the autumnal drapery of color from its moderate use; but it is not probable that the majestic, beautiful forest trees.
the quality of the sample is improved by the application Hop drying pre-supposes a drying kiln. In their best in this or any other way. The hops are often examined form kilns are costly. Having used and seen others use as they dry, especially when the fire is strongest, because a cheap kiln, I will here briefly outline its form for the un scorching spoils them at once; this is known by a brown intiated, if such there be, who feel any interest in the color and the smell of burning. To prevent this is indissubject. This can be available only to those who have a pensable, bence the watchful care required. As to whether large barn or other floor on which to lay the heaps, as they it is best to turn the hops, when a little more than half, are dried : Build a wall three feet high, 16 feet by 12. say two-thirds, dry, there is a difference of opinion, some In the center of 12 feet square, in one end of this base-l contending that if the undried ones be put under, their ment, build a solid block of masonry 6 by 6 feet, and 18 escaping vapor is absorbed by the dryer hops above them. in. high. Now raise a light balloon frame, 16 by 12, and But I rather incline to turning, because it appears proba16 feet high, on the basement wall; and put on this a roof ble, Ist, that the moist hopš must dry sooner when nearer of one-third pitch or grade. A small frame of 2 by 4 oak the fire or head, and 2d, because the dry hops with which scantling is now laid on the central block, baving an inside they are covered can scarcely absorb much moisture while space of four feet by four. Oak studding are laid on this, they are on the kiln, and are themselves charged with heat and carried up-spreading, funnel-like-till they reach a sufficient to produce evaporation. . When the hops are so perpendicular height of 8 or 9 feet in the clear. Here dry that the core of three-fourths of them will readily break, oak joist, 2 by 6, cross from the studding to studding of and that of the remaining fourth being only a little greasy, the frame. On top of these are laid strips of pine, or instead of tough, to the touch, the hops are dried enough, other wood that is not apt to warp much, 1 by 3 inches and must be quickly taken off, unless the fire bas become the deepest way downward, with 14 inch spaces between small, or nearly gone out, and the heat is much reduced, . them, making a "spaced" drying-floor 11.8 by 12 feet. or the fire removed, as for instance on a Saturday night or The space of four feet on one side is floored five feet later. above the wall, and four below the top of the inclosing Hops are laid in heaps as thick as convenient; in a frame of the kiln. This floor is necessary to stand on in warm room is best; and allowed to sweat nine or ten examining the hops when drying, taking them off, or put. days, when they are fit to be pressed, baled, and disposed ting on, &c., and is accessible from the outside by a step- of. Hop growers here, tell me that American hop-presses ladder. A ventilator in center of the roof-ridge is indis- very much more expedite and economize the process of pensable. On the side in the basement where the four feet bagging or bailing, than the antiquated English system of space is left, an opening 15 by 18 inches is left in the treading into a deep sack or well-hole; and it is not to be frame, the bottom of which is the block. The frame be- wondered at that Americans have arranged the best ing lined with inch board previously, the opening and in- inethod of performing such work, considering the superior terior is lined with brick, set in well-tempered mortar: mechanical skill exbibited in most of our industrial avothe brick being laid the thickest way for the first three cations.
J. W. CLARKE,
• Proper Time to Cut Grass for Hay. plant is not cut in the flower, a great part of the nutri
ment of its stems and leaves is wasted.” The above is a question about which good practical The Secretary of the Maine Board of Agriculture issued farmers entertain quite opposite views ; though they circulars among the farmers of that State, propounding a seem to agree in this, that the value of hay as food for series of questions upon practical matters connected with farm stock depends very much upon the time or season the farm. In the report of 1859, is found responses from of its growth when mown. But notwithstanding this ap- many farmers, in reference to the proper time of cutting parent agreement, there is still a wide difference of opin-grass for háy. A large majority of theṁ say that the ion as to the time the grass possesses the most value for English grasses should be cut while in blossom, and clover winter food for cattle, horses and sheep. Consequently, as soon as a portion of the heads have become of a brown practice varies according as these different views are enter-color: tained. Some farmers cut their grass as soon as the bloom Says Mr. Sec'y Goodale, in this Report, “The principal appears, or even earlier, and others at all subsequent point to be inquired into in order to decide the best period stages until the seeds are ripe and the grasses are so dry for cutting, is, when does grass contain the most nutrithat the product may be stored almost as soon as cut. ment!' And to this, no definite and precise answer can “ Such differences of practice must necessarily be followed be given, which will be alike correct in all cases, for reaby a wide variation in its value. That such variation son that in different grasses this stage is not the same, actually exists is evidenced by the fact, that upon the being earlier in some than others; but for a general same quantity of hay, and this made from the same grasses, I answer, both theory and the opinions derived from the the stock of one farmer will thrive and that of another experience of the great majority of intelligent and obserywill dwindle." .wise
ing farmers, concur in the reply—" when in full blossom, This contrast in the thrist of the cattle on adjoining or while the bloom is falling." At this period, most farms, is frequently occasioned by the fact, that one far- grasses have, so far as can be judged, obtained from the mer cuts his grass carly, or mostly while in blossom, the soil and from the atmosphere, the greatest amount which other letting his grass crop stand till the seed had gene- they will have at any stage of growth, which is of value rally matured; this farmer contending that the seeds as food for animals, and these exist at this period in the were the most important and nutritive portions of the most valuable form. The changes which take place subhay, besides, lie says it will “spend better.” Cattle fed sequently are chiefly within the plant; a part of the starch, through our long winters upon this late cut hay, generally sugar, gum, albumen, &c., soon go to assist in the formago to pasture real “spring poor.”
tion of seed, and a part to constitute woody fibre, which or late years, the attention of farmers has been more is indigestible and worthless; and so much as is thus condirectly called to this important subject, through the agency verted, is actual loss. Of hay cut at a later stage, cattle of many of the State and County Agricultural Societies. will doubtless eat less, and some infer from this, that it The Secretaries of some of these Associations have caused will “spend better;" but the true reason why they cat large numbers of circulars to be distributed among the less is, because the system can digest and assimilate less. farmers, containing a series of interrogatories relating to
elating to the actual benefit derived from hay is in proportion to practical matters pertaining to the farm, &c. Prominent the available nutriment contained in it." among these questions, is the following: “At what stage As far as our observation extends, the prevalent opinion of growth do you prefer to cut grass to make into English is, that more loss is sustained by late, than by too early and into swale hay, and what is your reason for your cutting. That grass is sometimes mown too early, there preference ?"
is no doubt; but as a general rule, the farmer bad better In 1856, Mr. Flint, Sec'y of the Mass. Board of Agri- err on the safe side, and commence baying early, if he culture, issued circulars (containing the above quoted que has a large amount to harvest, even if he suffers some loss ries,) to practical farmers all over the State. “The replies by shrinkage of the first mown. It gives him a better from about one hundred and fifty towns are, that farmers chance to “make hay while the sun shines," for he has a prefer to cut the principal grasses, timothy and red top. I longer period to secure his crop before it is “dead ripe," when in full blossom; red clover when about half the and sometimes saves hiring help, when labor is at its highheads are in blossom; and swale grass before it is ripe, est price, and scarce at that. and generally before blossoming, if possible, so as to pre. We have attended many auction sales of hay, and vent it from becoming hard and wiry."
almost without exception, the early cut and well secured « This practice is unquestionably founded on a correct hay brought a higher price than that made from the same principle, the object of the farmer being to secure his hay varieties of grasses, but not cut till the seeds had matured. 80 as to make it most like grass in its perfect condition. We think much might be gained by sowing in different The nutritive substances of grass are those, which are, for fields, those varieties of grass seeds that mature at about the most part, soluble in water, such as sugar, gluten, and the same time. The southern and western clovers usually other compounds. Now if this is so, it is evident that the ripen before red-top and timothy are sufficiently matured grass should be cut at the time when it contains the for mowing. Orchard grass, June grass, meadow fescue, largest amount of these principles. From its earliest and some other varieties of grasses, worthy of cultivation, growth the sugar and other soluble substances gradually are fit for the scythe about the time the above named increase till they reach their maximuin per centage in the clovers are, and a mixture of these would undoubtedly blossom, or when the seed is fully formed in the cell. make a better quality of hay, than the clover alone. The From this period the saccharine matter constantly dimin- fields of such grasses could be cleared of their crops beishes, and the woody fiber, perfectly insoluble in water fore the northern clover, red-top and timothy would need and innutritious, increases till after the seeds have ma-cutting. These kinds, on well prepared lands, frequently tured, when the plant begins to decay. Of course, if the yield large crops of excellent hay, if cut at the right period, and made mostly in the cock. Some farmers object to a diteh. shonld be provided at the side, and if the soil the culture of the northern or pea-vine variety of clover, is not naturally quite porons, the road-bed shonld be on account of the size and coarseness of its stems; other well turnpiked, so that the water may run off readily at farmers entertain different views-we would refer our each side. Good sluice-ways or culverts, should be proreaders to two notices of this variety of clover, at pages vided in all places where necessary-a matter too often 17, and 75, present volume of the Co. GENT.
neglected, to the great detriment of the roads. In our own experience with this varicty of clover, when As to the material for road-making, it should be remem. cut in blossom, and mostly made in the cock, we find our bered that gravel and hard-pan, or gravelly loam, are the cattle to be fond of it, and they eat the entire stalks as best, and the surface soil-often mere muck--the worst clean as they do that of the finer grasses. There is another material that can be employed. Better leave a road unvariety of coarse or large growing clover, that is liighly worked, than to form with any soil composed largely of recommended by some who have grown it somewhat ex- vegetable mould, a narrow track, which will always be. tensively it is the Swedish or Alsike clorer. Like the come muddy and rutted in long rains, and impassable with northern, it makes a large growth; its blossoms are white, heavy loads in the spring and fall. In many places no and its duration in the soil is much longer than the red turnpike is needed; and when care is taken to keep the clovers. For sced, the first crops of these should be track clear of stone, and proper drains open, it will resaved. The aftermath or second crop does not, like the main in a better state than if thrown up in the usunl manswaller varieties, produce seed worth saving.,
ner. Large stone, say above the size of a man's fist, of the different methods of curing hay, we may have should never be used in filling rats in roads, however deep something to say in a future paper. Ito L . B. they may be, and they should not be more than half this
. .. size if placed near the surface. They are very sure to Roads---Their Construction and Abuses. work up when the ground is softened by thawing'op in Whatever may be the progress of the railway interest. spring. Let them first be broken finely, and they will be. the train cannot stop at every mav's door, and the great come so fixed and consolidated by the travel over them, means of intercommunication must ever remain the com- as to remain permanent. No loose or projecting stones inon turnpiked bighway. In their adaptation to this use should be allowed to remain in the roadway at any season. and good condition at all times, all classes are interested One of the first things to be done in spring, and in
-none more so, however, than the agricultural and in many places it has already been attended to, iš to pass the matter of business and convenience, they may be com- over the roads with the leveling scraper, which smooths pared to the veins and arteries wherein the life-blood of the surface, clears it of stone, and fills up the rnts and the nation's commercinl and social prosperity circulates smaller hollows. These scrapers are in common use, bat and vivifies, from the Lakes to the Gulf —from the Atlantic the most we have seen might be improred by having the to the Pacific. Let us offer a few bints for the benefit of tongue put in differently, so as to allow the scraper to paše those who have the official care of them in our goodly diagonally along the road, instead of at right angle, which State ; who are to enter upon their "honors ” about these would better round up the road-bed, and correct the tendays, as by statute provided.
dency to flatten down naturally prevailing. These should In laying out our roads, the mathematical axiom that be used more frequently-as often at least as the roads “a straight line is the shortest distance between two become rutted and uneven—and where proper turnpikes points," has been too generally regarded, for, unless it is have already been formed, but little other labor will be also a level live, the paradoxical proverb that “the long. found necessary. est way around is the shortest way home,” comes practi. A hint may be useful on the manner of applying the cally nearer the truth. No unnecessary curves should be labor assessed in many districts. It is not often of any allowed, but a good road rather winds around hills than great amount, or enough to effect any very extensive im. runs over them, and may often do this withont increasing provement in the highway, and hence is often frittered its length. And the load which a given power will draw away in "here a little and there a little," begun and not on a level, will require nearly four times that power to finished, of slight advantage to the roads upon which it is draw it up a rise of one foot in a hundred.' Hence it bas applied. It would be the better way to employ the work been established as a rule in road-making, that the length assessed, in making permanent improvements-like drainof a road may be increased twenty times the height to be ing, turnpiking, or gravelling a portion of the road thoavoided, with true economy in the result."
roughly each year-which would in time, make the wholo Most of our roads, however, are already established, and one of the best character. little can be done at leveling or curving-but much may One more topic we must touch upon and we have done. te accomplished in the way of draining, gravelling, and we have spoken of making and mending; now let us derendering permanent. The great difference between a scant briefly upon the abuses of roads. good road and a bad one, usually lies in the fact of their Until we see some man's pig a permanent tenant of his perfect or imperfect drainage. It is as impossible for a good parlor, or his cow stabled in his kitchen, we must allow road to exist where water stands stagnant, and can only people generally to have some idea of appropriateness, pass off by evaporation, as it is to raise good crops on the and of the uses for which a thing is designed. But how same kind of soil. A first-rate underdrain to carry off all strange must be bis sense of the fitness of things, whoso surplus water, will be the most direct means of reducing whole farm or manufactory disgorges itself on the public these mortar beds or bottomless ruts to smoothness and highway--making it the receptacle of all manner of usesolidity, and will do it in a wonderful short space of time. less lumber, and all sorts of business operations. It is his
In many cases, roads are wet and bad because the sur-lumber, wood, and barn-yard; his pasture and pig-pen; face drainage is imperfect--the rains and melting snows he sets his barn or shop butt against it on one side, and making a ditch of the middle of the road. In such cases I his house perhaps a few feet removed, on the other-lining