Imágenes de páginas


the margin with all manner of farming tools and imple inaking to exterminate one of the worst maladies that has ments, with piles of stone and old rails to complete the ever befallen the cattle raisers of the “Old Common

wealth.” Should it be suffered to spread over this counAs long as swine have the freedom of the road, it is estimation of the injury it would be to cattle breeders and

try, as it bas over Europe, no one can make any adequate difficult to keep it free from weeds, for these animals are graziers, unless it be such as have lived in Europe and sure to root up every decent spot of grass as soon as it is witnessed its ravages there. Now is the time to study prefairly established. We once saw, however, a road-ride for vention and thorough eradication—a work that should be perhaps half a mile, as clear of rubbish and as smoothly faithfully performed, though it should cost the killing of and greenly swarded as the finest lawn or park whiclı ever the disease has prevailed.

every herd in Worcester and Middlesex counties, where met our eyes, and though many years have since elapsed, Strange and incredible as it may scem-both in view of we often recur to the scene. Would that its counterpart present facts and the testimony of numerous veterinarians night frequently grace our highways. .

and others of England and Europe, Veterinarians, so call

ed, have denied that the pleuro-pneumonia epizootic is con(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.)

tagious--this too, in view of the demonstrative fact, that

not á solitary case of the disease bas occurred without exTHE PLEURO-PNEUMONIA.

posure, and hundreds have from exposure, as the history The State Commissioners charged with the bloody-work of the malady, in Belmont and North Brookfield and viciniof exterminating the cattle malady, imported into Massa-ty do most incontrovertibly confirin and prove. Such chusetts about a year since, held a meeting in North stupidity would be incredible, but for the consideration Brookfield on Wednesday, the 9th instant, appointed that the race of quacks has not yet been quite extermifor meeting delegations from the various County Socie- nated by the genial reign of knowledge. Ignorance is a ties to consult as to the expediency, among other things, rebel; but, thanks to God, knowledge has the divine of holding cattle fairs the coming autumn. Commission- right to reign, and will in due time exercise the right ers Walker and Lathrop were present, and delegates from to exterminate utterly all empirics and mountebanks, about half of the County Societies, comprising, also, mem- that have hitherto fattened upon the fruits of honest inbers of the Board of Agriculture, with several prominent dustry. Whom the gods would destroy of olden times gentlemen, among whom was Mr. John A. 'Taintor of they first made mad. Hence the folly and madness deHartford.

picted may, after all, be a hopeful indication. GEORGE. Geveral herds were examined and several animals were killed, all showing unmistakable development of the pleuro

(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) pneumonia. A new case was reported in Sturbridge—the DRY AND BRITTLE HOOFS IN HORSES. disease having been carried thither by a cow purchased in the infected district. One consolatory fact attends A reader of the North British Agriculturist, in

every case of pleuro-pneumonia thus far, which inspires quires wbat is considered to be the best remedy for britthe Commissioners with hope, to-wit, that not a case has tle hoofs in horses, and what is the best application for

occurred that is not directly traceable, either tu Belmont, encouraging the growth of the horn generally. In reply, or the "infected district " of the Brookfields, rumors to the following advice is given, which we copy because it the contrary notwithstanding.

may be of service to some of our readers who may have It appears from a statement made, that this fatal epi- trouble about this condition of a horse's foot, or find a zootic was first introduced into this country in 1847, by a horse occasionally lame without being able to account for it, farmer in New-Jersey, Mr. Thos. Richardson. He dis---excessive dryness and brittleness of the hoof being, covered it among his imported stock, and before other though little suspected, one of the many causes of lameherds were exposed, knowing the malignant type of the ness. “Keep the boof moist when the horse is not emdisease, he immediately killed his whole stock, valued at ployed. During the summer, a damp-bottomed meadow $10,000, a most noble act. He lately wrote to a gentle is the most suitable. During winter the feet may be stutt man in North Brookfield, that the only way to get rid of ed with a proportion (inixture) of clay and cow dung, to the inalady, is to kill every herd which has been exposed. which a portion of common salt may be added. To enSone of the farmers assert that the disease has been con- courage the growth of the hoof, remove the hair by scisveyed by moving the hay from a barn where the cattle sors at the top of the pastern, and rub in a little blisterwere diseased.

ing ointment. This will induce a more vigorous growth More than 400 head of cattle have already been killed, of the hoof; but it will not wholly remedy the defect if and as inary more, probably, stand upon the condemned it is constitutional, or if it arises from founder.” list. The pleuro-pneumonia is the all-absorbing topic The above directions about keeping the hoof moist, are, here, and no wonder, for the farms in this fine agricultu- probably, unexceptionable; but we have some doubts ral region are rapidly becoming herdless. Instead of the about the safety and expediency of cutting off the hair cattle upon the hills and the cows coming home at 5 P. m., from above the hoof, and of rubbing in blistering ointto be milked as formerly, now may be seen the yawning ment. First of all, the direction is too vague or indefinite, graves soon to receive the bodies of the working oxen, as no mention is made either of the amount to be rubbed spared until Saturday, the 12th inst., in order that the in at a time, nor of how often it is to be done, nor of farmers may finish their work. The topic is one whose the mode of avoiding the unpleasant effects which may copteinplation brings over the mind deep feelings of sad follow from applying Ulistering ointment, (more properly

blistering plaster,) in the case of both man and horse. On Wednesday cvening a meeting was held in tlie Town Were we pretty confident that the stimulation of the skin Hall of North Brookfield, and the Rev. C. C. Sewell

, of with Spanish flies or blistering plaster, would really prothe Norfolk Co. Ag. Society was called to the Chair. duce some change in the growth of the hoof, we would Speeches were made by delegates from different parts of prefer to apply the blistering material in a liquid and more the commonwealth, in the approval of the work of the manageable shape, as by steeping the flies in diluted alcoCommissioners. The entirely inadequate appropriation bol or in strong vinegar. Any one disposed to try the made by the Legislature, to be expended by the Commis- efficacy of such an application should seek the assistance sioners in the extermination of the disease, las called for of a doctor or a druggist. But probably there will be the raising of a guarantee fund, to enable them to proceed very few who will wish to venture upon a trial, as we know with their work, of not less than $60,000. The meeting of nothing calculated to create any confidence in the effiadopted resolutions approving this, having no doubt that cacy for such a purpose, of blistering ties in any form, the next Legislature will make the necessary appropriation. except the fact that they are employed to some extent in Thus stands the record at present.

the composition of “Hair Restoratives," and "Curcs for It is hoped that success will crown the laudable efforts Baidness.”





REFUSE TAN, OR SPENT BARK. ployed with advantage to some soils-chiefly to tenacious. This article can be had at almost every village without cold clays. Applied to these it acts mechanically, and money, or for a mere trifle in the way of compensation. must serve to make them somewhat more friable. For such, In some instances the tanner would be glad to have it soils tan might even be of more advantage than manure, taken away. The question has been asked by one whose in many cases acting mechanically to loosen and lighten teams returned, from an adjacent village, empty, a great up the soil while it remains undecomposed, and at the times in a year, “Would it be worth the time of loading

same time giving out some fertilizing elements during its and unloading to stop at the tannery and get a load of slow decomposition. In order to secure the fertilizing spent bark, now and then ?" Our answer was a pretty qualities of the spent bark more speedily, some tanners, confident yes, and the following were the principal reasons

we have been informed, burn it and apply the ashes to the alleged in support of it:

land. The method employed by Mr. Durant is, however, 1. Among the various uses of refuse tan, none, perhaps, far more economical, as a rich compost is thereby secured. is so generally known as its power to absorb the urine or

As some have a fear that tan in its undecomposed state other liquids of stables or yards. A considerable amount would be likely to prove injurious to land, perhaps the of fertilizing matter may thus be saved by using tan as

best way of using it, even for clay soils, would be to have bedding for hogs, for cattle and cows, and for horses, or

it, at least, partially decomposed, either by urine or the even perhaps in sheep-yards and under sleep-sheds.' In liquids of a yard, or by mixture with lime or ashes. Either the volumes of the Co. Gent. and CULTIVATOR, 1858, Mr. partially or wholly decomposed it will make heavy soils G. W. Durant gives some account of his manner of using lighter, and tenacious soils more friable. tan-bark as an absorbent, and as litter for various kinds of

3. Spent tan is certainly useful as a mulch in almost all stock. He says that he has been in the habit of employ- cases in which mulching is expedient. ing about one hundred loads in this way every year. In

4. Spent tan is useful as a direct fertilizer. It contains

several earthy and saline ingredients useful and necessary the beginning of summer, for example, he puts a load or

in the growth of plants. two in his hog-yard, and when that is used up (thoroughly

5. It is stated in the Farmers' and Planters' Encyclosaturated,) he puts in more, making his yard so tight that no liquid can escape.

All along until winter he endeavors pedia, that refuse tan is useful occasionally as a top-dressto keep his hogs dry by filling in fresh tan-bark. He lets ing on some grass lands, in a half putrified or eren fresh

state. these yards be undisturbed until spring, when he carts out the manure thus made on bis corn ground. “It bas all

(For the Cultivator and Country Gentleman.) the effect of pure hog monure, which is said to be the best

SUGAR MAKING. manure we can get for that crop, and produces pumpkins in a wonderful manner.”

Eps. Co. Gent.—The sugar crop in Vermont is beconeThe way in which Mr. D. uses tan-bark in his stables is ing an item of considerable importance ; in fact it is one

of the fariner's staple products. The sugar maple abounds as follows:-To a span of horses he puts in a load as bed- here in almost unlimited numbers, and ever stands ready ding, or enough to cover the entire floor eight or ten in- to yield up its sweet stores to add to the farmer's profits. ches deep.

This is forked over every day for ten or twelve There is no sweet that has such a delicious taste as that days, and then carted out and put in piles, or heaps, fresh made from the maple, when it is made so pure and nice as bark being supplied in the stable. This method is pur- makers, that make real genuine sugar. This may be owing

to be almost without color. There are but few sugar sued until hard, frosty weather prevents its being used as partly to carelessness in saving the sap, by allowing leares bedding, when straw is substituted. The manure or com- and other impurities to go into the pan ; but we believe post thus made, he applies to his carrot ground or garden. the main fault is in boiling. It has been found by experiThe urine of the horses has the effect to turn the bark ence and by experiments carefully conducted, by commit. black, and seems to rot it very quick. He mentions as an the sooner the sap is converted into sugar after it runs

tees appointed by the “Farmer's Club" in this place, that illustration of this effect, that a pile made in the spring from the tree, the purer and better the quality of sugar. could not be distinguished from clear muck when carted The sheet-iron pan is at present almost universally used. out for wheat in September. Mr. D.'s mode of using the This is a very great improvement on the old fashioned way bark for stabling cattle, is nearly the same as with horses. nakes a better quality of sugar than could be made in the

of boiling in cast-iron kettles; it not only boils faster, but He covers the floor about six inches deep with the bark, old way. · which, he remarks, makes a nice, clean, soft bed for them, When the sugar pan was substituted for the old kettles, and has the stable cleared every morning of all that gets people were satisfied and never thought of having any. wet, and the remainder leveled off. This method of bed-thing better; but in sugar-making, as well as all other ding cows and cattle is employed except when frosty things, there has been improvements.

The recent invention of " Cook's Sugar Evaporator,” is weather prevents. Mr. D. also fills up bis cattle-yard oc

as much of an improvement over the common pan as the casionally in the fall and during the winter, with bark suf- pan is over the old cauldron kettles hung up in the woods ficient to keep them dry; and so also during the summer, by a chain. I have used one, and can cheerfully recomhe spreads a few loads sufficient to keep the cows that are mend it to all sugar-makers, and especially those that are yarded over nights, dry and clean. The compost or ma- about fitting up new sugar works. Every one knows the nure thus made is occasionally forked over, and then cart. those contemplating building new sugar works, or repair

importance of starting right in any kind of business, and ed out in September for wheat.

ing old ones will find it to their advantage to examine Probably the chief reason why spent bark is so little Cook's new method for boiling sugar. The plan has devalued is on account of the slowness of its decomposition. cided and important advantages over the present system. The foregoing mode of employing it indicates one way in

1st. More sugar can be boiled with the same amount of

wood than in the old way. which this objection may be obviated, or by which the de.

20. It boils faster, and consequently is a saving of time. composition of bark may be accelerated.

3d. The sugar is of a much better quality than can be 2. But even in its undecomposed state bark may be em I made in any other way.

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D. M. i


Mr. Cook's evaporators are made of galvanized iron or very mellow, and on that spot I had the best potatoes. I copper; the copper ones are said to be the best.

then sowed the lot to rye, and on the clay mound the rye The one I have is a No. 3, made of galvanized iron ; is was very heavy-as much again as on any other part of about eight feet long and four feet wide, and is fitted to a the lot. Ever since the lot has been in pasture, and on furnace that is made for the pan. There are fourteen the clay mound the grass can be distinguished a number flanges raised on the bottom of the pan which are one and of rods up to this date as decidedly more luxuriant, and a half inch deep, and about four inches shorter than the the cattle gnaw it more closely as if sweeter.

Such are width of the pan. These flanges make fifteen channels the simple facts. How can the above extract be reconcrossways of the pan, and are left open at every alternate ciled with this statement ?

STEPHEN BULLOCK. end for the free passage of the sap. A tub of sap is Columbia X Ronds. placed at the forward corner with a faucet, so as to run into the first channel, which begins to boil, with a good RAISING EVERGREENS FROM SEED. fire, in the third channel, and continues to boil, growing sweeter and sweeter until it reaches the opposite end and

MESSRS. EditorS--Can any of the numerous readers of opposite corner of the pan, where it runs out in the form the Country GENTLEMAN, tell how to make evergreen seed of good syrup into a tub or pail, and is ready for “sugar- grow—such as pine, cedar, arborvitæ, spruce, fir, &c. ? ing off," I did not get my pan in season for the first run Some say it will take them eighteen months or two years of sap, or not until after the 20th of March; but I must to come up. Now I want to plant some the present spring. say that all the sap boiled in this pan made most excellent | An answer soon to the above query, would be thankfully sugar; in fact, some made after the 5th of April is fully received. ii porno equal to any I ever, made in the common way from the Plant the seed in fine rich mould, covering them by 'first run of sap.

sifting fine earth or mould over them, to a depth of a Mr. Cook’s Evaporator comes highly recommended from fourth to half an-inch-keep the soil constantly moist by persons in high standing, for boiling the juice of the sugar

It is said that sugar of fine quality is obtained from shading, and if the seed are good and fresh, they will come the juice of the Sorghun, when boiled in this pan.

up in a few days. The depth of planting must vary with Our best sugar makers have found that the secret for the size of the seed. The young plants will need constant making the best quality of sugar, is mainly in boiling the shading, at least the first season. sap as soon as possible after it runs from the tree, and have practiced syruping down several times a day.

PRODUCT OF A NATIVE COW. By using the Evaporator you never boil the same sap more than half an hour, as in that time it will be con- Among the premiums offered by the Essex (Mass.) Ag. Soverted into syrup; the sap is running into one end and at ciety in 1859, tvas one of ten dollars for the best milch cow of the same time you have a small stream of syrup at the native brecd, who should yield the largest amount of milk, a opposite end.


correct statement being given to the committee of the weight West Westminster, Vt., April 20.

and mensure of her milk ; but no animal possessed those qualSAND CRACKS IN HORSES' FEET.

ities which, in the opinion of the committee, entitled her to

receive the first premium. To the native cow “Daisy,” ownAs a cure for sand cracks in horses' feet, I will tell you ed by David Merritt, Jr, of Salem, a second premium was *hat cured a horse I owned for a year after he recovered, awarded. “ Daisy" was four years old in April, before boiog and had perfect feet-although I have seen blood ooze exhibited in September, and dropped her second and last calf from both fore feet when he moved. Take a wide chisel, 14 inches is best, place it at right angles with a crack just August 3d. From May 20th, 1859, to September 29th, her above the hoof, and strike it a smart blow with a mallet or

feed was nothing but fair pasturage, except a little of the first lammer. If the crack is a bad one, draw it together with crop of English hay night and morning. From Mr. Merritt's screws put in diagonally between the shoe and top of hoof statement, as published in the Trans. of Essex Ag. Society of -keep the shoe on, the hoof damp, so as to make it 1859, we learn that her milk was measured morning and grow, and give the horse rest for a few days, and you will evening from the 15th of August to the 27th of September, see the crack grow out as the hoof forins above it. If the and it was also weighed. The average daily yield during this ehisel was driven to the bottom of the crack, which is gen- period was 294 pounds, or 14 4.5th quarts. For the first ten erally not over half an inch, the horse must not be driven days in September the average of milk was 324 pounds por hard or trotted fast for at least three weeks. After I sold

day. the horse I spoke of, he was taken to New-York and put in livery. I saw him a year afterwards, and his feet were s. Parker, of Groveland, Mass. She dropped her first call

This cow come from a favorite cow, and was raised by E sound yet.

JAMES THOMPSON. Rose Hill, near Ballston Spa, N. Y.

December 21st, 1857, at the age of two years and eight months

In his account Mr. Merritt further says: " I bought her Jan. (For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.)

uary 12, 1858, and between then and the 13th of January, CLAY AS A FERTILISER.

1959, she gave 2615 quarts of milk, beer measure, or 7027 lbs.,

at 2 lbs. 11 07. per quart, or 9 quarts, 1 pint and I gill per MESSRS. Editors—In Co. Gent., March 29, I find an timates the cost of keeping her for the year to be $71.46. L.

day, wine measure, or 191 Ibs. per day for the year." He esarticle over the signature of J. G. C. He says, page 203 "but if, as in this case, the surface is loain and the sub

CHEAP FENCES. soil pure cold clay, it is ruinous." It 1843 or '44, one of my neighbors wanted to get clay from my land for the Messrs. EDITORS Your readers will find the following manufacture of brick.

Willing to accommodate, but a cheap fence. It has the advantage of taking up but litnot desirous to have a large surface dug over, I request- te room, as the rails are laid nearly straight. It is made ed bim to dig as deep as the clay was good. He dug so as follows: Take your rails and place stones near where deep that they used a ladder to get out of the pit, and the rails lap—then drive two stakes, five feet long, one threw the elay on a stnging, and then out-pure cold sour on each side, and lay up your rails until the third oneblue clay. The clay was drawn a few rods, and there left, then take wire and fasten the stakes together-then lay up and when more convenient it was drawn about one-fourth your rails to the desired height, and fasten wire across the of a mile and manufactured. There was two or three feet top of the stakes close to the upper rails, and your fence depth of clay left, it never having been removed from the is complete, making a large saving of land. first place drawn to. A year or two after, I plowed up Crotches 3 feet long, sharpened and driven in the ground, this field-it still is rather low and moist, and plowed then staked and ridered, make a quick cheap fence, suitthrough this mound of clay, and planted the field to pota- able to keep cattle, &c., out of growing sprouts, &c. toes. Where the clay had been deposited it plowed up! North Chester, N. J.


J. A.


(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.):

HOW TO DESTROY WHITE GRUBS. MESSRS. EpitoRS—"Lock the barn after the horse is stolen," is a trite saying-so asking counsel after the deed MESSRS. EDITORS-A correspondent, some time last fall, is done, may exhibit about the same forethought. I have writes you that the white grubs destroyed his nursery, and ten acres of meadow-soil ueither wet nor dry, but about asked for a remedy. As I have not seen an answer, I will medium--that was seeded about three years ago, to timo give him some of my experience with them. thy and clover, but the last two hard winters (hard for

In the spring of 1846, a field came into my possession meadows) have entirely killed out the clover. Now, had which had been infested with the large white grub for 15 I better sow plaster on this meadow! or, as I have already years, to my certain knowledge, to such an extent that done it, have I done right? In other words, is it advisable they would destroy every hoed crop, and most of the grass to use plaster on timothy-will it pay? Clover, undoubt- or grain. I built a barn near the field, and stocked it with edly, is greatly benefitted by it, but I am not so certain fifteen common hens. When I commenced plowing in about other grasses. I should like also to know the best the spring, with a little grain I trolled them inio the field, time for sowing plaster-whether quite early, or will it do and they quickly learned to follow the furrow, greedily to sow it the fore part of May, or later? Further, would swallowing all the grubs in sight. The field was planted plaster benefit barley and wheat enough to pay the ex- to corn. pense, at $4.50 per ton ?

When I stopped working the land, they commenced 4. Being of an inquiring turn of mind, allow me to ask a scratching, and every time the corn was hoed aud hilled a question or two more and I have done, In what way the hens would level the ground again. Indeed they dug does plaster benefit a crop, when applied ? Is it an active closely to the roots of the corn, often laying them bare fertilizer, or does it attract and retain nourishment from to such an extent that I was fearful they would destroy the the atmosphere or the soil?

crop; but it was far otherwise; the crop was a good one, I have been led to these last questions, from some queer and not a single stalk missing, where there had not been stateme: ts made in regard to its application. For instance, any corn raised for fifteen years, although several times one individual says be has used it in his garden, upon tried. The worms were entirely exterminated that year, cucumbers, melons, squashes and vegetables generally, and there have never been any seen in the field since. with decided advantage, but that it is just as well to put it Now if your correspondent is a practical man, which he into a tin cup, or dish of any kind, and place it near the no doubt is, he will know how to adopt these lints to his plant as to sprinkle it upon the ground around the plant-- particular circumstances, withont any advice from me, if the benefit being as great in one case as the other; this he should think it worth a trial. he knows, for he has tried the experiment. Of course, if Beekmantown, N. Y. he knows, that ends the matter-nothing more need be said. His reasoning upon the subject is about as clear as

[For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) mud-I shall not attempt to give it.

CATERPILLARS ON FRUIT TREES. i I believe there are many opinions as to the effect of plaster, or how it operates as a fertilizer, as well as to the MESSRS. Editors—There is an old adage which says application of other manures. I think the best way is for that “an ounce of preventive is worth a pound of enre." every one to make and apply all the manure he can, in Allow me to advise your fruit growing readers to apply some form or other, and the man who keeps his eyes open, this wise saying to their fruit trees at once, and destroy and observes as he goes along, will be likely to learn about the embryo “apple tree caterpillars” that infest them. as much from experience as from the multitude of theories To some this advice will not need to be given, to others it advanced. J. L. R. Jefferson Co., N. Y

is very important, for an hour spent now in destroying When timothy and clover are sown together, the latter this caterpillar's eggs and freshly hatched young, will save being inostly (not always) a biennial plant, usually gives their tents to our view and great disgust. At the present

days a few weeks benee, when they have spread forth place to the former about the third year, unless special date, April 20th, to 30th, the eggs of this moth-the pains are taken to re-seed the clover. Plaster is usually · American Lacky Moth," are commencing to batch, and a very useful to clover, but very little so to timothy or grain little practice in close observation of our trees will enable crops, and we would not recommend it for them. We any one to easily find and destroy them. For the benefit

of those that are not acquainted with their appearance prefer, as a general rule, to sow quite early in spring, but I will describe them. And perhaps the words of Dr. we have known striking results in some instances, when Fitch, our accomplished State Entomologist, are more apBown after the clover was six inches high.

propriate and accurate than any I can give. He says: Intelligent chemists now favor the opinion that plaster The eggs from which these caterpillars come are placed proves beneficial by forming a constituent part of the plant. near the ends of the twigs, in clusters, forming a ring, or Hence early sowing facilitates its early solution by rains and rather a broad, thick belt, surrounding the branch entire.

ly or in part. In these belts I have counted from 300 its descent among the roots. There are, however, theories to 330 eggs. They are about three-fourths of an inch in enough beside for our correspondent to choose such as he length, and a tenth of an inch thick. The eggs are covered likes best. As specimens we condense a few, as given by over with a thick coating of glutinous matter, which entirely a German chemical writer, as follows: According to hides them from view, and protects them from the weather." Kollner, the lime forms useful compounds with the oxygen discover these eggs, and now is the time for active work.

This description being so clear will enable any one to and carbonic acid of the air ; according to Ruckert, it acts Many are already hatched, and the young worms will be merely as food; according to Mayer, it improves the tes- found usually toward the end of the same twig upon ture of the soil ; according to Riel, it is an essential con- which they were hatched but being minute wiil not stituent of the plant; Hedwig called it the gastric juice of be seen without careful examination-they should all the plant; Girtaner, and others, regarded it as a stiinu- be crushed and the unhatched eggs carried to a fire and lant; Chaptet supposed that it was useful by absorbing burnt, for if merely scaled off and dropped upon the water. According to Laubender, it merely excites without ground, they will batch and find their way to the tree. mixing with the sap; according to Liebig, it absorbs am. With the most careful examination, some clusters will monia ; according to Sprengel, it supplies gulphur; others escape, but the work of destruction will be comparatively bave thought that it promoted fermentation in the soil. small afterwards. And before concluding again, allow me We hope our correspondent will not understand that we to give farther advice, namelyn-cherish the presence propose to endorse all these views—some of them, on the around your homes of that bird of beautiful plumage and contrary, have been proved erroneous by direct experi- sweet song, the American Oriole, or hanging bird ; plant ment—but in citing so many, we merely aim to show how a few trees of the weeping elm, from whose slender doctors disagree.

branches he can swing his nest and rear lis young, and

J. H. H.


allow no idle man or mischievous or wicked boy to frighten

(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) or destroy him or his wind-rocked horne, for one of his

DRIVING BEES. services to man is to destroy this caterpillar just described. I do not know that he touches them at any other stage of in your issue of May 3d, relative to the proper time for dri

Messrs. EDITORS - In answer to the inquiry of " B.B.B.,". their existence, but have frequently seen him drag its ving bees, that if it must be done, the 21st or 221 day after chrysalis from its cocoon and the bloody stain left behind the issue of the first swarm is the best time to secure the least to show the work it has done. Therefore, cherish the possible waste. The reason why, is obvious, from the fact Oriole as a blessing and a friend.

that no eggs will be deposited until another queen, as yet Clark's Hills, Oneida Co., N. Y.

immature, watures, becomes impregnated and assumes ma

ternal duties. By this time, the eggs last deposited by the (For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) old queen-excepting a few in drone cells – have batched, Roup in Fowls---Homøopathic Treatment, &c. beamme larvæ, passed through the various metamorphoses,

and together with the pre-existing larvæ and sealed brood Of all diseases domestic fowls are subjected to, the one te bave come furth from the cells matured, leaving the combs most dread is the roup, calarrh, or suelled head. All fowls, nearly empty of brood. There is no other period, during the and particularly pheasants, are liable to it, and it generally working season of bees, when the combs contain so little brood. proves fatal. In most cases we should sny, kill a roupy fowl Il becs are driven as soon as they commence working in at once, unless it is valuable, as the ri-k of its contawinating the spring. there is much danger of their starving, unless the whole yard is great. At all ovents, when disease of any liberally red; and further, will be of but little or no profit to kind seizes an individual, it is safest to remove it from the their keeper that season ; for the reason, that in spring, they

others as soon os discovered, and put it by itself, or it may are comparatively few in numbers, and if they are obliged to spread over the whole docki

build coule, requiring a large amount of bonoy, time and By some it is considered a catarrhal disease, similar to the labor, a long time must necessarily elapse before the new infuenza in human beings, producing a thickened state of the progeny of the queen will be added to their numbers, during membriine lining the nostrils, mouth and tongue. It is sup, which iheir own scanty few are daily diminishing, so that the posed to originate in changes of weather and variations of col ny will be very much reduced by the time of the now temperature; and the malady becomes confirmed with run- recruits. Besides this, there will be much loss of valuablo ving at the postrils, swollen eyes, and other well koowo symp-brood in the combs from which the colony is to be driven toms--they are termed soupy. The symptoms most promi- to say nothing of the value of the combs themselves. ment are difficult and noisy breathing, a sort of rattling in Having stated what was required by your correspondent, I the throat. The head becomes feverish and much swollen, would now caution him, as well as others who may be interand the eyelids livid, with decay of sight and total blindness. ested, against the ruinous practice of driving bees too fre

There is considerable discharge at the nostrils of fatid mat- quently. If the combs have become mouldy or blled with ter; at the commencement thin and limpid, but after wurds diseased brood, it wight be advisable to drive the bees into a becoming thick, putrid and very offensive.

clean empty hive, or what is better still, one filled with bright About ten days ago we discovered our Golden Pheasant to healthy combs. Do not by any means drive the bees if the be ailing, moping about, feathers staring, and one eye partly combs are healthy and in good condition, even though they

closed, rending it difficult for him to pick up his food. On a have been in use five or six years. Should any bee-keeper vrelose exaunination, we found his head leverish and much swol- still persist in changing his bees as frequently as soino, it len, me eye closed, some feelid matter running from his nos- would be far more economical to use Langstroth's movablo trils, his tongue and the roof of his mouth coated with a yel- frames, and transfer the best combs and those containing low substance, -all sure indications of the presence of roup. brood to the frames, which can be done at any season of the Being a rare and costly bird, we were very anxious to save year. M. M. BALDRIDGE. Middleport, Niagara Co., N. Y. him if possible, as wo had suffered by the loss of one of the "saine kind of bird two years ago. Noticing in the 5th num

RED ANTS. ber of the present volume of the Country Gentleman, an article on Homepathic treatment of fowls for this disease, we Will any of your readers give through the columns of the commenced hy bathing his head, around his eyes and nostrils, COUNTRY GENTLEMAN, a remedy which has been tried and writh gugar-of-lead-water-his head being hot and feverish; found effectual, for the plague of small red ants, which infest then administered four or five drops of belladonna, diluted our sugar aud cake clusets in July and August, and obligo with an equal amount of water. Before giving the belladonna, Middletown, Conn. A DISTRESSED HOUSEKEEPER. we caused the eyes and nostrils to be washed with the arnica We have been told that by spreading ordinary cotton-batZotion, wiping out the offensive matter collected there; then ting upon the shelf, and placing the bowls of sugar or platos putting lim in a warm cage. This treatment was repeated for three days. After the second operation we found evident of cake upon it, the red ants may bo prevented from getting improvement, the swelling of the head gradually decreasing, into them, their legs not being adapted for use upon the loose his eye open, and picking up his food. After the third opera- and fibrous cotton. tion, and fourth day, the effect of the medicine was so appa- This remedy has the advantnge of cheapness and facility rent, that we restored him to his old quarters, so far recovered of trial, and we should like to learn the result if any of our that he is running about eating and drinking as freely as ever. readers put it to the test. Springside, N. Y.

C. N. BEMENT. (For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.]

(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) GOOD VARNISH.

THE BEE-MOTH. MESSRS. EDITORS-I send you a recipe to make an excel MESSRS. EDITORS-Tho bee-moths are excessively annoylent carnish, in answer to the query of a "Subscriber," in ing here, and as I know of no remedy but lifting the gums No. 15, present vol. of “ Co. Gent.," which we recommend par. every morning, which is very troublesome, I would like very ticularly as applicable and beneficial to leather, such as bots, much to get a bive which would keep out these insects. There ebees, harness, &c., and will also answer a good purpose to are a grent many potent hives for sale here at the south; hasten the finish of furniture made of wood, being perfectly but they are generally 80 complicated, and so many have dry in afteen mioutes after being applied. In the applica- proven to be failures in respect to keeping out the moth, that tion of it, it will be necessary to prepare the article, whether I have no confidence. A have my bees hived in the hollow of leather or wood, with a coating of oil; the former with of a gum log, sawed off 24 feet long. Common salt sprinkled fc mer with fish oil, and with linseed for the latter:

under the bottom of these gums or hives keep the moths off in Tuke l gallon of Alcohol.

But still I find some every two or three morn-
I pound of Gum Shellac.

ings. N. A. c. Tillon, Geo.
8 ounces White Turpentino.
4 ounces Rosin.

(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) 2 ounces Oil of Lavender,

CLAMS AND OYSTERS. And when used for leather, 1 ounce of Lampblack

Put the ingredients all together in a clean crock, let it Four eggs-half a pint sweet milk or cream--twelve clams. stand about two weeks well covered. Stir it once a day, and Bake fifteen to twenty minutes. when fully dissolved, it will be fit for use. D. SHALLENBERGER. OYSTERS--three eggs, half a pint cream-half pint oystors, Pike Run, PC

and a little salt-bake.

some measure.


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