« AnteriorContinuar »
It will be seen that there are fewer restrictions and nous grasses, can be moderately fed, especially on low mid obligations than many English landlords would have cough pastures, at an early stage. thought necessary, but enough I was assured, to protect bined with fresh grass and good hay, we think oil-meal,
If any thing will give cattle a start in condition, comsufficiently the interest of the proprietor. I had made some mixed with other meal and fed daily, will do so. We further memoranda that might have served to complete the have been surprised at the rapid improvement of a pair of foregoing statement, but cannot now find them, and enough two-year old steers, lean enough when turned to pasture, has perhaps been said to show the general working and which have been fed daily for less than three weeks, a design of the arrangements referred to. Upon the Nor- quart of corn and barley-meal each, ground fine, with the folk estate of Lord Sondes, there are 160 allotments of a skinned by the mice.) They have good pasture, but have
addition of half a pint of flax-seed husks, (it having been half acre each, let at the moderate rate of $3.00 per been kept without hay—and indeed had very little besides year for the land. The rent of the cottage is about 13 (say straw and stalks through the winter. Eight weeks feed. $16)—from 1s. per week, upwards. The carrot is quite a ing, consuming about one bushel of meal each, will fit favorite crop on these allotments—Lord S. sometimes pur- the heat of summer, though no doubt it would pay well
them for sale, and ease the demand for pasturage during chasing for his own use 1500 or 2000 bushels of thelu per to keep them growing in size and fatness for six months year from his cottage tenants, at the rate of about 4d per or longer. bushel.
An experienced farmer of Central New-York, says that I am forced also to close for the present, with no more "a bushel of corn-meal fed to an animal when being turnthan a passing allusion to the pleasant grounds and fine ed from hay to grass, is worth three dollars." Taking the gardens attached to the plain and substantial mansion the loss in weight which would be incurred without the
gain in flesh from such treatment into comparison with which constitutes Lord Sondes' residence. It is not only grain, (and hay at night,) the estimate is no doubt within here, moreover, that my obligations are heavy to the kind- bounds. It is more difficult to get stock from hay to grass ness of Mr. Fulcher, is now imperfectly acknowledged, without loss, than many imagine, and we should be glad but the columns of the Co. Gent. have before contained to publisli
, more largely, the experience of our farming the record of a visit in the south of England, above allu-ed with beef-making, we must add the remark, that milch
friends on the subject. Though not immediately connect. ded to, marked by similar courtesies on the part of his cows very much need this hay at night, and a regular feed Jordship and Mr. NEAME, the manager of the Kent estate. of grain or roots once a day, for a month at least after
going to pasture. It will be the most profitable attention FEEDING LEAN CATTLE FOR BEEF.
we can give them. Conversing with "A Young Farmer," on the above sub
NEW APPLE-INSECT. ject, he asked us, “At what time in the year can one best and soonest fatten lean stock ? Having no very extend my young orchard, which has been set, a part four years,
Messrs. Editors—I have been this morning examining ed personal experience in the matter, we gave him the and a part three-with a few trees that have been filled in views of some who have long made it a business to supply this spring in vacancies. I find a few trces killed by the birtchers with fattened stock, and our own opinions as winter as I suppose; but the worst of all is about ten or made up from these and other sources.
twelve, which were set this spring, that have been destroy. We must first remark, that well-kept, good conditioned ed by an insect of some description, by eating out the
buds; and some limbs on my trees that have been set four stock, unlike those which are lean, can readily be fattened years, have been served in the same way. I enclose four at any season of the year by extra feeding, and generally of the buds taken from a tree that has been set four years, with profit. Lean cattle are not readily started in growth that you may see the way they have served me. A neigh--they cannot be fed high with safety or economy. They bor of mine told me that he lost over four thousand last must be fed moderately at first, and at the most favorable year of young seedlings one year old. He told me that a
worm similar or the same as the cut-worm in our corn, is Feason of the year, to gain in size and weight with the what destroyed his. sınallest amount of grain and care.
Now I wish you or some of your numerous correspondA well known stock-feeder says, “No farmer ought to ents, would tell me how to prevent them from destroying bay lean cattle to fatten in winter. They should be fair my trees another year. I think their work is finished this beef to begin with.” But while stock are kept in the way have got too far advanced for them to do much injury to.
spring. The trees that have not been already destroyed, a large majority of farmers keep them, plenty of lean cat
Plattsburgh, N. Y.
A SUBSCRIBER. He must be fed for beef, if not profitably, then unprofita
We have no knowledge of this insect, nor do we find a bly. That it would be better for the farm and the farmer notice of any quite like it in either Harris or Fitch. There to keep all stock at all times in fair order, can scarcely be are some insects that destroy the center of the buds and questioned. Their value would be double what it now is, draw the outer leaves together with a web and form a nest; at no real increase in expense of keeping.. We trust the but no web nor nest was found in these specimens. This improvement now manifest in this respect, will go on until most delicate morsel for his food, and has accordingly eaten
depredator appears to have known just where to find the good keeping shall be the rule instead of the exception, out clean the center of the young bud, while yet unexas is now the case.
panded, and perhaps not swollen over a fourth of an inch But to return to the feeding of lean stock. We are in. long. We should think it must be a smaller grub than elined to think spring by far the best season to bring them the common cut-worm, as the cavity eaten out is only
about a twentieth of an inch in diameter. Its work apmost readily and cheaply into good condition. Commence pears to be quite similar to that of the Haltica chalybea feeding grain—only a small quantity at first—as soon as or grape-vine beetle, which treats the buds of the vine in grass starts so as to give a fair bite in the spring, and keep the same way. If our correspondent finds the insects, we in the stable at night with plenty of good hay before them. hope he will preserve them, and send specimens by mail It depends a great deal on the character of the pasture as in a small vial or quill to Dr. Asa Fitch of Salem, Washto the best time to turn stock upon it in the spring. Clo-ing them
well supplied with apple-buds as food until they
ington Co., N. Y., and place others in a gauze cage, keepver and timothy are materially injured by feeding too early; change to the pupa state, and to the perfect insect, sendwhiie June grass, white clover, and various other indige-ling these also to Dr. Fitch.
sold, 4,350 lbs, at 25c...
4,601 lbs. $1,087.50
THE MOLE PLOW.
three and a half feet deep, although in the experiment
but two and a half were attained. An experiment was lately made with Case's mole plow by J. Dunham, of Etna, Tompkins Co., N. Y., on the
In a stiff clay subsoil, we have no doubt that the moie, grounds of Robert B. Howland of Union Springs Much without tile, if three feet deep or more, would endure for interest having been lately felt on this subject, and having
an indefinite term of years. In a looser or more porous
Our readers may witnessed the experiment, we think our readers may like subsoil, tile would be indispensable. to hear the results. This mole plow is briefly spoken of in a easily estimate the cost, where a machine is purchased communication on page 235, current volume of the Co. and large farms are drained; the wear and tear, cost of Gent. The statement there made of the amount of labor team, and of three men, being about five dollars a day, or capable of being performed, appears to be correct. The a little over six cents per rod. For smaller jobs, the promachine was worked with ease by two horses attached to prietor of the machine charges ten cents a rod, the farmer a sixteen inch capstan by means of an eighteen foot lever, furnishing team and two hands, which is not any cheaper the force being thus multiplied 27 times, and the double than cutting ordinary drains three feet deep by means of cable, running over a pulley, again doubling this power to
the new ditching plow, in connection with shoveling out 64 times. Estimating the friction at one-third, the actual by hand; but is much cheaper than the old mode of cutmultiplication of force would be 36 times—equal to a 72 ting drains wholly by hand. There is one advantage poshorse power to move the coulter and its mole.
sessed by the mole plow which should not be forgottenThe experiment was successful. The subsoil was a strong side to the other, without ever breaking the sod.
a meadow or pasture may be thoroughly drained from one clay, clear of stone—the kind of soil best adapted to this mode of draining. It made a smooth, clear mole about 4 inches in diameter, and two and a half feet deep. The
Butter from Twenty-five Cows. coulter left an open slit in the soil about three-fourths of At the winter meeting of the Chenango Co. Ag. Society, in an inch wide, but the lower part was immediately closed January last, the prize of $25, offered " to any dairyman in by the pressure of the mole. The borses walking at the the county who will produce the most in value, in proportion rate of three miles an hour, formed a drain at the rate of.
to the cows kept, not to be less than ten,” was awarded to Mr. about five feet per minute, or 18 rods per hour. Allow- John Shattuck of Norwich, whose statement, copied from ing about half the time for removing and adjusting the the Transactions of the Society, we annex :
To the Commitlee on Winter Premiums.--I wish to be machine, it will be found capable of cutting at the rate of considered a competitor in the Dairy premiums, and would 80 to 100 rods per day—this amount has been generally make the following statement of the annount produced from accomplished where the soil is adapted to its working, as twenty-five cows: in the present instance,
Whole amount of butter made,.. This modification of the mole plow (Case's patent,) is
used in family and on hand, 251 lbs. probably one of the best that has been used. Like Fowler's English drain plow, it is furnished with a vertical screw Ten calves raised on skimmed milk, and sold at 85 for altering the depth, as the surface of the ground may 14 Deacon Skins, sold at €1.10 each, require, while it is much simpler and cheaper than that Whole amount of butter, cheese, deacon skins:: ponderous and complex machine-the entire cost of Case's Whole amount of pork 'made, 2,20 lbs., sold at is, we think, only $150.
For the first time, during this experiment, the attempt Deduct for value of hogs in spring,. was made to draw tubular tile into the mole, like Fowler's Amount of grain fed, mode, and was entirely successful. From 50 to 100 feet were strung at a time on a large rope, which was attached
Whole amount... to the rear end of the mole. The work appeared to be performed in a perfect manner. About a hundred feet This average to the cow is without any allowance for milk or cream could be introduced at a time, when it became necessary Statement of manner of making Buller.The milk is to dig a hole down in order to draw out the rope, and in- set in tin pans, and allowed to stand about 36 hours in warm troduce a new string. Hence there was more delay in this weather, when the cream is taken off and churned by dog
power. Temperature of cream about 550 Fahrenheit. When process than by simply cutting a mole. We cannot see, the butter coines, it is removed from the churn, and washed however, any objection to the use of a longer rope, so as to in cold water until the buttermilk is removed, and then salted draw in at least two hundred feet of the tile, judging from then covered tight
and set in the cellar for 24 hours, when it
with Ashton salt, about one ounce to the pound of butter, and the ease with which this was apparently accomplished. is worked over and packed in firkins, being careful not to Three men, with this machine and one pair of horses, could work it only just sufficient to remove the buttermilk. undoubtedly introduce sixty rods of tile in a day, and pos- ter corered with strong brine from same kind of salt used for
Manner of keeping through the season.-I keep the butsibly eighty rods. In this first experiment, from three to salting the butter. Cost of making the butter is about sevenfour were drawn in per minute, and twelve rods were teen cents per pound. finished in about three hours, including all delays and stop
Manner of feeding Calves.- I generally let them suck the
cow until the milk is good, and then commence feeding them pings.
skimmed milk on the start, letting it stand twelve hours at We had no opportunity of witnessing the effect of ob- first
, and as they grow older let it stand longer, and they will struction by stones. We were however informed that soon get so as to drink it sour and do well. small stone was readily pressed to one side, and that the
Manner of fallening Pork.–Last spring I had four shonte
that would weigh about 80 pounds each, and I bought four. horizontal joint of the mole enabled it to pass to one side rigs, and fed them nothing but sour milk and buttermilk from of larger ones. But where still larger ones existed, it the dairy, until October, when I commenced feeding them a was necessary to dig down and remove them, which of little soft corn, (I suppose you all know what that is this seacourse caused much delay. Hence this machine is not continued to feed in this way until butchering time. They
son,) not enough to destroy their appetite for the milk, and adapted to stony ground. It is capable of cutting drains consumed fifty bushels of enrs valued at 25 cents per bushel.
at 25c. per ID, milk sold, ..
One veal call,
Leaves a nett balance of,.,
Average per cow, used in the family.
past, in developing and perfecting the machine which so fully vindicated his claim to the title of Inventor in the trial made on Thursday afternoon; so confident was he that the machine would perform satisfactorily all that he claimed for it, that he ventured upon a public exhibition after but one private test, and we are happy to record the unqualified success of the experiment.
There is one other advantage it would be reasonable to state, and which might not enter the consideration of some, that it will sow up and complete until a storm actually occurs, leaving the fanner under no apprehension that he cannot cover all he might sow on the appearance of a storm.
DUANE'S SEEDING MACHINE.
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) The above cut represents a new labor-saving implement,
USE OF THE MOLE PLOW. invented by Col. J. B. DUANE of Schenectady, of which MESSRS. EDITORS-In answer to your lowa correspona Schenectady paper says:
dent, I would say that I began las year to use the mole We witnessed on Thursday last, the trial of Col. John plow. Our first attempts were in a measure failures ; but B. Duane's Sod Seeding Machine. As this is an entirely after becoming a little skilled, we succeeded to perfection, new implement in agriculture, and as on the trial all the the underdrains still working. Mr. Trimble of Highland, purposes which it was built to accomplish were well, fully 0.., underdrained last year 230 acres with mole plow, and and satisfactorily answered, we shall make no apology to claims 20 bushels corn on the acre inerease, making 4,600 our readers for giving rather a full and particular account bushels corn in favor of its use in a single season. °Edwin of what the machine is. But before attempting to do this, Reed, Huron Co., O., underdrained ten acres last year, still we must be allowed the privilege of at least hinting that operating well. the name chosen to designate the machine is not at all de
This mole plow is so constructed that it is self-holding, scriptive of its character; it will
, it is true, answer an ad-drawn with team adjustable to any required depth-easily mirable purpose as a sod seeder, for which it is peculiarly drawn back in case of obstructions, and course changed, adapted, but it is also fitted for so many other uses that a so that land must be very stony to prevent its snccessful more comprehensive and expressive name should be found use. When no obstructions occur, with sufficient team it for it. The machine, then, is a combination in which the can be drawn with the same speed as the ordinary plow.. processes of cultivating the ground, sowing oats or other on prairie lands from 10 to 18 miles can be made in a seeds of whatever kind, harrowing in the seed, sowing day: I could multiply testimonials if I felt warranted in clover and timothy, rolling the land after sowing, and taking up space--shall be willing to answer any commu
H. R. JEROME. sprinkling plaster evenly over the surface of the ground, nications by letter or otherwise. are all accomplished with ease at one operation by a two
Monroeville, Huron Co., 0. horse team. The advantages to the farmer may be briefly Eps. COUNTRY GENT.—I notice that an Iowa subscriber stated thus :
or correspondent, wishes the opinions and experience of 1. It leaves the ground in a light and friable condition; farmers in reference to the mole draining plow. Having as the team travels in front of the whole operation, the had some experience myself as well as observing the opeground is never poached by the horses' feet after the crops rations of others, I will here give my opinions for what they are put in.
are worth, if worth anything. 2. The Cultivator and Drag are so constructed that they Several machines have been constructed in this city and clear themselves of all obstructions.
vicinity by various persons, and most of them have re3. The driver and team go over the ground but once, ceived a patent therefor. The most prominent of these I while the ordinary mode of cultivation requires the ground have examined. Two years ago, while mole plows were to be traversed six times.
a new thing in this section to most of us, myself and seve4. The seed is sown more evenly than can be done by ral others made a trial of their work. I had some 300 rods hand. Oats, clover and timothy, in fact any seed, can be of this ditching put in, on what might be called a level sown equally as well and with the same uniform evenness prairie, but having a slight descent. This was put in the in a gale of wind. The construction of the seed-sower is wet year—with us in Illinois, (two years ago.) I was such that the farmer can regulate at will its operation, and highly pleased with its operations for a time, as it dissow one peck or five bushels to the acre at his pleasure. charged finely until late in the fall, when it ceased, as I 6. It covers the seed most perfectly.
then supposed from want of water in the ground, the rains It sowe plaster with great evenness.
in the latter part of the season having ceased, and the 7. The driver can maintain his seat at all times on the ground being comparatively dry. Early the following box.
spring it was for a short time very wet, and I looked in 8. By dynamometer test, the draught is found to be vain for my drain to discharge the surplus water that I about equal to that required for turning up the sod. knew must lie in the ground; but it did not discharge a
9. By the peculiar formation of the cultivator and drag- i drop to my knowledge. With this, I came to the concluteeth, the machine is admirably adapted for the cultivation sion that my drain had filled up so as to obstruct the pasof newly turned sod.
bage of water. 10. A great feature in the machine is its power of free- My drain was put down from 3 to 4 feet below the ing itself from any obstructions that may lie in its path, surface. It was put in with a machine not regulated for passing over them easily. The trial was made in a field the elevations and depressions of the surface; consefrom which a crop of broom corn was harvested last year, quently the moulding and all, made my drain as varying and in which the stalks were quite thick. In no single in-as the surface from a level. stance did it fail to free itself, nor was it any time so clog- Since this time, these machines have been very much ged as to need to be freed from these surface obstructions. improved, in such a way as to keep the mole at a certain
The inventor, Col. John B. Duane, after spending the depth in the ground, no matter how uneven the surface, best ten years of his life upon a large farm, became so thereby having no ups and downs in the drain, which is impressed with the imperfectness of the implements in far preferable, as all angles in the drain are acted upon by ordinary use, that he set himself resolutely to the task of the water more or less, having a tendency to block the inventing machinery which should overcome the tedious- drain, as I think was done in my case. The conclusion I ness of the operations of the farm. To this end he has arrive at, after observations in my case, and I can bespeak applied bimself with untiring industry for a yoar or so l the same of others in my vicinity, are these :
" there goes
That the mole machine will work and give satisfaction teams were passing his house, he would say, when operated in a slough where there is water to dis- the gold." charge all the season round. I know of instances of this The difference between the good and bad farmer lies in kind, where the water has been taken to water stock, and the making good or bad manure, if the land is dry. When the drain has not yet failed, although sunk some five years I first came on this farm, and my neighbors saw me heapsince. But I do not think it of any use to run this kind ing and gathering all the dung I could, some of them of a drain where the water will be likely to run but cer- would ask me if all the old country folks liked as well to tain times in the year, as I am of the opinion that after work among manure as I did ? I told them that all the water has ceased to occupy the drain, that it (the sides those that made anything by raising grain did. Some said of the drain,) begin to dry and flake off into the drain, and they would rather do with less grain than work that way. ultimately close it so as to stop the passage of water, as
JOHN JOHNSTON. in my case. Perbaps others may have been more fortunate with
FIELD CULTURE OF THE ONION---II. theirs. If so, should be glad to hear from thein. A. P. P. S. I would say to Frank Bassit, that I operated with of the onion, I concluded by promising to add a a few ot
GENTLEMEN-In a late communication about the culture a piece of ground likely to bake in wind and sunshine by servations about harvesting and marketing the crop: plowing deep, and at the same time ridging as much as possible in lands not over 40 feet in width. My dead fur
After the onions are tolerably grown, their tops fall and rows are 20 inches lower than the back furrow, and I have wilt a little ; at this period they are pulled and chrown tono hesitation in saying that this piece of ground is as
gether in beds of about a dozen rows in each; here they porous and in as good condition as is usually seen.
are permitted to lie about one week, when they are collecGalesburg, Il
ted and taken under cover, generally to the open barn
floor. Here they are sorted and cleaned of all refuse ma, (For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.)
terial, and laid away to be barreled or taken in bulk to the Importance and Value of Manure.
market, which is generally found at Boston. Sometimes
a dozen or more wagons will start together early in the Near GENEVA, 21st May, 1860. morning, so as to be on hand to deliver as soon as the purMessrs. TUCKER—Some years ago I had an article pub- chasers are ready to receive them. Others barrel up the lished, I believe in the Genesee Farmer, about the waste onions, and hold on upon them until they command the of valuable manure made by cattle and hogs at the distil- highest price of the season. About 31 bushels will fill a leries, which is almost in all cases, washed into the stream common flour barrel. The price per barrel has lately ranor river on which the distillery is situated. In the article ged from $2 to $4—and the product per acre has been from alluded to, I offered, if any farmer living near a distillery one to two hundred barrels, according to the quality of the would get from 12 to 20 loads, and put it on an acre of land, the quantity of the fertilizers applied, and the indusground as directed, for either grass or grain, (if his land try used in the cultivation. was not already rich enough,) if it did not pay for his labor These are the general features relative to the culture of and expenses in his first crop, that I would pay him for his our onions. I speak of what was before the devourer labor in getting the manure. I never heard from any one came in the form of the onion maggot. When this apon the subject.
peared the onion died, or nearly so.
This insect is grown I have a farmer friend who lives at no great distance in this manner. A small, light colored fly is seen flutterfrom a distillery where a large number of cattle, say some ing about the onions as soon as they are fairly out of the 400, are kept and fattened, from five to eight months in ground and beginning to be seen in rows. This fly deposthe year, besides many hundreds of hogs. This farmer its its small white eggs near the bottom of the plant, was often complaining to me that nothing could be made whence springs a worm that insinuates itself into the growat farming on such land as his, but on such land as mine a ing plant, and eventually into the bulb as it enlarges. It man could make money. I knew this to be nonsense, as is not uncommon to find a dozen or more of these maggots his land naturally is as good, and I think better than mine. or worms in a single bulb, and wherever they go they are When I bought mine, one acre of his would have been death and destruction to the onion. Whether they are valued higher than two of mine.
limited in their operations to the plant in which they orig When he complained about the unprofitableness of inate, or whether they migrate from one plant to another, farming, I would tell him he did nothing to improve his I am not advised, but think it probable their operation's farm, only putting on manure made from straw. In that are limited to the plant in which they originate. Neverway be only got straw in return; he must have something theless, I have known them so numerous as to destroy the better than straw manure to make grain, seeing the virgin entire crop on fields of several acres. soil was exhausted. I asked him why he did not draw For three years last past, 57, 58 and 59, they have been some of those thousands of loads of manure that were a serious obstacle in the way of this culture ; so much so. washed into the river from the distillery every year! Oh, that many cultivators have contemplated giving up the he said, it would never pay. I asked him how he knew, growing of onions. Unwilling to do this, others are holdwhen he had never tried it, and told him that I was confi- ing on, hoping for a better time coming,” flattering dent that it would pay me, if it was as near me, and told themselves that their dreams of imaginary wealth from him if he would try 20 loads on an acre, if it did not pay fancied crops of onions, are not so soon to be disappointed. the first crop, in either grain or grass, I would pay the ex- South Danvers, Mass.
J. W. PROCTOR. pense. After much talk on the subject, I got him to com- P. S.-It may be remarked, in connection with the culmence drawing in winter to manure ten acres, the worst ture of the onion, that it affords a convenient employment part of his corn field; and now for the result. That ten for the young, both boys and girls. In the season of weedacres produced 30 bushels ears per acre more than the un- ing there is a demand for all the laborers that can be obmanured part, and more than double the quantity of stalks, tained. Well trained boys, from 12 to 16 years, will do as and you must remember that the manured part was the much as men, and are glad to work for half the price of men. highest, and by far the stiffest clay soil; besides I don't The shrewd calculator who has an eye to the windward, is think he gave it a fair chance in testing the difference be careful to avail himself of this advantage. The same is tween the manured and the unmanured, as he took the done after the crop is gathered to the barn, by employing five rows adjoining the manured part, and five rows the girls of these ages to sort the onions. I have heard young manured, and the manured part being the highest land, l'girls when thus employed, say they could earn fifty cents part of these five rows undoubtedly got some benefit from a day by sorting onions at one cent per basket, holding a the manured five. When drawing the manure home the bushel." This was before they began to mount their critfirst year, as almost every load passed, I understood he olines—with these of full dimensions, I think it would be said, there goes another shilling, the price paid for having as difficult for them to approach the pile of onions, as it it taken out of the stables. But last winter I was told he is for a man of 240 pounds to engage in weeding them; drew enough to manure 25 or 30 acres fully, and when the land this I know to be almost impracticable.
EDITORIAL CORRESPONDENCE. depth to which the soil bad been previously plowed, and the GREENFIELD, FRANKLIN Co. Mass., Jone 8.
newly inverted subsoil would shell off slightly in turning; With the view of spending Wednesday at Brattleboro', otherwise the furrow slice was laid over very liandsomely, as intended when I left home, I have also had the pleasure its surface, as finally exposed, seamed and cracked, and of accomplishing a long cherished purpose to see some ready to pulverize under farther cultivation. Next came a thing of New-England Agriculture in this part of the Con- smaller size, intended for three cattle, or "four cattie necticut Valley. My letter at this late date must not be light,” which was put in about seven inches by fifteen. as long as I should like to make it, and I can therefore Thirdly, we had one yoke of oxen before a stili smaller only note down as concisely as possible some of the earlier size, running six inches deep and twelve or thirteen wide. gleanings of the past three days.
The "intervale” plow, it should be added, has a wheel Upon the invitation of Fred. HOLBROOK, Esq., an early ten inches in diameter, and the same is also used upon contributor of our own, and long the President of the Ver- the "sod and subsoil," but the “bog plow," of which we mont State Ag. Society, a little party assembled day be- shall speak later, had a smaller and broader one. fore yesterday to witness the trial of what has been named The trial of the smallest size "sod and subsoil" prothe “Universal Plow.” It is the result of much time and ceeded after a change of mould-board, the removal of the labor expended by him during a number of years upon the coulter, and the addition in front of the small “skim” problem of improving this important implement, and al- plow. The mould-board here employed differs in principle though it has now been in use to some extent in this part from that upon the “intervale" plow, being the saine as of New-England for two or three seasons, Mr. H. bas, I is used for the upland or "stubble” plow—making a believe, from time to time been perfecting its details, and shorter twist, and throwing the ground over so as to break a description of what is now attained will probably be new it up finely. The depth cut was eight to nine inches, and to most of our readers.
the breadth about eleven—the snd cut neatly off, laid perThe Field.—The trial took place upon the farm of fectly flat at the very bottom of the furrow, and then the RICHARDS BRADLEY, Esq., near Brattleboro', on a meadow rest of the earth so loosened up and shaken over the buin admirable condition for plowing. Mr. Henry Brooks, ried sod, that the bottom of the furrow was 21 inches beof Acton, Mass., was the plowman—a winner of numerous low the surface of the field when plowed. The next trial prizes, I understood, in this department of agricultural was with the largest size "sod and sub-soil," when the furexertion, and under whose management nothing but a good row was fully 12 inches deep and wide, and the labor of liftplow was necessary to render the work all that could be ing this weight of soil and turning it over in a condition desired. The first operation was in turning over the sod so thoroughly broken up, above the sods laid down beupon a part of the field that had lain in grass five years neath, was the most striking point in the day's exhibition soil a clayey loam, verging in a narrow strip across the
A difficulty in the action of the old Michigan sod and furrows, upon a more sandy character ; no stones ; proba- sub-soil, has been that the forward skin doubled up the bly never plowed before deeper than six or seven inches. sod instead of turning it flat over, and consequently the
The Plow. The idea of the Universal Plow is to fur- work was badly performed. In the present trial it was iunish a skeleton, accompanied by a series of changeable cast- verted completely, and when the oxen were started up ings, such that the farmer can either select any one kind more briskly, the earth raised over upon the top of it cnine of the latter for a particular object, or by choosing three out in what might almost be called a shower of thoroughor four, obviate the necessity of purchasing and storing ly broken fragments, and it was thrown up so loosely that just so many complete and separate plows. The number on measuring from a level with the highest lying clods to of mould-boards provided is 12, forming an “intervale” the bottom of the furrow where the plow was running series, flat furrows of five sizes, an “upland” series, also deepest, the depth taken in this way was found to be 26 flat furrows, of four sizes, one “lap furrow” mould-board inches—in other words, both sizes of the sod and subsoil for stiff clays, and two “stubble” or old ground sizes. which they passed, so as to make it occupy something
loosened up the respective quantities of earth through By adding to the last mentioned a small forward or “skim”
more than double its original space. plow, we have also two “sod and subsoil” sizes. The We did not see the “ Stubble” plow tried, but the same above require three changes of land-side shoe, of differ- mould-board used in the “Sod and Subsoil" is there ement lengths. By the use of steel in the share, land-side pluyed, so that we could easily see how it would operate and mould-board, the same implement is employed for to invert and pulverize on old upland soil
The Bog Plow.—The next trial was in cutting a bog breaking up bog and prairie.
which had never been plowed before, where the tussocks As already intimated, it is not supposed that a single of grass and roots were exceedingly well matted together, purchaser will be likely to want it for the whole variety requiring a sharp edge to detach them, and great force in of uses to which it may be put, but the object has been to the first furrow to throw them over. The latter was at make it take the place of several of the different sorts which proceeded without difficulty, taking out a slice 8 or 10
length accomplished mostly by hand, and then the work otherwise he would have to procure separately. One inches deep and 20 to 24 in width. Upon this plow a cirfarmer, for instance, who was present, remarked that he cular cutter is attached, and it has a wide steel edged had seven plows, but with this he could dispense with four, share, and a draft rod so that both oxen may walk upon only retaining beside it, I think, a one horse corn plow, the sod, as one could not easily have found a footing in the and a side-hill reversable one.
mire at the furrow bottom. When taking out its largest
furrow, its action was very fine; it is desirable to have the The Trial.—With this preface I can more briefly refer whole of the grass completely buried in, in order that to what was actually done in our presence. The beginning none may have any chance of growing—an end which was was made with two fine yoke of oxen before the largest accomplished quite perfectly throughout. size of " intervale flat furrow,” opening the first furrows 8 several furrows, Tapping one upon another, at an angle of
LAP Furrow—The day concluded with the turning of inches deep and 16 wide, and then set to run an inch still 450,7 inches deep and 10 wide, and the work equally well deeper and two inches wider. This was going below tho I performed with what had preceded it.