Imágenes de páginas
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

ALL KINDS OF AGRICULTURAL BOOKS. Tea T. G R A N TT& CO., PATENT Farmers, Gardeners, Nurserymen. Fruit-growers, Dairymen, Cattle

GRAIN CRADLE. Dexlers, and all persons interested in tilling the soil or adorning their They are so improved as to be taken down and packed in boxes for grounds and dwellings, will be supplied with the most complete ay transportation. One dozen can be packed in a box of about six eubic sortment of Books relating to their business that can be found in the feet. We also make the Grapevine Cradle. All of the above are world, by

made of the best material and workmanship. For Price List, address C. M. SAXTON, BARKER & Co.,

1. T. GRANT & CO. Agricultural Booksellers and Publishers of the Horticulturist,

May 1-m12041a1! CARTER') Junction, Rensselaer Co.. N. Y. -- No. 25 Park Row, New-York. Catalogues gratis. Books sent by mail. AGENTS WANTED. TT. GRANT'S PATENT DOUBLE BLAST Mar 15--W15tm3t


They will chaff and screen wheat in passing through the mill once,
in the most perfect manner, and all kinds of grain and seed. War
ranted the very best in use,
Patent Rights for sale of all the Western States.

I. T. GRANT & Co.
May 1_m16. I: Address

Junction, Rensselaer Co. N. Y. 14


Vo Inventors and Manufacturers of the most improved Agricul. tural Implements and Machinery adapted to American and foreign trade. HT )

, Their long experience in this business has given them an extensive foreign correspondence and acquaintance, which, together with their facilities for inanufacturing, enables them to compete successfully

with any part of the world in the manufacture of Agricultural MaSHARES' PATENT


They manufacture forse-powers and Threshers, Reapers and TMPROVED CULTIVATING AND

Mowers, Corrr Shellers, Straw Cutters, Plows and Castings, and every

variety of goods in their line of business, HILLING MACHINE.

Foreign and home orders are solicited, and will meet with prompt Price $10---Weight 80 Pounds.

attention. May 10-wtf. E. WHITMAN & Co., Baltimore, Md. This Implement is recommended for Cultivating and hoeing Corn,

SEE A CARD. Potatoes, Peas, Beans, Cotton, and any other crop that requires hoe

DORSEY'S SELF RAKING REAPER AND ing. The wings contract and expand to suit any width of rows. It passes between the rows, the share shaving the weeds from the cen. MOWER.-The undersigned would respectfully announce to the ter of the furrow, shoving theni outward until they come to the teeth, public that they are still engaged in the manufacturing of this celebrawhieh turn inward on each side and turn them back again into the ted Machine, at their shop near MATTELEW'S STORE P. Office, HOWARD furrow, and also the weeds that grow on the sides of the furrow, and COUNTY, MD., and are prepared to fill orders at any time. Circulars buries them so deep that no ordinary shower will wash them out containing certificates, terms, and all other particulars, sent postpaid leaving the earth perfectly mellow; and it can run close to the plants to all who may apply to us as above. OWEN DORSEY & CO. without injuring them. When the plants require hilling, the teeth are Ap. 26-W8t. taken off, and the wings shove the earth up under the plants, instead of rolling it like a double mold plow and covering them up, and the WOOD'S IMPROVED MOWING MACHINE circle in the back part of the wings shapes the hills. For further in. formation apply to W. W. EGGLESTON,

for 1860. Patented Feb. 22. 1859
8 4 State st., Albany, N. Y.

y The success of this Mower during the past harvest is without a paralTr Dealer in all kinds of Seeds and Implements. May 10-wotm2t

0lel in the history of Mowing Machines. In introducing it, I offered to

the farmers a mower at a less price than any in use, one that was

light, durable, and capable of doing perfect work. It has performed AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS more than I claimed for it; the reduction in price and draft is equal

to 25 per cent., as the trials and tests show, (see my pamphlets for

1860.) I have added some improvements to it for this year-lever DAN HORSE HOES, expanding.

arrangement for raising the cutter-bar, some of the parts are strengthCIDER MILLS AND PRESS.

ened, and the driving wheels are enlarged, CORN SHELLERS, various kinds.

I continue to manufacture, as heretofore, Manny's celebrated ComEXCELSIOR FAN MILLS, three sizes.

bined Reaper and Mower; with Wood's Improvement, this milehine

fully maintains its reputation as the best Combined Reaper and Mower STALK AND HAY CUTTERS.

yet introduced, and inferior to none as a Reaper or Mower. GRAIN CRADLES AND HORSE RAKES, &c., &c. I have added to this machine a Self-Raking attachment of my own

invention, the most simple in its structure and mode of operation of For sale by A. LONG ETT, May 1-m3t

34 Cliff street, New York,

anything of the kind ever offered to the public.
Price of two-horse Mower, delivered here on the cars, ........... $80
one-horse do, do,

do do. ...... TA W T O N BLACK BERRY.-To

Combined Machine, do

do. do. ........... 120 U

with Self-Raking Attachment, ...... obtain the original variety for field or garden culture, address

WM. LAWTON, New Rochelle, N. Y.

WALTER A. WOOD. Circulars, with ample directions, will be forwarded to all appli. Ap. 26--w10t

Hoosick Falls, N. Y. cants, free,

Aug. 1--m12t.

W 00 D'S NEW MO.W ER.NREAT CURIOSITY.-Particulars sen

The above machine for either one or two horses, tried so successfully U free. Agents wanted.


last season, is for sale by the undersigned gole agents in Philadelphia, Dec. 8w13tm6t.

Biddeford, Me.

at $75 and $85. In all the requisites for easy draft, light weight, clean

and perfect cutting, simplicity and strength, it is not equalled by any. HORSE POWERS AND THRESH thing in the market. Early applications necessary to secure machines. ING MACHINES for sale by


Also, for sale as heretofore, Manny's Combined Reaper and Mower. May 1--m3t

31 Cliff street, New Yor
Price, $125, with all the recent improvements.

PASCHALL MORRIS, Agricultural and Seed Warehouse, Seventh and Market Streets, Philadelphia,


2 627 Market Street,


Mar 15-W136


L Comprising the Breeds, Breeding, and Management in Health

and Disease, of Dairy and other Stock; the selection of Milch Cows, W W




N T E D !

with a full explanation of Guenon's Method, the Culture of Forage

| Plants, and the production of Milk, Butter and Cheese; embodying Send for Circulars, giving full description.

the most recent improvements, and adapted to Farming in the United States and British Provinces. With a Treatise upon the Dairy Hus

bandry of Holland; to which is added Horsfall's System of Dairy BOARDMAN, GRAY & CO., Manufacturers,

Management. By CHARLES L. FLINT, Secretary of the Massachu

setts Board of Agriculture; Author of "A Treatise on Grasses and TEALBANY, N. Y.

Forage Plants," &c. Liberally Illustrated

The above valuable work--the best, we have no hesitation in saying Ap5-w&mtfon

yet issued upon the subject-is for sale at the office of this paper, Albany, Jan, 1-w&mtf.


D price $1.25-Browne's American Poultry-Yard. price 81_Miner'SIOEO. F. CURWEN, WEST HAVER FORD. Domestic Poultry-Book, price 75 cents. For sale at the office of this Delaware County, Pa., Breeder of DEVON CATTLE and ESpaper.


Feb. 9-w14t

[ocr errors]

Contents of this Number.





[ocr errors]






Ayrshires, Devons, Short-Horns, &c. Editorial Notes Abroad, Visit near Norwich-Grain or Corn Ex

H, H. LEEDS & CO. announce for sale BY AUCTION, change-Plumstead and Agricultural Pupils, .... Threshing-Farm Protits, Gas Lime, &c.,......

WITHOUT RESERVE, Hedges- A Garden Seat-Conclusion, ....

On Wednesday, 27th June next, Value of Cotton Seed Meal, by G. D. FORISTALL, .

Choice selections of the above varieties from the herds, &c., of A. B Cheap Way of Draining, by A SMALL FARMER, Culture of Broom Corn,.....

CONGER. Barley and its Culture.....

Suffolk Hero (13,799)-Messenger 3,155, and Jacintha's Romeo and Hops-Picking and Curing, by J, W. CLARKE,

their get, among the Short-Horng-that of Exeter (198) Frank QuartProper Time to Cut Grass for Hay, by L. B., . Roads- Their Construction and Abuses, ........

ly (205), &c.. among the Devons-Prize Bull Marmion 2d, of the get of Refuse Tan or Spent Bark,......................

imported Eric, &c., among the Ayrshires, will be offered, with a few Sugar Making-Cook's Sugar Evaporator, by Gro. CAMPBELL Clay as a Fertilizer, by STEPHEN BULLOCK,

Berkshire, Essex and Suffolk Hogs, How to Make Cheap Fences, by J. T. HOWELL,

and also a trotting stallion, horses. &c. Reinarks about Plaster, by J, I. R., ... How to Destroy White Grubs, by J. A......

Catalogues, with full pedigrees showing the remote straing of blood Notes from Correspondents and Exchanges, ....

in the Devons and Short-Horns, collated with care from the Herd Culture of White Beans, .........

Books, may be had after the first day of June, on application to the How to Build Board Fence, by G. W. GAGE, ...

owner, or T. Howard Patterson, Herdsman, &c., or H. H. Leeds & Oats-Seed should be Changed, by S. P. NICHOLSON Use of Flax Shives, by WM NEWCOMB.......

Co., 23 Nassau Street, New York City.
Sample of Farm Accounts, by FULTON,

May 24-W4t- June 1-mit.
Proper Depth of Planting Corn, by J. W. LEQUEAR,
l'eas, Beans and Mangolds, by F., ...
Ashes as a Mandre, by B., ...

How to l'nload Hay, by L. F. Scott.
Tue COUNTRY GENTLEMAN a Paying Institution to the Farmer, by

The Proprietors of these Works manufacture
J. L. R., ............
Inquiries and Answers, ..

LEVER POWERS for from Four to Eight Horses.
Agricultural Papers as Premiuins,....


ENDLESS CHAIN POWERS for One, Two and Three Horses. Valuable Books for Farmers, by S. EDWARDS TODD,....

Notes for the Month,..................

THRESHERS with Vibrating Separators.

CLOVER MACHINES, WOOD SAWS, and DOG POWERS. The Norwich (Eng.) Cattle Fair,..

Also MALES' PATENT CONVERTIBLE CORN SHELLER AND Live Stock-Merits of Different Breeds-Pleuro-Pneumonia in Norfolk,.......

CIDER MILL, which is a very desirable machine for farmers, and Nutriment according to size, by w. i. LADD..

172 will compare favorably with any other machine in either shelling corn

or grinding apples for cider. Cattle Nibbling the Manger, by L, BARTLETT, .

Full descriptions of all these machines, prices and terms, may be Remedy for Cracked Hoofs, by FRANK RUFFNER, .. The Pleuro-Pneumonia in Massachusetts, by GEORG

found in our Descriptive Circular, which will be furnished to all ap. Dry and Brittle Hoofs in Horses, by A.,.....

plicants. Sand Cracks in Horses' Feet, by Jas THOMPSON..

We give below a statement relative to our Two-Horse Endless Chain Short-Horn Cow " Perfection,".

Powers and Combined Threshers and Winnowers, made in course of Turning Stock to Grass Early, by B. T. CRANR,..

correspondence by Volney Beinap, of North East, Pa. It gives a fair

idea of their capacity when well operated. He says of his machine, Prolific Sheep, by D, M. NESBIT, .. Remedy for Cracked Hoofs, by J. W. D...

which is the first of four sent into that neighborhood, the first one you Lice on Cattle, by E. L, C., ..

sent is thought rather the best: More about Ringbone, by P..

"I have threshed 108 bushels of wheat in 3 hours and 59 minutes,

without stopping, and not a wet hair on my horses. I also threshed The Management of the Colt, by A CONSTANT READER,... Sheep Troughs and Racks, by J. T. H.,.

140 bushels of oats in 1 one hour and 35 minutes, and the oats very

damp at that."

An Ingenious and Simple Garden Seat,.
Raising Evergreens from Seed, ....

Or any desired information relating to these machines, address 181

G. WESTINGHOUSE & CO., Effects of Climate on Flowers, by G. B. H..

May 24—weow 6tmat.

Schenectady, N. Y. Catterpillars on Fruit Trees, by J. H. H...... RURAL IMPROVEMENT.

DRAIN TIL E.-The subscribers are preVeneered Houses, by W. S. HAND,.........

pared to furnish DRAINING TILE of the first quality, cut 14

inches in length, with a calibre--have on hand in large or small quanTHE DAIRY DEPARTMENT.

ties for Land Draining. ROUND, SOLE AND HORSE-SHOE TILE. We war. Product of a Native Cow, by L..

rant every Tile to be hard burned and perfectly round. Dairy Pastures-Manuring or Top Dressing,....

How to Make a Cheap Paint, ..
Recipe for a Good Varnish, by

To Destroy Red Ants, .....
How to Cook Clams and Oyste
Beer Barrels for Pork Packing,
How to Make a Washing Machine, ..........

Orders from all parts promptly attended to, and practical Drainers Roup in Fowls, Homeopathic Treatment, by C. N. BEMENT, ..... 183 furnished if required.

We will not be undersold by any manufacturer in the United States. THE BEE-KEEPER'S DEPARTMENT.

Price List sent on application. How to Drive Bees, by M. M. BALDRIDGE, .....

All Tile delivered free of charge on board cars or boat, in this City. The Bee Moth, by N. A. C..

Factory on the Western Plank Road near the Asylum Best Time to Drive Bees, by R. ..........


May 24--wtfm2t (formerly Artcher & Alderson,) Albany, N. Y. ILLUSTRATIONS. A Garden Seat,..

NO. 1 P ER U V IAN GUANO, Short-llorn Cow Perf

Government Brand and Weight on every bag. Washing Machine, ..


BOXE DUST, LAND PLASTER, &c. C RAPES IN POTS DURING SUMMER. For sale in quantities to suit purchasers, at lowest market price, Send

for a Circular,

A. LONGETT, Mar 1-w&m3ms

34 Cliff street, New York, WM. R. PRINCE & Co. Flushing, N. Y., will supply all Native and Foreign Grapes in pots, or taken from pots and boxed for sale transportation, at the REDUCED PRICES stated by us in the "Country Gen.

A L B A N Y TILE WORK S. tleman" of March 22d.

N. B. A Descriptive Catalogue will be sent to purchasers.
May 24-w&mli.

The Subscribers, being the most extensive manufacturers of DRAIN.
ING TILE in the United States, have on hand, in large or small quan.

tities, for Land Draining. ROUND, SOLE and HORSE-SHOK TILE, DURE CHESTER COUNTY PIGS, warranted superior to any made in this country, hard-burned, and

over one foot in length. Orders solicited, Price List sent on applicaFROM CHOICE STOCK


C. & W. McCAMMON, OF THOS. WOOD of Penningtonville, Chester Co., Pexn., Jan, 5-wtr.-Feb 1-mtl.

Albany, N. Y. FOR SALE BY D. CUTTS NYE, Lexington, Mass.



Court st.. BOSTON, Mass., having bad several years' experience in

this department, will continue to act as Consulting Engineers on al ARM FOR SALE-GREAT BARGAIN. I King SURVEYS, LEVELS, and PLANS for Drainage, and other Farm

kinds of Farm Improvement. Special attention is also given to ma. For $2,000, cash, will be sold 160 acres and improvements, of very Work. Plans furnished which show accurately the surface undulabest land, two wiles from town. For particulars address

tions, the buildings, orchards, and all else that appertains to a farm. J.P. CITALIES, Pustmaster. J. HERBERT SHEDD,

WILLIAM EDSON, May 21-w&ml"

Metropolis, Massac County, IU. Mar 8--W150


[ocr errors]




[graphic][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

DUBLISHED BY LUTHER TUCKER & SON. | It should be remarked however, that Martin ascribes the
T EDITORS AND PROPRIETORS, 395 BROADWAY, ALBANY, N. Y. remoter origin of the breed to the Galloways introduced
J. J. THOMAS, ASSOCIATE EDITOR, UNION SPRINGS, N. Y. into these counties for feeding purposes, but modified by

crossings and interbreedings, until “their chief qualificaAGENTS IN NEW-YORK : C. M. SAXTON, BARKER & Co., Ag. Book Publishers, 25 Park Row, tions are as milkers, rather than feeders; although, in this

THE CULTIVATOR has been published twenty-six years. A New latter respect, even the lean cows when dried show no litSRRIES was commenced in 1853, and the seven volumes for 1853, 4, 5, 6, tle of the properties of their Galloway progenitors.” 7, 8 and 9, can be furnished, bound and post-paid, at $1.00 each.

TERMS-FIFTY CENTS A YBAR. -Ten copies of the COLTIVATOR and Norfolk was in fact formerly quite a dairy county. Mr. Ten of the ANNUAL REGISTER OF RURAL AFFAIRS, with one of each free to the Agent, Five Dollars.

Fulcher spoke of the important rank which butter once - "THE COUNTRY GENTLEMAN," a weekly Agricultural Journal occupied there as a farm product. But circumstances have of 16 quarto pages, making two vols. yearly of 416 pages, at $2.00 per year, is issued by the same publishers.

combined to “change all this;" feeding has wholly usurp

ed dairying, and, as a consequence, other breeds have No. XXXII---Farther Glimpses of Norfolk. somewhat thrown into the shade one, which, as it seems

to me, would be—wherever milk as well as beef is an imIf there was any where an excuse for prolixity or repe

portant object-quite as well worth the trial as any which tition in these notes, it might perhaps exist with reference to the agriculture of a County in which such results are we have yet obtained from the British Islands. obtained as those we have already seen crowning the labors! To sustain this opinion, which I first formed from what of the farmers of Norfolk.

I saw and heard of the stock at the Suffolk Show at IpThe last stage reached in the course of this narrative swich, and at one of the farms in that county to which left me at Elmham, not quite an hour and a half by rail, Mr. Crisp kindly accompanied me, I should add that, northwest from the city of Norwich,—where, notwithstand- according to Mr. Fulcher's statements, the cows of this ing what I have just written, I think there will be room breed will continue in milk eleven months out of the enough for quite an outline, without retracing our steps twelve, giving from four to six gallons per day when over any of the ground already traversed.

fresh. Martin quotes two writers, one of whom estimates The home farm of Lord SONDES, cultivated under the 168 lbs. of butter, and the other 184 lbs. as the fair annual management of Mr. Fulcher, consists of about 800 acres. yield of one cow in a year, and adds that an average beIt may be remembered that Nos. 16 and 17 in this series, tween the two statements is probably not far from the contained some account of the estates of the same noble-truth. Mr. Fulcher moreover remarked, that a bullock man in the county of Kent, where the property is in the would weigh from 6 to 7 cwt. at two years old, when fed hands of tenants. Here at Elmham, the establishment for the butcher, and often more; when he could spare any includes quite extensive preserves," where pheasants and from his Suffolk herd for feeding, he could put them up partridges are not only protected, but, as we shall presently to graze at the age mentioned and sell them at two and a see, actually bred and cared for at considerable expense hall, when he could obtain “a penny a pound” (2 cents) and pains ; and I understood that the proprietor, with a more for the beef than for that of a pure Short-Horn. If kind of generosity not always found in the land owners of I do not misinterpret a further memorandum partly obliteEngland, had retained for his own farming, most, if not rated, he mentioned having slaughtered these bullocks at all the land by the cover-side, renting only those farms 50 stone, (720 lbs.,) and Martin has the following parathat are thus least exposed to ravages from the sportsman's graph: “When dried, the Suffolk polled cow acquires a pets.

good condition with considerable rapidity, and fattens to A Breeding Herd of Suffolk Polled Cattle. forty or forty-five stones ; the meat is of good quality

Prominent among the objects of interest to me were the that, indeed, of the ox very superior." red polled cattle, to which I have before alluded, and which The herd of Suffolks at Elmham was a breeding herd, are here bred with more than usual care. The counties of and several of the animals were so fine that I should much Suffolk and Norfolk both appear to claim the privilege of god-like to have procured an accurate drawing of them for father to the breed, but as I have already spoken of them publication, while as there is nothing of the "fancy” in under the former name, it may be as well to continue it.* the prices at which they are held, if any friend had com

I am the more inclined to style this breed the “Suffolk polled" missioned me to select for him some kind of cattle that Instead of the Norfolk," because I find in the interesting survey of Norfolk Agriculture by Nathaniel Kent,-a copy of which, printed in would be both novel and serviceable on this side of the 1796, is now before me, that the author speaks particularly of the "introduction" of the "SUFFOLK polled cow" as then becoming quite

water, I think a young thing or two from Lord Sondes' general; he styles it certainly more profitable" than the previous stock of the country, and says that since its introduction from Sur establishment would have certainly had an invitation to folk" the credit of home-bred" animals is much increased," | America.

Stock for Feeding---The Sheep. the clover stubble—the sward being tnmned in as heavy There were about a hundred head of cattle on the place, as possible. In the spring, wherever the wheat is not and nearly 1,200 sheep. Some of the Norfolk farmers, sufficiently luxuriant in appearance, about half a cwt. of mainly those on the light lands, keep breeding flocks, and nitrate of soda mixed with double this quantity of salt produce lambs--principally, as I have stated in speaking of would be applied with a machine, for which purpose what Suffolk farming, from the Suffolk black-faced ewe as the is called “Chainbers' broadcast distributor " stands in female parent, with a Leicester sire. The breeders dispose high esteem. Corroboratively, Mr. Read states that expe. of the lambs at Norwich market, or in other ways, when from rience proves it more expedient to employ nitrate of soda four to five months old, at from $5 to $7.50 per head, than guano as a top-dressing, “for, while one takes no aecording to their quality and the state of the market. The sort of harm from the cold dry winds, the other Joses much best of them, fed during the winter, sell the April or May of its virtue when so exposed.” after they are one year old, for from $12.50 to $16—hav- Thirty to forty cubic yards of clay are applied to the ing been clipped first, occasionally as early as Feb. 15th, light lands once in ten or twelve years, and without this 80 that part of the price named is for the wool aside from application wheat could not there be made a profitable the sheep itself. The preceding spring, for example, I un- crop. derstood that Mr. F.'s sheep sheared 10 lbs., which at the Other Regular or Occasional Crops. price there paid for the wool, about 36 cents per lb., would It has been before inentioned that owing to the recent diminish the butcher's price for the fat sheep some $3.50 prevalence of decay in the turnip crop, the growth of upon the above figures.

mangolds in their stead is generally on the increase. Mr. If for wool and all, as above stated, the sheep are made F. thought that one

de F. thought that one-third the root crop of the county was to net the feeder $7.00 per head above their cost, it was now mangolds; according to the estimate made in 1854, estimated that two-thirds of this sum would have been paid

already given, there was but about one-tenth the area in for the oil cake they had eaten, while out of the remaining

this root compared with that occupied by turnips, so that 82.50 is to come the attendance and provender they have the change during five years becomes at once apparent. also cost. This goes to show that Mr. Reed was not in

The mangolds, on account of the frost, have all to be dug correct in calling it “an expensive style of agriculture”

Iture and covered with earth; this labor is entered upon as which one finds in Norfolk.

soon as wheat sowing is over, and costs from 10s. te 153.

per acre. Moreover upon turnip land, the sheep are fed The custom in buying bullocks, I was told, was for the feeder to pay in the neighborhood of $1 (48. to 48. 6d.)

during the winter, receiving daily rations of oil cake, and per stone (14 lbs.) for the estimated weight the “beast"

to supply the place of this dressing which the land does will attain when ready for market, and my informant add

toda not receive when mangolds are grown, it becomes necesed that if the price obtained by the feeder on selling reach

sary to sow in this case two cwt, of guano per acre as a ed 8s. per stone, the gain was scarcely enough to pay the P

preparation for the ensuing barley crop. cost of feeding, which may be estimated at from 8s. to 108.

A bite for the sheep in May is often obtained by sowing per head per week—the cattle being bought toward the

upon the wheat stubbles four bushels per acre of rye as latter end of October, in tolerably good condition, and fed,

soon as possible after harvest. Here the sheep are folded say six months, at the rate of say seven pounds per day

at night during the month named, the result of which is

beneficial to the roots which follow next in the regular of oil cake, not infrequently receiving much more than this amount.

order of the course. It was to the South Down letting of Mr. Webb that I

It is already known that Norfolk farming has found, in was indebted for the acquaintance of Mr. Fulcher. He

the apparent repugnance of the land after a certain length had there hired the use of a tup for the season, paying for

Tof time to the production of clover, an almost insuperahis services the sum of 35 guineas. This would add 5s.

ble obstacle. Mr. Fulcher was in the habit of sowing a or 66. ($1.25 to $1.50) to the cost of every lamb he would

il peck each of clover seed and rye grass per acre, with 3 or be likely to sire—but the expenditure was still thought an

4 lbs. of white clover, so that if the first should fail, the

second would give a crop, although wheat does not follow expedient and reasonable one.

rye grass very kindly. Clover is also alternated with trePreparation for the Wheat Crop.

foil, so as to come but once in eight years, and, finding it It is a general practice in this part of Norfolk, I was as

an uncertain experiment even at this interval, it is becomBured, to spread the “muck," as farm-yard manure is there

ing more and more common to introduce another alternatermed, as soon as possible after haying, upon the clover

tion of sainfoin, “taken up at Michaelmas for wheat, just ley, where it remains exposed until plowing in October ;

| as clover would be," so that the same field is only sown to although contrary to received theory, this is regarded the

me the latter once in twelve years, instead of four or eight as best preparation for the crop of wheat, and if muck enough

hough | before. The sainfoin is drilled at the rate of three or is made to provide half the wheat with a thorough dress

eas four bushels of seed per acre, and is thus a more expening of the kind, the fariner considers himself fortunate.

• sive crop to raise. This statement agrees with that made in Mr. Read's essay;

yil Salt is extensively applied as a manure for mangolda, he says that " formerly all the manure that could be made

most frequently together with guano, and benefits them on the farm was needed for turnips ; now a great breadth

both with regard to weight and quality. Mr. Reed thinks of roots is grown with artificials, leaving a large portion of

portion of that on light lands in seasons of drouth, it appears to ab the farm manure to be applied for wheat. It is placed on

sorb moisture from the atmosphere, or aid in retaining that the ley-ground directly the hay is off, or before the land is

| which the land already possesses. He speaks of tho use plowed for wheat in the autumn."

of from 3 to 6 cwt. per acre. When there is not manure enough for the wheat, Mr. Inroad upon the Gamekeeper's Domains. Fuleher said that the deficiency was made up by the appli- Forsaking practical topics for awhile after punching the cation of about two cwt, of guano per acre plowed in on sides of the Suffolk cattle, my conductor drove me to see

[ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

the wooded portion of the estate, which embraces perhaps other obligations, he may usefully spend his own time for 160 acres, yielding a regular crop of much importance himself, instead of wasting it at the ale-house, or in that in the husbandry of a county like Norfolk. It is mostly idleness which is perhaps equally as unfavorable to the of hazel, of which about 20 acres are yearly cut over for good temper as Mr. Watts thought it to the morals of a hurdle-making, so that a crop of this sort is here produced family. about every eight years. The gamekeeper piloted us to an! The only objection that I have heard urged to the apopen space where there were between 30 and 40 coops of plication of this system to farm labor, is that, while it afyoung pheasants, under the maternal care in all cases I fords for mechanics occupied in-doors, in cities or villages, believe of the ordinary domestic fowl. I was told that an agreeable change in air and in the kind of toil, to those the keeper is paid 28. (nearly 50 cents) apiece for all he employed in farm labor it is only a continuance of the raises, paying himself the cost of feeding, which is a large same tasks, in the evening which should be a time of rest, item for four or five hundred young birds with a good ap- at which they have been toiling all the day. This is true, petite. Immense numbers of boiled eggs are used, and in some measure, but is of little force, it seems to me, this with barley and scraps constitute the chief items in from the reason that a laborer with a family is supplied their bill of fare.

with the means of utilizing the time of young and old at The quantity of game, including under this head-be

home, instead of allowing his wife and children to work side pheasants—partridges, rabbits and hares, although

for others, while, unless in some particular times, the labor the two latter are sometimes classed as “vermin ” by those

upon a quarter or half an acre can scarcely prove burden· who suffer from their rapacity-fostered in such preserves,

some to him and them in comparison with the value of is immense. The numbers killed in the shooting season,

what it yields. too, are very great, and I was told that it is quite customary! The latter (half an acre,) is the size of Lord Sondes' for landlords, after enjoying this sport with friends, and allotments, and bis experience in the matter was such, I making presents of the other kinds of game they slaughter, understood, as to warrant the highest commendation of to reserve the pheasants carefully for sale. They com. the system. We saw certainly as flourishing crops upon mand from $1.25 to $1.50 per brace at market, and as these plots, as I anywhere found ; the tenants pay promptly they are bred by artificial means involving much expense, their rent, as an almost uniforn rule; and, although there it is thought just and proper that they should be made, if is always some opposition on the part of interested parties possible, to pay their way wholly or partly—an arrange to the adoption of a plan involving such changes, it bas ment of which previously I had no expectation, having als now been in successful operation long enough bere to test ways supposed the production of such birds to be entirely it pretty thoroughly. To show the kind of restriction a matter of luxury and amusement, instead of one verg

under which these tenants lease their holdings, I have ing upon the character of any other business transaction.

other business transaction. I thought it worth the while to copy below the lease and Through the fields of tenants and others, it is quite com-covenants just as they are drawn up, for the privilege of mon to see every dead furrow occupied with a drill or two presenting which, I am indebted, with other favors, to Mr. of buckwheat. It is sown by the landlord, to furnish pro- Fulcher's attent vist

TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF TENURE under which the cottage tenants of the Right Hon, George John Lord Sondes, hold their respective

occupations in the County of Norfolk, As children, we have shuddered at the old English cus

The rent to be paid by four equal quarterly payments, (if demand. ed.) that is to say, on the Sixth day of January, the Sixth day of April, the Sixth day of July, and the Eleventh day of October in each year, and is not previously demanded, the whole rent due to be regularly

paid on the Eleventh day of October. murderers, and the clanking of horrid irons, swinging The landlord reserves all marl, brickearth, gravel, sand and stones,

fruit trees and bushes, (but not the fruit thereof,) and other trees with their burden of lawless and outlawed humanity in growing on any of the fences, gardens, borders, and premises.

The tenant to cultivate the gardens in a good and husbandlike manevery sudden breeze that rustled through the leaves. If

ner, also to clean and brush the hedges, and to keep both free froin happily these sights are no longer found in our day, crim

weeds, and the vegetables growing in the garden to be left at a fair

valuation for the succeeding tenant, inals of another sort are still the subjects of a somewhat The tenant not to under-let, or take in lodgers on any part of the

premises. similar posthumous exhibition; every kind of winged or Three months' notice in writing given by either landlord or tenant,

on one of the above named quarter days, shall be a sufficient notice quadrupedal foe with which the gamekeeper has to con- for the tenant to quit, and deliver up possession of the cottage, kar.

den, and premises to the Landlord or his agent on the next quarter tend, is hung upon some convenient tree, or elsewhere day following the receipt of such notice. impaled as soon as shot, a testimony to his vigilance and / onthouses, calledo das situ

is this day, admitted tenant of the cottage, garden, and

onthouses, called situated at prowess, as well as answering as a warning. it is to be! The rent of the above named holding be at the rate of — pounds,

shillings, - pence a year, and to commence from the day lioped, to their marauding comrades.

of 18

I hereby agree to pay the rent, and to perform the covenants and The Allotment System,

agreements hereinbefore reserved, and to quit and yield up possession

of the occupation on receiving the notice herein agreed to. Among numerous other points of interest, there is one Dated this day of -- 18

COVENANT ANNEXE). to which I cannot forbear referring, even at the risk of The occupation of the Allotment not to interfere with the weekly rendering my chapter too long. What is termed the Al- labor, but to cultivate at leisure hours, before or after the day's work

of his master by whom employed; and on no account shall any labor lotment system that is, the letting to laborers, or “cot-be dor

be done on a Sunday.

The occupier to pay poor's and surveyor's rates. tage tenants," of small pieces of land for their own culti If any occupier be convicted of felony, or offence against the laws

of his country, he or she shall be immediately dispossessed of his or vation in out-of-work-hours-has been practiced extensive- her

her occupation.

The occupier to farm and crop in such manner as may be most bene. ly by Lord SONDES, and is an additional proof of his efforts ficial to himself, without taking two corn crops in succession ; but the to fulfil in the largest sense the duties of a proprietor and

four-course system is recommended,

the portion oftand where wheat shall have been grown, to be proper. landlord.

Jy cleared of foul grass as soon as can conveniently be done, between

the Michaelmas and Christmas day following. It is scarcely necessary to argue at length the advantages Summer weeding, to prevent seeding, be strictly attended to.

The straw grown on allotment to be made into muck, and expend. which can but result from the occupancy by the working-ed on the same; but on giving up the said allotment, the straw to be

left thereon for the use of the landlord, · man, of a tract of land where his own family may feel The rent of the said allotment to commence from the 11th October, themselves at home, where the labors of all may be em- rates.

18, at yearly payment of £ with the addition of the aforesaid ployed to good advantage, and where, when free from October in every year; and in case of default tlie land to be forfeited.

The said yearly rent and rates to be paid and cleared up on the 11th

[ocr errors]


iminals in cha


« AnteriorContinuar »