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in trials, or taking six acres per
07 09 0 18
1.79 2 29
to $3,250 nearly), assuining 200 as the
consequence of a large portion of the second crop, that nuinber of working days in the year,.. O 13
is usually saved for seed, having been cut for hay.
Again—the raising of clover for hay and seed both, On the light land the work was performed, including does not receive the attention its importance demands in stoppages, at the rate of 77 acres per day of ten hours. the grain-growing sections of the country. Comparatively The actual rate of travelling, while the plows were in full few farmers seem to understand that instead of all the swing, was 3.83 feet per second, which gives about 1.031 tronble and expense of putting in and taking care of an acres per hour, the soil moved (fuur plows) being 3 feet 4 exhausting grain crop, a crop of clover, which, if well inches wide by 6 deep.
more On the heavy land, 4 acres, 3 roods, 12 poles were only improve the land during its growth, but furnish maplowed in nine hours, thirty-nine minutes, equal to five terials for five times the amount of manure usually made acres per day of ten hours; the same sized furrows being from a crop of grain, may be raised with very little labor taken with Cotgreave's Trenching Plow, the rate of work and expense, except the trouble of gathering, and that was of course greatly diminished. The furrow was 12 to this is mostly done when other work is not pressing. 14 inches deep, while the width (two plows used) was 20 Nor is it as difficult to raise clover seed as it is supposed inches. About the same quantity of soil was removed as to be by many farmers. On good dry land, clover may be by the other plows; but a little more power was con- sown with wheat, rye or barley, and if the grain is well sumed. The work done was just 40 poles per hour, or 24 put in and a dressing of plaster given at the time the cloacres per day.
ver seed is sown, it will generally take well, and give a These results enable us to give the cost of plowing, by good crop." Then all that is necessary to be done in order Fowler's machine:
to get a good
d crop of seed, is to be sure and cut the first Of light land át. At illa
£0 63.0d. per acre, $1.50 According to the rate of work done
crop ane timə. The crop of seed is generally cut the
season; from the 25th June to 4th July is
usually day as the average, at.
latter part of September, when other work is not driving. Of heavy lund, or trenching ditto,..
Getting out the seed can be done at any leisure time in the 1. Our estimate of the quality and value of the work thus winter. The straw and chaff will go far towards paying performed is that the light land could not have been done for the operation, being valuable for bedding and manure; by horse-power for less than 8s. ($2) per acre; that the and when all is done, the farmer will find that he has a heavy land could not have been plowed by horse-power crop that will bring hin the cash, and one that he has for less than 12s. 6d. ($3.62) per acre; and that the probably raised easier and cheaper than any other product trenching could not have been done by horse-power at all. of his fields of equal value. The Committee further express the opinion that these
There are other advantages in raising elover which may estimates of expense represent the extreme maximum, and growth and the depth to which the long tap root descends,
be briefly mentioned, as in consequence of its early quick close with the award of the $2,500 prize, and the conclu- clover is less liable to be affected by summer droughts than xion “ that Mr. Fowler's Machine is able to turn over the any other kind of grass usually cultivated on dry land. soil in an efficient manner, at a saving, as compared with so, also, where a considerable amount of feed is wanted horse labor, of, on light land 24 to 25 per cent.; on heavy in the middle or latter part of the season, clover, which
may be cut on or before the first of Juiy, will start again land, 25 to 30 per cent.; and in trenching, 80 to 85 per and give a good bite, sooner, perhaps, than any other kind cent., while the soil in all cases is left in a far more desira- of grass. Also in seasons of excessive drouth, clover fields ble condition, and better adapted for all the purposes of that were intended for seed, will be found a valuable rehusbandry." While we met with several gentlemen in source for pasture, as they will generally give a good run
of fresh feed when other meadows and pastures are badly England who seemed to think the hearty com aendation
dried up. F. Orleans Co., N. Y. of this Report sanctioned by the facts of the case, we were not convinced that the sober sentiment of " practical TOP-DRESSING MEADOW LANDS. men" had yet been brought to look at the subject in quite
Messrs. EDITORS—The subject proposed for discussion so favorable a light.
at the Lecture room of the Agricultural Building, during
the holding of your State Fair in October, viz., “The GROWING CLOVER.
application of manures to the soil," will ever be a fruitful MESSRS. EDITORS—As hay has been a short crop, and topic for farmers to think upon, both in the United States
and elsewhere. sells for high prices, and consequently is receiving considerable attention, it has occurred to me that a few
thoughts verity as in some of the middle States, all the New England
In all latitudes where winter prevails with as much seon the advantages of raising clover may not be out of States, and the British possessions of North America, it place, besides the general advantages of clover in a rota- becomes a great object with the agriculturist, to render his tion of crops and in improving the farm. The past season fields as productive as possible of nutritious hay for winter has shown that there is some things peculiar to clover which should not be forgotten. One of these was that consumption and good pasture for summer feed. Upon while the crop of grass was nearly ruined in old timothy
this subject, therefore, you will allow me to make some meadows by the June frost, clover was not injured, al remarks relative to New Brunswick practice. though it was not very heavy in consequence of May and
In the vicinity of the city of St. John, there is an exJune being very dry; but if the first crop of clover was
tensive tract of flat land, known as the “marsh,” which less than an average, the second crop made it up. Where was originally overflowed by the sea, but from which it is the first crop was cut in scason, the second was the best, several thousand acres; and the farmers who occupy it,
now kept out by an - aboideau." The marsh contains having in consequence of seasonable rains in July and devote it principally to hay. Its proximity to the city August, made a taller and thicker growth, so that now enables them to purchase" large quantities of manure, those that depended on old tirnothy meadows for hay have which, with the exception of what is applied to the pro
very short crop, while others that had good clover fields, duction of turnips, carrots, &c., is all put upon the and cut two crops for them, are buying up cattle at the meadows as top-tressing. The land being of a spongy present low prices, being in some instances able to winter more than their usual amount of stock or where the nature and liable to run out quickly, it is all ridged up in second crop was saved for seed, will have a good crop The material from the ditches is used, as far as it will go,
lands, varying in width, according to the nature of the soil. of clover seed to sell, with good prices in prospect, in
to compost with the manure. Some farmers haul manure daily from the city, placing it in large heaps alongside
fields which need it most. After the hay is taken offBy ploughs,... Cotgreave,..
from the first of September till late in the fall, the top
6 in. .20 in. by 12 in.
dressing goes on—sometimes with the compost, at others pared at the mills or larger towns, and with absolute conwith the dung. Early in the spring, after the snow goes ditions of lightness for transportation and economy in off, and while the ground is still frozen, so that wheels construction, shows pretty conclusively the origin of the will not cut up the surface, dung is hauled in and spread so-called Balloon Frames-a frame that, throughout the freslı from the wagon. The manure is principally made great West, is almost exelusively used in the construction from horses, and there is not a great deal of straw through of every grade of wooden buildings, from a corn-crib to it, so that it spreads evenly and lies close among the roots the largest railroad freight depot--adapted to sustaining of the grass. This land averages from two to three tons heavy loads; entirely secure from lateral thrust; without per acre, and rents frequently for .£3 an acre.
a mortice or tenon or brace; exposed to all the fury of In connection with the production of hay is the produc- the prairie blasts, it stands, with more than 30,000 examtion of milk. The marsh farmers are all, more or less, ples of every conceivable size and forin, a perfect success. engaged in this business; and the high condition of the So general is its use west of Lake Michigan and throughmeadows furnishes a large amount of fall food for the out California, that a builder of the old style of timber cows. Many soil their cows a good deal, and for this frame would be regarded with the same sympathy as a man purpose use oats sowed thick-upon this soil oats would who prefers to travel by stage instead of by rail. lodge and be worthless; but by sowing early and cutting The decreased amount of timber to be used, the whole when a foot or so high, they get two crops from the saine labor of chopping, hewing and framing dispensed with; piece of land. In this way the winter accumulation of the great economy in its construction, and the case with manure is added to very materially, and, as I before sta- which any intelligent man who can lay out a right angle ted, it is all, with a small exception, applied as top-dress- and adjust a plumb line may do his own building, are ing. The farmers, therefore, in this district, are firm among its recommendations. Adherents to the principal of surface application of manure; The moment the foundation is prepared and the bill of for it produces for them a great burtben of hay-au abun- lamber on the ground, the balloon frame is ready to raise, dance of sweet pasture, and these, a well filled udder in and a man and boy can do all of it. The sills are genethe cow and a big manure heap at the barn.
rally 3 inches by 6 inches, halved at the ends or corners, And now, a word relative to my own practice. My and nailed together with large nails. Having laid the farm contains a clayey subsoil, and is what may be de- sills upon the foundation, the next thing in order is to put nominated a grass farm. Some years ago I had a field up the studding. Take a 2 by 4 stud of any length, stand which had become so run down that the bay was hardly it on the corner, set it plumb, and with a couple of stay worth cutting. In the fall I plowed about an acre in laths secure it in position. Nail the stud by four large ridges and top-dressed it the following spring with barn- nails driven diagonally, two on each side, through bottom yard manure, at the rate of 25 loads to the aere, harrowing of stud into the sill. Continue to set up studs on end, 16 it in well. I sowed oats and seeded down with timotly inches between centers, around the entire building, and and clover seed. The crop was an excellent one, and the secure each in the same manner. Pay no attention to the catch of grass seed first-rate. The next fall I plowed the length, for they can be readily spliced or cut off when the remainder of the field, and treated it in the same way.- time comes. Leave the necessary openings for doors and The oats yielded at the rate of 40 bushels to the acre.-windows. Some prefer to put 4 by 4 studs alongside the The next season the yield of grass was good; and after window frames and for door posts, and also at the comers, the spring work was over I drew to the head of the field but they are not necessary, unless the building be a large the manure from the sheep-yard and what I scraped up one. The best plan for corners, and one usually adopted, around the barns, and made a compost heap with the soil is to place two 2 by 4 studs close together, so they form a of the headland-turned it over once-aud applied it after right angle, that is, the edge of one stud placed against haying. Suffice it to say, that my worn-out field yielded, the side of the other, so as to form a corner. Next put in for several years, luxuriant crops of bay and a full bite in the floor joists for the first floor, the ends of the joists to the fall, without a particle of the fertilizing element, save come out flush with the outside face of the studding; nail the sod being plowed under. Since then I have continued the joists, which are 2 by 11, one to each stud at both to treat my meadows as the grass becomes light, in the ends and diagonally through the edge to the sill on which same manner and with equally satisfactory results. J. D. they rest. Next measure the height to ceiling, and with M. Keator. Hammond River, New Brunswick. a chalk line mark it around the entire range of studding;
below the ceiling line notch each stud one inch deep and BALLOON FRAMES.
four inches wide, and into this, flush with the inside face
of the studding, nail an inch strip four inches wide. This (Written for the CULTIVATOR and Co. Gentleman by GEO. E. Wood- notch may be cut before putting up the studs. If the
WARD, Architect and Civil Engineer, 335 Broadway, N. York.) frame be lined on the inside, it will not be necessary to In these days of ballooning it is gratifying to know that notch the strip into the studs, but simply to nail it to the there is one practically useful, well tested principle which studding; the object of notching the studding is to prehas risen above the character of an experiment, and is sent a flush surface for lathing, as well as to form a shouldestined to hold an elevated position in the opinions of der or bearing necessary to sustain the second floor; both the masses. That principle is the one applied in the con- of these are accomplished by lining inside the studdingstruction of what are technically, as well as sarcastically, (for small barns and out-buildings that do not require plastermed Balloon Frames, as applied to the construction of tering, nail the strip 4 by 1, to the studding) on this all classes of wooden buildings.
rests the joists of the second floor, the ends of which come Since Solon Robinson's description of the mode of build- flush to the outside face of the studding, and both ends of ing balloon frames, published a few years ago in the N. Y. each joist is securely nailed to each stud; the bearing of Tribune, there appears to have been but little further infor- the joist on the inch strip below it is close by the stud, and mation furnished on the subject.
thie inch strip rests on a shoulder or lower side of the notch Who the originator was is not known; the system is not cut to receive it. This bearing is so strong that the joists patented. The first approach in that direction is a plan will break in the center before the bearing gives way. for a portable cottage or tent, or a combination of both, No tenoned joist in the old style of frame will hold half published in Loudon's Encyclopedia of Architecture, some
the weight. twenty years ago. It is more than probable, however,
The joists being nailed securely to the side of each stud, that the ballon frame bas been known since the early set the lateral thrust caused by heavy weight, as hay, mertlement of the West, or after the demand for a class of chandize, &c., is in the direction of the fibre of the wood. buildings above the grade of a log cabin. The settlers on
The tensile strength of American White Pine is sufficient the prairies, remote from timber, now find, as a matter of to sustain 11,800 pounds* for each surface inch in its cross
section. Medium bar iron will sustain 60,000 lbs. per economy, that frame buildings are the most desirable, a comfortable log cabin really costing more money; and square inch of its cross section surface, so that white pine from the fact of portable buildings or frames being pre
* Authority, C. II. Harwell
The Nutrition of Plants.
pulled or strained in the direction of its fibre is equal to THOUGHTS SUGGESTED BY "LIEBIG'S LETTERS." nearly one-fifth of the strength of iron. If, in erecting a
The Country GENTLEMAN has lately contained a series building, we can so use our materials that every strain will come in the direction of the fibre of some portion of the of articles in review of the last publication from the pen wood work, we can make inch boards answer a better pur- of this distinguished chemist. We cannot make room for pose than foot square bears, and this application of mate the whole of them in The CULTIVATOR, but have selected rials is the reason of the strength of balloon frames. the followidg extracts :
When the building is designed for storage, it is customary to set an outside strip into the studding at the ends In the interior of the plant, chemical changes are perof the building on which to nail the ends of the flooring, petually going on, which convert potash, ammonia, phosso that the thrust of the building endways is in the diree-phoric acid, &c., into parts of its solid tissues, thus remotion of the fibre of the flooring, and sideways, as before ving them from its juices or sap. Even a portion of the stated, in the direction of the fibre of the joists.
water, which this movement excites as the chief ingredient We have now reached the second floor. A third floor of the juices of a growing plant, becomes shortly a part of if required, is put in in the same manner. Having reached the plant itself-is solidified in the shape of starch or the top of the building, each stud is sawed off to an equal sugar, or other substance. height; if any are too short they are spliced by placing Now, let a plant be situated in the soil with its roots in one on top of the other, and nailing a strip of inch board contact with soil water, (which is often mere moisture, but on both sides. The wall plate, 1 by 4 inches, is laid flat is
, nevertheless, always water holding in solution, in all on top the studding, and nailed to each stud; the rafters fertile soils, a sufficient though exceedingly minute portion are then put on; they are notched, allowing the ends to of mineral matters,) and the way in which it is fed is as project outside for cornice, &c. The bearing of each rafter
follows: comes directly over the top of each stud, and is nailed to it. Put in the partitions, and the balloon frame is com- various substances that now are contained in it, in the
By the chemical changes that occur in the plant, the plete, and in labor
, strength and economy, stands un- liquid form, vi.., water, and the well known organic and equalled. If lined inside of the studding with common mineral ingredients of the vegetable juices, are being conlumber, and clapboarded outside, it is beyond the reach of stantly removed from solution, and deposited in the solid harm from any test within the bound of reason, and, I will form. If, then, there exist externally to the plant, matventure to say, unapproachable in strength and durability ters that
can restore the original composition of the juices, by any form of the old fashioned style of frame.
these matters must diffuse through the root cells of the This style of frame can be used with confidence for plant inwardly, and restore the osmotic equilibrium. barns of all sizes, for all manner of dwelling houses, out. Thus the plant behaves toward all the substances which it buildings, &c., and can be put up by anybody of the least requires for food, just as a piece of caustic potash towards mechanical genius. In Rural Architecture it is a good carbonic acid gas, and no matter how dilute the solution desideratum, and although ridiculed by eastern mechanics, of these bodies may be, they are still accessible to it.it will assume the same importance that it has and still Thus, in the water of the ocean grow the sea weed, which, occupies in the West. There are many different plans for building these frames out an enormous surface to the water, and gathers from it
having one slight point of attachment to the rocks, spread Some lay the first floor, and commence the frame on top not only the common salt which is so large an ingredient of it-others, for small buildings, put in the studding 4, 6 of its native element; but also the much rarer potash, or 8 feet apart, with horizontal strips between, which is a phosphoric acid, &c.; and in addition to those ingredients good plan where vertical siding is used—others tenon the ordinarily met with in land plants, the interesting element, studs and mortice the sills—not desirable, as it injures them, iodine, is found in them. The iodine of commerce (exmakes more work, and hastens the decay of the timber. A first class balloon frame should be lined, if for verti- is nearly all obtained from the ashes of sea weeds, yet this
tensively used in photography, and misused in medicine,) cal siding, outside the studding—if horizontal siding is body is doubtfully, or not at all detectable even in the used, line inside; it makes the frame stiffer and the build. concentrated mother liquors coming from large quantities ing wariner. Some line diagonally, say from center next of sea water, though the chemist possesses the most delithe first floor towards extreme upper corners both ways; cate tests for it, being able to recognize it with the greatothers line one side diagonally in one direction, and the est certainty when it forms but 1-100,000 of a liquid. other in an opposite direction. This makes assurance of
The fact that sea-weed, or the plants that are reared in strength doubly sure. If lined inside, nail perpendicular close green-houses, or in Ward's cases, where no evaporalath to the lining 16 inches from centers, and on this lath tion of water from their leaves can take place, and where horizontolly for plastering
consequently much transpiration of water is out of the If the house be much exposed, fill in between the stud- question, demonstrates that there is no connection between ding with brick turned edgeways, and laid in mortar.- the amount of water exhaled and the quantity of matters Put up in this manner the balloon frame building is as absorbed by vegetation. warm as any other known style of wooden building. No
Liebig versus Lawes, Hook and Ladder Company could ever pull it down; they
Latterly we hear more abroad than in this country, of might roll it end over end, like a basket, and with as little the mineral theory” of Baron Liebig, and the nitrogen buccess of destroying it.
theory" of Lawes, Stockhardt and others; and there has It has been thoroughly tested in every position, and arisen in Germany and England, a long and bitter controfound fully adapted to every known want for which wooden versy between the representatives of these theories. Each buildings are required, mills and manufactories excepted. of the opposing parties in this conflict would lead their Buildings for storage should have timber adapted for their readers to suppose that the other side of the question from uses; but the cutting of mortices and tenons, and boring theirs was utterly wrong, and could be maintained only by auger holes, thus redueing a heavy stick of timber to the the hopeless vietims of prejudice and ignorance. etrength of one very much smeller, is a decided mistake.
On the one hand the impression is conveyed that Liebig If the rural community want stronger buildings at a much regards ammonia, (nitrogen,) as of trifing importance as less price, let them adopt the balloon frame.
On the other, it has been distinctly gathered
by the lookers on, that Lawes is satisfied that agriculture Cow Stables.-G. C. Warren of Medina Co., Ohio, has all its wants supplied, if only ammonia (and phosphoric writes to the Ohio Cultivator, that he has secured clean acid) can be had in abundance. But if we look carefully cows by raising the floor where they stand two inches into the matter, we find that the disagreement is, after all, above the remainder of the floor, and just long enough for more in expression than in idea. Both Liebig and Lawes them to stand upon--from four to five feet-according to believe that phosphoric acid and ammonia are indispensathe size of the cow. They lie on the raised floor, while ble; both believe that the alkalies, earths and other ingrethe manure falls below.
dients of the ash of plants, are necessary to the growth of
vegetation. They differ in their estimate of the relative He quotes the Roman agricultural authors, Cato, Virgil, importance of these ingredients, and of the precise function Varro, Columella and Pliny, to show that in their time, which some of them perform.
high-farming was well understood in its essential points, Now, while it is perhaps true that Lawes has attached and declares that “all these rules had, as history tells us, undue importance to the direct effects of ammonia, it is only a temporary effect; they bastened the decay of Roman also true, as has been remarked, that Liebig by his inge- Agriculture." nious advocacy of the opposite view, has left the impres- The farming of this country is employed as the gloomiest sion in the minds of many of his readers, that he attaches illustration of the "spoliation system.” We are well no value to artificial supplies of ammonia. Many isolated aware that there is abundance of bad farming in this paragraphs of his late writings, do indeed justify such an country; but we were not prepared to learn that the ruin impression, but if we take the trouble to get at the true of our agriculture is so impending. We know, indeed, meaning, by comparing different chapters of this book, we that "the early colonists in Canada, in the State of Newfind his ideas are tolerably correct.
York, in Pennsylvania, Virginia, Maryland, &c., found The argument of Baron LIEBIG is essentially as follows: tracts of land which, for many years, by simply plowing The atmosphere is an unfailing and sufficient source of and sowing, yielded a succession of abundant wheat and nitrogen, as shown by its supplying all the wants of the tobacco harvests; no falling off in the weight or quality of most luxurious natural vegetation, and by the fact that the crops, reminded the farmer of the necessity of restothis element accumulates in the soil of prairies and forests. ring to the land the constituents of the soil carried away Those cultivated crops, too, in which the most nitrogen is in the produce,"—but it is hard to believe what our author removed from the field, (peas, clover, and root crops,) are further asserts. He says: “We all know what has bethose which, in practice, are found to be least benefitted come of these fields. In less than two generations, though by nitrogenous manures; and, therefore, we must seek to originally so teeming with fertility, they were turned into explain the action of such manures on other crops, as the deserts, and in many districts brought to 'a state of such cereals, whose growth they favor so greatly, by some indi- absolute exhaustion that even now, after having lain fallow rect effect.
This view is further supported, according to more than a hundred years, they will not yield a remuLiebig, by the fact that all soils, even those which are nerative crop of a cereal plant.” ! infertile, contain a large amount of nitrogen, immensely
Nature's Supplies of Mineral Pood. greater than is yielded by the heaviest dressings of guano.
It is not needful to return as much mineral matters to Our author thus teaches us that,
the soil as are removed in the crops, in order to keep up “ As our cultivated plants undoubtedly absorb through the leaves as the fertility of a country. If it were, then the mevitable the air, ils yell as dissolved in rain and dew, as uncultivated plants result of certain natural causes would depopulate the globe. can therefore conceive that the agriculturist will seldom have to seek The rains, the rills, the rivers, all the sea-ward tending the reason of his poor crops in a deficiency of ammonia or nitroge- waters are perpetually carrying down detritres and solved nized food alone. Effects of Nitrogenous Manures.
matters to the ocean, in quantity a million-fold greater
than man's best devices can return; but the soil does not It has been abundantly proved by many experimenters, for that reason grow poorer. The soil is given to man to but especially by Lawes and Gilbert, that the use of am
The materials from which it is made exist certainly monia alone, in many cases is sufficient to increase the in inexhaustible quantity, and for the most part, the soil wireat crop by one half or more, even when phosphates, itself is inexhaustible. If we calculate how many crops are alkalies, &c., are present in excess, while phosphates alone represented by the materials of the soil, we find that on have made a crop of turnips, on soil that without them the whole, there is an immense margin for removal, before yielded no crop, no matter how much ammonia was added. exhaustion can occur. There are large tracts of country
These facts point to the difference in the nature of vari- the soil of which is easily exhausted, and slowly replaces ous plants, as the true explanation of the contrary effects itself from the underlying rocks; but on the other hand, of manures, and it is most undoubtedly true, that while the there are enormous stretches of territory the soil of which natural supplies of ammonia or nitrogenized food, are more is perpetually and rapidly renewed from subjacent strata than sufficient for the natural vegetation of a country, or of crumbly shales, and others again occupied with a rich for large leafed and slow-growing plants, they are insuffi. soil to a greath depth, capable of supplying the mineral cient for some of the cereals whose period of growth is materials for thousands of crops. short, and whose foliage is scanty.
It is true, that by constantly removing and never reThis principle Liebig arrives at in his sixth letter, and storing, the soil is exhausted. It is true that even the there he unfolds its bearing and application in a highly wheat fields of Southern Rassia and our Western Prairies, instructive manner, and fully admits the value of nitro- suffer a reduction of fertility by constant cropping; but it genous fertilizers, although before he seemingly opposes must not be forgotten that these soils, which supply the any such admission, and in fact directly contradicts himself. chief exports of agriculture, restore themselves to such a
Liebig on Stable Manures and American Farming. degree that by the simplest art they maintain their fer. Green-manuring, or the use of stable manure made from tility perfectly! the produce of the farm, adds nothing but organic matters The census returns, notoriously imperfect in themselves, to the soil, and Liebig, by a single stroke of incomplete, do not take at all into account the ravages of insects, the and therefore, in effect, false logic, is led to assert the influence of adverse weather, and other causes which condogma that "the presenee of decaying organic matter in spire to diminish the yield of wheat in the “Genesee a soil, does not in the slightest degree retardor arrest its country," and accordingly facile writers of the alarmist exhaustion by cultivation,” it being " impossible that an order, have made it believed abroad that the garden of increase of these substances can restore the lost capacity New-York is almost a desert, while the fact is that the soil for production."
there is still extraordinarily fertile. True, their power of Liebig goes on to declare that all the modern devices of production has fallen considerably, but only to such a point high farming, the use of guano and similar manures for that by plowing in clover one year, a perfect crop of wheat the purpose of growing fodder with which to make more is obtained the next; and we are assured that under such yard manure, are only a more systematic, elaborate, and treatment, farms in that region have not diminished a speedy method of exhausting the soil and impoverishing whit in their productiveness for 20 years. the nations.
Our Doctrine. "The European system of cultivation called high-farın- Our doctrine is, that every soil admits of the removal ing, is not that open system of robbery of the American of a certain portion of its mineral matters, without imfarmer, followed by the utter exhaustion of the soil; but poverishment or danger of exbaustion. The quantity that it is a more refined species of spoliation, wbich at a first may thus be removed, is that which a field yields natürally glance does not look like robbery. It is spoliation accom- by the simplest tillage, and without manure. It is what panied by self-deception, veiled under a system of teach the weathering each year renders soluble and available. ing, the very basis of which is erroneous,"
The use of manures, or of more perfect tillage, is to supply the excess of matters contained in a full crop over what is NEW-YORK STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. contained in the partial one which the unaided soil may yield. It is not necessary on a fair soil, to add as much struction essential and practically useful to the Agricultural interests mineral matters as are taken off; in order to maintain its f the State; to combine theory with practice; to atford wholesome disusual productiveness, and if to any soil, other things being and industry.
cipline to the mind, accumulation of knowledge, and habits of labor properly adjusted, we add as much as is taken off, we
We think we are only expressing the uniform sentiment increase its fertility, because, then, the disintegrating pro- of the Agricultural community, when we say we have cess constantly increases its floating or available capital.
If, as Liebig's doctrines would demand, the only proper watched the foundation of the institution,--at the head of Agriculture—the only plan of farming not ruinous and a whose proposed course of instruction stands the above system of robbery-consisted in restoring annually to the paragrapu, --with not a little anxiety for the result of the soil as much mineral matters as are removed in the crops, experiment. So much seems to us to depend upon its how impossible it would be to farm profitably in the long suecess or failure--the future interests of Agricultural run-how impracticable to avoid leaving to our heirs an impoverished soil !
education in the United States appear to be so intimately
connected with a project now matured at the expense of facts, Opinions and Notes.
much thought, money and time, and which from the posi
tion of the State not less than from that of the gentlemen (Collated from Books and Papers for Tue COLTIVATOR.] who have been engaged in it, must ultimately lead to great Wheat-EIGHTY. BUSHELS PER ACRE.-S. P. Mason of good op to great disappointment that, in common with Walnut Creek, N. Y., tells the New York Tribunè how he every thinking observer, we could vot but desire to give grew wheat at the rate of 80 bushels per aere.
" He in
all possible encouragement to its friends and managers. closed with boards an exaet rod of dry, gravelly soil, and spaded it eighteen inches deep, mixing in well-rotted And now that a new President has been chosen, and a proclayey turf sitted, to the amount of a cart load, and a peck gramme of operations laid before the public, this desire of salt, half a bushel of ashes, and one pound of guano. becomes stronger than before. It has been intimated that Then marked the bed into squares of three inches, and the President and Trustees propose during the winter to planted, Sept. 10, one grain in a hole two inches deep in lay the merits and prospects of the College before the the center of each square, using nine grains to each foot, farmers of the State, and we bespeak, what we are already which he thinks is too thick. It came up in eight days, and by Dec. 1 it was a perfect mat, so that the ground was sure they must receive, a candid hearing and attentive rehidden. On this he sifted three pecks of charcoal dust, gard of the facts and arguments they may present. and when the snow melted off in March the wheat was
We condense as concisely as possible, the "outline" very green. It was watered a little in a dry time, and which follows the paragraph we have quoted above :harvested July 10, after the birds had taken a share, and
“Course, three years--two Terms annually. Requisites of Admis. dried, and the grain weighed 29: pounds. He says if it sion-the reading, writing and granımar of the English language, and had been undisturbed by birds the yield would have been higher arithmetic; sixteen years of age, and good moral character
Instruction, board, lodging, lights and fuel, $200 per annum-one-hal full 30 pounds--that is half a bushel per rod square, or at seini-annually in advance. the rate of 80 bushels per acre. The seed was called
** The studies of the first year are the English language, Arithmetic,
Algebra, Chemistry, Mineralogy, Geology, Botany and Geometrical * California wheat," but whether bald or bearded, white Drawing of the second Trigonometry, Analytical Geometry, Suror red, he does not say. Nor does he say whether it would keying. Construction of Roads, &c, Agricultural Chemistry, Minepay to cultivate on a large scale for 80 bushels per acre." Anatomy, Vegetable Physiology, and Drawing"- that is, in the Sum
Suur ix WHEAT-AN EXPERIMENT. —An experiment is metry. Engineering. Carpentry, Bridges, &c., Natural and Experimen related in the Rural New-Yorker, where three plots of tal, l'hilosophy, Agricultural Chemistry, Mineralogy, Geology and ground exactly alike were sown with wheat to test the Anatomy continued, Principles of Veterinary Practice, Book-keepcause of smut The first was sown with smut wheat, and ing: Prawing, Farm Implements, Machinery. Architecture, &c." of the [of course) did not grow. The second was sown with cultural, l'hysical Geography, &c., Intellectual and Moral Philosophy, bruised wheat, broken in threshing, which some think the Rhetoric and Logic, Constitution of the United States and of the state
of New York; Laws of New York relating to Contracts, Highways, cause of smut. A few kernels grew, but produced no Fences, &c. ;' Book-Keeping applied to the Farm; Entomology, Or smut. The third plot was sowed with good wheat rolled nithology: Accoustics and optics." For the winter term= Astronomy, in smut until the kernels were entirely black with it. The sophy. (including Evidences of Christianity and Natural and Revealed product was one-half smut wheat.
Religion,) Rhetoric and Logic continued, Veterinary Practice; Draw
ing of Animals, Landscape, Composite, &c." OATS AND GRASS IN ROTATION.- A writer in the Bos- This is certainly a comprehensive list. In the intervals ton Cultivator proposes the devotion of the farm princi- of leisure enjoyed, the freshmen and juniors are to be inpally to oats and grass-would plow up old meadows and pastures in sumıner, and sow the next spring to oats
structed successively, seeding again to clover, timothy and red-top. After re- crops, management of the dniry. &c., making and preserving manures,
"In plowing, spading, care of hoed crops gathering hay and grain maining in grass two years he would take another oat crop, care and feeding of store animals, root and stock crafting, taking and so on in a 3 years rotation. If the oat crop succeeded trees and shrubs,
making fences and walls, draining and irrigation, well on inverted sward land, it might pay--but we have training, pruning, grafting and budding, handling teams, loading never found it to do so. If one was sure of getting grass tening, breeding, and rearing stock, training steers, handling cattle. with oats it might pay, but there is great risk of a bare training celts to, saddle, harness or draught, preparing timber for
&" stubble instead of a well stocked grass field.
An etc. marks the end of each term in this enumeration HEDGES. --A late number of the Rural New-Yorker has of the outdoor branches of attainment which are promised several conmunications from those who have tried hedges. in two years. The Seniors are to make Topographical One in Illinois, who had previously discovered that the Maps for various purposes, collect specimens, have practice Osage Orange was too tender, found that the objection was in Essays and Lectures, experiment in the laboratory, take entirely obviated by shearing at the close of summer, charge of all experiments in fattening and feeding stock, which shortened the growth and made the whole hardier. "&c., &c.” He has experimented five years--three without shearing, In order to "apply the Theory to the Practice of Husand with failure; and two with shearing, and with entire bandry," both of which are supposed to be reflected, re
Another correspondent, at Troy, N. Y., tried spectively, in the in-door and out-door pursuits thus recaHawthorn, but the borers are destroying it rapidly. He pitulated, the “students will be required to spend such bas also tried the Newcastle thorn, but although it escapes time in the field as may be necessary.". the borer, it inakcs a poor hedge. He finds the privet to We have not space for further particulars or remarks. grow admirably, but the handsome hedge it forms is rather These general facts are submitted for the reflections and too weak for the farmer.
conclusions to which they may bring the reader.