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Of course there was no room in testing a plow by itself, hundred and fifty years, are or are not easily and profitafor dynamometrical comparison as to draft, but I think bly propagatable in our farm-yards. there was little doubt that an enormous weight of earth Mr. Swainson, relying mainly on the circumstance that was stirred in several instances with perhaps unusual the Curassow and Guans are included in his rasorial types, facility. The good plow must combine in its operation also expresses a sanguine hope, accompanied by a reproach something of the two powers of the wedge and the screw, for past neglect, that an important addition to our poultry and if careful calculation to reach scientific results in a stock is about to become firmly established in England. scientific way, can be effectively applied to determine its “It is singular," says he, “that so little pains bave hitherto form, Mr. Holbrook appears to have made the experiment been taken to domesticate these American fowls; since as earnestly as the protracted study of the subject for eight by their sociability and gentleness, they evince every disor ten years will admit.
position to live under the dominion of Man. The flesh During this period, there is no doubt that our farmers we know from experience is particularly delicious." have, by degrees, been learning to plow better and more The Guans range, it is said, with the English pheasant judiciously, or that our manufacturers have been improving in point of magnitude, though rather exceeding them, and the character of the implements offered for sale. "But it go in pairs. When caught young and tamed, they appear is very singular how litile evidence of either of these facts to make themselves even more at home than the common is afforded, either by the files of our agricultural journals fowls. They live on very friendly terms with other poulor the transactions of our societies. While both have try, much more so than Guinea-fowl do, neither fearing been crowded with the discussion, for example, of the their co-mates, nor yet attempting to tyrannize over then. different niethods of harvesting by machinery, and com- Who, then, that has a poultry-yard and its usual appurpetition in that and some other branches of manufacture tenances, can help wishing to introduce therein a few of has left no stone unturned in the rivalry for public appro. these most promising and inviting creatures, about which val and patronage, we have seen the makers of the Plow so strong a case has been made out! silently resting on their oars, receiving whatever demands Less is generally known respecting Guans, (a figure of niight come to them through the ordinary channels of which adorns the head of this article,) as far as their protrade, but apparently quite contented that the great body pagation under human sway is concerned, than about of the farmers of the country, and especially that leading Curassows. Almost every late book, on Ornithology espeand important class who read and think, should remain, socially, which mentions them, recommends them as a defar as any efforts they make to the contrary are concerned, sirable and easily-managed addition to our poultry stock; in almost entire ignorance of whatever improvements may yet no author has either seen this project carried into pracbe under way.
tice, or has given in give, any directions in detail as
to how they are to be successfully managed and reared. [For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.] Temminch remarks, “the Guans, with a disposition not DOMESTICATION OF WILD FOWL. less gentle and peaceable than the Curassows, have less
frequently been made the subject of experiment. Although their manners are so similar, the Guans hare not yet received from man the same regular and continued care, nevertheless, by judicious treatment we might easily succeed in transplanting these useful creatures into Europe; rural conomy would find in this genus of birds, as in the Galeated and Crested Curassow, important resources and new means of prosperity.” This proved additional fund of profit seems surely deserving consideration and worthy a trial. Mr. Bennett, relying upon this opinion of Teniminch's, and not, the reader is requested to bear in mind, upon any success in acclimating and rearing Guans that he had anywhere attained, writes, "there can be little doubt that with proper care and attention these birds might be added to the stock of our domesticated fowls ;" giving as a motive for endeavoring to make the addition, the tempting incentive that "they are spoken of as furnishing an excellent dish for the table.”
Thus, then, the matter stands at present, according to, The Guan.
we believe, every yet published authority. Guans and From Botany and Horticulture we have in recent times Curassows can be and ought to be reared in every farmer's derived wholesome and substantial vegetables; plentiful, poultry-yard, we will not say in locks, but certainly in grateful and luxurious fruits ; forms of delicate and fragile moderate and tolerable abundance. They are not
, howbeauty, to decorate the mansions of the wealthy patrons ever, yet visible either here or abroad. Why not? There of the science; continued additions to our woods and is a fault and a difficulty somewhere; either we have been shruberies, our hot-houses, our cottage gardens; nay, by the very remiss and indolent in neglecting to make such valusanative force of herbs, eren disease has been arrested, able acquisitions, or nature has been unyielding. the irritation of incipient insanity allayed, fever mitigated
C. N. BEMENT. -in short, life prolonged, and made more comfortable
Blacksmith's Scales for Peach Trees. during its prolongation. What, meanwhile, has Ornithology cffected to increase our store for the last three hundred About two years ago I heard a neighbor say that he had years? We do not say, nothing; but we dare not say, found great benefit in using the scale from blacksmith's much more than nothing.
anvils around his peach trees. I had several that had been Ornithology has imparted little practical knowledge re- badly injured by worms, around which I placed the scale. specting those creatures about which the poultry-maid Since that time I have not been able to find a worm, and could not already give us information. Even Agriculture, the trees have recovered their green healthy appearance. which requires so heavy a ballast of capital to carry ber Newark, N. J.
G. H. BRUEN. along steadily on her way—even Agriculture has introduced turnips, swedes, mangold-wurtzel, and other crops, les Warren Leland, Esq., of the Metropolitan Hotel, within the memory of our fathers and grandfathers; but New-York, owns a place of 200 acres in Westchester ornithology does not this day publicly decide, in print at county, upon which he keeps sixty cows. For the month least, whether birds like those now under consideration, of May the Metropolitan Hotel credits W. Leland $472 promising truly or falsely to be as valuable as turkeys or for cream and milk from his little farm in Westchester Guinea-fowls, and which have been captive at least two county.
PATENT OFFICE REPORT FOR 1859. made previous to March 1859—also a list of plants from Reduction of appropriation-Foreign Seeds and Cuttings-Distribu Palestine, forwarded by the Rev. J. T. Barclay, a christian tion of Seeds-Contents of the Voluine-Parsons on the Productions missionary from the United States to Jerusalem. Some of the Ionian Islands and Italy, The Lupin, English and American of these may prove valuable acquisitions to the agriculExperience with it-Other papers and their subjects—The Orange tural interests of our country, where the climate will adin Florida--Agricultural Inventions.
We have been kindly favored by M. KELLEY, Esq., Chief mit of their culture. Among those forwarded were seeds Clerk in the Department of the Interior, Washington, D. of the Carob tree, or Carob beans. “It is generally conC., with an advance copy of the Patent Office Agricultural sidered the locust tree of the Seriptures, and its fruit has Report for 1859, for which Mr. Kelley has our thanks. been called St. John's bread, while the shells of the pods
In the introductory Report of the Commissioner, dated are supposed to be the husks of which the prodigal son Jan. 3, 1860, he says :
desired to partake with the swine.” The pods in Egypt "Owing to the reduced appropriation made by Congress for are so thick, and so charged with sugar, as to be regarded agricultural purposes for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1860. as a delicacy by the common people. the office has been compelled to reduce its expenses and confine its action to a more limited sphere than beretofore. In
The next paper is an “Historical Sketch of the United doing this it was found necessary either to decline purchasing States Agricultural Society,"--followed by a paper on the for distribution the usual varieties of garden and field seeds, “Native Grapes of Arkansas and Texas,” by H. C. Wilor to abandon the experiment of propagating the tea and various other foreign plants and grape cuttings, for which liams of Texas, which is succeeded by Dr. C. T. Jackson's orders had been given." The expense which had already been report on the saccharine contents of native American incurred in their procurement would hardly justify the office grapes in relation to wine-making; as also a report by Dr. in throwing them aside. It was accordingly deomed advisable to apply the remainder of the funds solely to the procuring of J. on the proportions of acids in native American grape inforination and preparing the material for the Agricultural wines made from the pure juice of the grapes. The next Report, and to the progngation and distribution of such vari thirty pages are occupied by reports from John F. Weber eties of foreign seeds and cuttings as had been already en- of Washington, D. C., on American grapes—culture, winegaged. These were of such a pature that if they had been distributed throughout the country immediately upon their making, &c. There are also several other papers on the receipt, the probability is that very few of them would have grape, wine-making, &c., which will doubtless be found reached their destination in a fit state for tea seeds, more particularly, arrived in such a condition that very useful, as grape-growing and the manufacture of it was of the utmost importance to plint them at once. For American wine, are exciting a great deal of interest in this purpose largo propagating houses were erected upon the almost every section of our country. With our diversified government grounds north of the canal. These structures climate and soils, and great variety of native grapes, we now answer well the purpose for which they were intended, as is exhibited by the fact that we have, ready for distribu- think the day is not far distant, when the products of the tion, over 30,000 well rooted tea plants, '12,000 foreign and vine will become an important item in our statistical redomestic grapevines, 900 rooted, seedless, pomegranate cut- ports. tings, and various foreign, medicinal and ornamental plants. S. B. Parsons gives us some thirty-six pages of interestThese will be ready for distribution during the present winter ing matter “On the Productions of the lonian Islands and and the ensuing spring."
" The nature of the tea plant is such that it cannot be suc- Italy.” If our limits would permit, we should be pleased daries of Tennessee and North Carolina. For this reason, the We can only make a few quotations, appending a few recessfully cultivated in the open air above the northern boun: to make copious extracts for the benefit of our readers. largor portion will be sent south of that line. A sufficient number, however, will be divided among the remaining States, marks. He says, at Agrami, to satisfy the reasonable demands for such persons as have "In laying down a new vineyard, the land, which should the conveniences necessary for their protection during the slope southerly, is first well cross-plowed in the month of Nowinter months." "Last summer an agent was employed to travel through Trenches are then dug, about five feet deep, and from four to
vember, and allowed to rest till the middle of January, several of the Northern States for the purpose of collecting five feet apart, which are left open to ventilate about fifteen the best varieties of ripe native grapes. An experienced days. The plants, which are vigorous cuttings of the former chemists was also engaged to analyze the fruit thus collected, year's growth, and generally from eigbt to ten feet long, aro for the purpose of ascertaining the amount of saccharine mat- placed upright in the trenches, at a distance of five feet apart
, ter and other ingredients contained in the juice of each varie- the trench being then filled in to the depth of three feet. The ty, and determining which kinds are best adapted to the mak- upper end of the cutting is then (ox-bow like) turned down ing of wine. The reports of the agent and chemist appear with its point stuck in the ground, to keep it fresh.
As the in this volume, and will no doubt prove valuable and interest- season advances and the plant begins to vegetate, the trench ing to the public.”
is from time to time filled in." In speaking of the distribution of seeds, as heretofore,
Experience undoubtedly has taught these cultivators of the Commissioner, as we conceive, very sensibly remarks, the vine the necessity and economy of this deep trench
“I have no hesitation in saying that the necessity no lon- ing. But care in preparing the ground, and setting of the ger exists of distributing the various seeds of domestic growth, vine and fruit trees, we suppose is as necessary in this inasmuch as the facilities for obtaining thein are such that every person of enterprise enough to cultivate them, can ob- country as there; if so, many of our people are sadly detain everything in that line from the seed-stores."
ficient in this matter. We have seen many apple and The first article in the body of the volume, is a report other trees transplanted into excavated holes, the size and upon the “Government Experimental and Propagating depth of a half-bushel measure, the owners thereof feeling Garden," embracing, among other things, a history of the quite complacent with the idea that they had discharged tea plant, its culture, preparation, &c.; as also, a list of their duty in this business of fruit growing. grapevines, (25,000 plants.) These embrace seedlings and Mr. P. two or three times speaks of lupinscultivated rooted cuttings from not less than fifty varieties of native for cattle forage and for green manuring. Speaking of and foreign grapes. The list contains about fifty named manures in Sicily, he says: sorts. We here, however, only give the name of one “The usual fertilizing materinls are stablo manure, and variety, viz:
where it is to be had, that of goats and sheep. Bonos, for" Lady's Finger- Berries, three inches long, three-fourths of werly used for manure, but now employed in chemistry, have an inch in diameter; delicious flavor--from Egypt."
become too expensive for the furmer, and are therefore left
to be exported, in large quantities, to France and Genos. This is followed by a list of seeds, the result of orders Luping, as before observed, are in frequent use for manure ;
their thick succulent tops covered by the plow, form a bighly feruginous (irony) soils—while the lupin does not do well fertilizing mass of vegetable watter." We refer here to the lupin, believing it might be profita- think the lupin a plant well worthy cultivation, and hope
on limy soils, but prefers a feruginous (irony) one. We bly cultivated for green manuring in many sections of this
many of our farmers will experiment with it and favor the country, more especially upon light sandy soils. The public with the results, through the agricultural journals. lupin was used as food by the ancient Romans, and, as with the people of the present day, was plowed into the G. Clemson, L. L. D., which, from a rather hasty perusal,
Forty-one pages are devoted to fertilizers by Hon. Thos. soil as a manure. Recently, in Germany, it has been we judge to be a valuable treatise upon the important subfound to be one of those plants by which unfruitful sandy ject of fertilizers. This is followed by an article on “Vetsoils may be brought most speedily into a productive state. erinary Science and Art," and one on “Veternary MediThe superiority of this plant for the purpose of enriching cine," by Dr. Craig, of Washington. “The Acclimation the soil depends upon its deep roots, which descend more and Domestication of Animals,” by the same writer. Some than two feet beneath the surface; upon its being little 20 pages are devoted to J. M. Comstock's essay on “ Fish injured by the drouth, and not liable to be attacked by Breeding.” The breeding of fish is attracting some atteninsects; upon its rapid growth, and its large produce in tion in various quarters, and may yet prove a profitable leaves and stems.
pursuit. Mr. C.'s paper will be eagerly read by all those In confirmation of the above, we quote from a letter Daving a desire to engage in rearing fish. About the same published in the Mark Lane Express of April 25, 1859. number of pages in the Report are filled with Henry F. The letter was written by Mr. Hartly, an English farmer, French's paper on “ English Plows and Plowing." What- who was then making an agricultural tour in Germany. ever Jugde F. writes is worth reading. But we cannot Ur. Hartley says:
here go into a review or analysis of his article--it should "In continuation of an account of those Flemish crops, I be read in full. Arrangement of Horse Stables, by Dr. will commence this letter with the yellow lupin.' Wherever I have been in France or Belgium, I find a greater admix. Rueff, Germany, and a paper on Saxon Merino Sheep, by ture of sand in the soils than in England. For some few years Von Sternburg of Germany, are undoubtedly valuable past on these soils, the agriculturists, or rather proprietors of i contributions, but we have not had time to give them an these iniserable lands, have been much impressed with the inwense advantages to be derived froin the yellow lupin, attentive perusal. Sixty-two pages “On the Plants used as a green crop to be plowed in. It is so effective that where as food by Man in Different Parts of the World, and it has been fallowed up, as iu Pomerania, Saxony and Braden- at Various Periods,” by Dr. F. Unger of Germany—transburg, those estates, which before were worthless, now prolated from the German for this Report, containing a great duce splendid crops of rye and lupins, without any manure being employed but that which arises from these plants. fund of useful information about what people eat in differ
It is not a high growing plant, but very leafy and branches ent parts of the world. much ; consequently it may be drilled thinly at eighteen inches, and hood or not, as you please. It is a sort of bean,
The Board of Managers of the State Agricultural sown in the spring at the rate of two bushels per acre, and plowed in when in full flower. The ground may then be Society of California, have fixed upon Wednesday evening, sown again with it, and that crop also plowed in. It likes September 19th, for the State Fair, when the opening addeep cultivation. The land is never sick of it, and when dress will be delivered. The Fair will close Sept. 26th. grown annually as madure, for six or seven years, it has turned the soil of a dark color, froin the quantity of decayed
There are many other papers, "shorter or longer," but matter deposited."
we cannot here go into particulars, but will name some of Mr. H. further says:
them. “Some Hints upon Farm Houses," by Samuel D. “We have many sandy districts in Norfolk, Surry, and Backus, Architect, New-York, a useful and valuable paper, other parts, where I cannot see why it should not have the and should be carefully perused by al farmers who intend same effect as abroad in the north of Germany. There are many gentlemen there who grow from 120 to 200 acres of building dwelling houses. Meterology, by Prof. Henry, this plant annually, as the farms run large. They grow it a valuable scientific contribution, which is followed by a for its seeds, and also occasionally cut it for fodder. The dozen or more reports on Tobacco, mostly from consuls in grain or seeds ripen in August. The feeding property of the
“ Wooden grain is about the same as common beans. if mown for fod foreign countries. There is one short paper on der in full bloom, it is considered quite as nutritive as clover, Shoes.” Should the cattle plague prevail in this country but I should doubt that. It has grown two tons per acre to the extent it bas in some others, our people may yet be after having been cured. It is good for all animals, but cows must not be allowed too much of it, or it will give a taste to obliged to wear wooden shoes—if so, this will become a the milk. On soils that suit it, (and any will do except chalk,) valuable paper for future reference. it will grow a yard high, deeply plowed and subsoiled.” Many of our readers are aware of the great injury the
We experimented with a quart or so of the seeds of the Orange trees of Florida have sustained by the depredations white lupin last year. There is no essential difference of the mussel-shell shaped scale insect that infest the body, between the yellow lupin and the white-seed sown broad- limbs and leaves of the Orange tree, in countless numbers. cast on very poor 'sandy, irony soil, grew plants from 12 to destroy the insects, various experiments have been to 18 inches high. Those sown on a loamy, dark-colored resorted to by means of liquid applications, such as soda, soil, grew plants from 18 to 24 inches bigh. Others, sulphur, coal tar, aloes, spirits, syrup, lime; and, in fact, drilled in on a good sandy soil, grew from 24 to over 3 every imaginable thing, almost, was tried—boles were feet high, producing a good yield of seed. Sown in the bored in the bodies of the trees, and filled with sulphur, spring as early as the season will admit of, without injury calomel, &c., without producing any favorable result. from frosts, and the plants will blossom in about three Many of these experiments were tried by Mr. Glover, late months, soon after which they may be turned into the Entomologist of the Ag. Division of the Patent Office. soil, and perhaps another fair crop could be grown on the After inany experiments it was discovered that Peruvian same ground before the autumnal frosts; if not, English guano mixed with soap suds, and applied with a syringe, turnips could succeed them. Clover is much used in possessed superior efficacy over all other applications. many sections of our country for green manuring, and At page 554 of this Report, is a copy of a letter from usually succeeds best on lime or marl soils, but poorly on Dr. Morague of Florida, giving the result of the " suds and
Mauritania the almond. and Greece the olive.
guano" application to his orange trees. It had the de ORIGIN OF VARIOUS PLANTS. sired effect. The Doctor says, “syringed my trees once a The annual meeting of the Paris Society of Acclimatation, week for a month or two, and, am happy to say, with com: according to the Revue Horticole, the present year maniplete success. Although my grove was literally covered fests a flourishing condition in that popular and useful body. with the coccus, not one can now be found alive.” Recipe - M. St. Hilaire, the President, delivered an interesting dis“to a barrel of soap suds add a commou bucket of guano." course, and the Vice President, M. de l'Huys, read a paper To the above we add the testimony of William A. For
upon the most celebrated gardens of antiquity, in which word of Florida, who says:
he glanced at the origin of the various new plants derived " I feel it due to Mr. Townend Glover that I should bear testimony to his usefulness in the duties assigned him at this from the East, and, later, from the New World. We place.
translate from this part of his interesting memoir the ful. "He experimented on my oringe grove, and I consider he lowing facts : has enved it. His syringing of the trees regenerated them, CEREALS.-Wheat and buckwheat came from Asia-rye from Siberia and destroyed the insect. I have no doubt his remedy is a
-rice from Ethiopia. thorough one. It has certainly proved so in ny grove, and VEGETABLES. -The cucumber from Spain---the artichoke for Sicily and others in this town, wherever practiced. I feel now that we Andalusia-the chervil from Italy-cress from Crete-lettuce from have nothing to fear from the orange insect."
Coos—the white cabbage from the North-the red and green cabWe do not see why the same remedy will not answer in bage, the onion and parsley from Egypt-the cauliflower from Cy.
press-spinach from Asia Minor-asparagus from Asia-the pumpkin destroying the mussel-shell shaped scale insect upon the from Astracan-the eschalot from Ascalon--the bean from Indiaapple and other trees, if applied during the early part of the radish from China-the melon from the East and from AfricaJune, while the newly hatched insects are come-at-able.
the potato and the Jerusalem artichoke from America.
Fruits, &c.--Asia sent forth the filbert, the pomegranate, the walnut, Perhaps, too, the same would destroy the rose slug, and the quince, and the grape-Armenia the apricot, Media the citron, those infesting the pear and cherry trees, and, perhape,
Persia the peach, India the orange, Mesopotamia the fig. Pontus
the cherry and the hazeluut, Lydia the chestnut, Syria the plum, the curculio, and the green lice apliides that sometimes appear in such vast numbers on the tender twigs of the Among plants of different uses may be mentioned the Coffee original.
ly from Arabia, Tea from China, the cacao (cocoa) from Mexico, apple tree, rose bush, &c. Possibly a bucket of clear hen
tobacco also from the New World, anise from Egypt, fennel from manure might be used as a substitute for the guano—the the Canaries, the clove from the Moluccas, the castor oil bean from thing is worth trying.
TREES.-The horse-chestnut came from India, the laurel from Crete, The last eighteen pages of the Report are taken up in the elder from Persia, &c. giving a list of Agricultural inventions or discoveries, FLOWERS - The narcissus and carnation came from Italy, the lily from
Syria, the tulip from Cappadocia, the jasmine from India, the starpatented for the year 1859, and we here give a summary
wort from China, the nasturtium from Peru, the dahlia from Mexiof a small portion of them, viz: 13 bee hives, 49 cultivators, 37 churns, 19 grain separators, 17 harrows, 13 of
Is it not time to ask—queries M. Barral after the above which are rotary, 98 harvesters and harvesting machines, quotation--if any kind of vegetation at all naturally be72 corn seed and cotton seed planters, besides a large longs to the Gauls ? He claims, at least, the oak tree, but number of seeding machines and drills, thrasbing ma- adds that the success of past "acelimatations " should chines, and other agricultural implements "too numerous to mention."
encourage every pation to try new ones. OATS---CHANGE OF SEED.
GRUBS AND CUT-WORMS.
Ens. Co. GENT.—Your correspondent G. W. H., desires The Canadian Agriculturist copies the article on this
to know how he can extirpate those little pests without subject, given on p. 283 of this paper, and adds :
destroying his corn. With entire deference for your Our experience very much accords with that of the cor- reply, permit me to say: Had he have asked the question respondent of the Country GENTLEMAN, as stated above. at an earlier date, I feel confident I could have informed A few years since, the Board of Agriculture of Upper Can-bim. But my method I fear may reach him too late for ada, imported from Aberdeen, in Scotland, several vari- his present crop, as it will not do to apply it after the corn eties of oats that are much esteemed in the British Islands. is in leaf, The seed of all the sorts was plump and heavy, weigbing About ten years since I learned from an old brickfrom 43 to 48 lbs. a bushel. They consisted of the Pota- maker, that they always prepared a bed of clay in the to, Hopetoun, Angus, Berlin, Poland, and the Black and autumn season for the following spring work, by digging White Tartarian. The seed was sown by different persons it up and strewing it with salt, which he said destroyed on various soils, and the result was a gradual deterioration the worms, otherwise the bricks would be filled with wormin quality year by year. These oats, however, were gen- holes and useless. This consab took place just at cornerally heavier than the ordinary varieties cultivated in this planting season, and I at once resolved to try an experiment. country, for three or four years, when they seem to have Immediately after I finished planting my corn, I had reached their minimum of weight. The mode of prepar- about a table spoonful of salt spread over each bill. I ing the land, and the character of the season, of course have continued to have this done every corn-planting affect considerably the quantity and quality of the grain. since; and up to this date, I have never had a day's labor In Upper Canada our summers are generally too hot and performed in replanting corn from the depredation of dry for the oat. In the lower section of the Province this worms of any kind; and those of my neighbors who have crop appears to do better; and in Nova Scotia and Prince tried the experiment, fully agree with me in believing that Edward Island, owing to the greater moisture of their cli- it is a sure preventive to injury therefrom. Let your mate, arising from their contiguity to the ocean, oats yield agricultural friends try it, and if it fails to have the dea heavy grain in large quantities. For ordinary purposes sired effect, it is what it lias never done with C. Harvey. we think that the Tartarian, White or Black, is the best suited to this section of the Province. It is hardy, and en Mr. W. C. Harrison of Pennsylvania, who has will more than make up in quantity what it may be de- been extensively engaged in the management of bees in ficient of in weight by the bushel
. Seed oats ought to be California and elsewhere, has prepared a volume of 287 frequently changed; getting them from different climates pp., entitled “Bees and Bee-Keeping; a plain, practical and soils as far away as possible. Like pigs, oats rapidly work, with directions how to make bee-keeping a desiradegenerate by sowing the same kind on the same farm for ble and lucrative business, and for shipping bees to Calia number of years. The only remedy lies in frequently fornia." Our copy came from the author, but has the imchanging the seed.
print of Saxton, Barker & Co., as publishers.
MANURIAL RESOURCES OF THE FARM. many entensive and repeated experiments, that in the
words of Prof. Johnston,) “it is only necessary to mix It is an old maxim of husbandry, that “a good farm, half-dried peat with any substance which undergoes rapid like a good joint of meat, only requires basting with its
spontaneous decomposition, when it will more or less own dripping," or in other words, that it will furnish of
speedily become infected with the same tendency to decay, itself sufficient fertilizing material to keep up its maximum and will thus be rendered capable of ministering to the productiveness. As a general rule, we may rely upon this
growth of cultivated plants.” We have in former volumes statement, and we propose here to offer a few bints on
given considerable attention to this subject, but its imporsome of the manurial resources of the farm.
tance will allow of its frequent recall upon the attention The first grand resource of the farmer will be found in of our readers the plowing under of greensward-the thicker and heavier,
The fertilizing matters allowed to run to waste upon the more effective—to enrich the soil for other crops. most farms, might supply another valuable resource for Without grass as a manure, we should find it much more improving their productiveness. The liquid manure of difficult to keep up the fertility of our farms. No other stock, the slops of the kitchen and wash-room, the concrop is so constant in growth—early and late, and under tents of privies, refuse bones, and waste animal matterall kinds of treatment,- ,-as that of the different grasses. these, and many other things cumbering our back-yards No other returns so great a burden of vegetable growth to and befouling our cellars and store-rooms, would form a the soil, and at the same time furnishes so valuable a sup compost heap of great richness and no inconsiderable ply of food for stock, in both summer and winter forage, value. But we must leave the subject with our interested as this much neglected, yet everywhere present, product readers, hoping each will look about him, and see what of the soil.
are, and how he can best apply the manurial resources of The growing of clover and the grasses lies at the very | bis farm. foundation of profitable farming, as may be seen from
SYMPTOMS OF PLEURO-PNEUMONIA. several points of view. Axld first, as above hinted, plowing under a thick heavy grass sward furnishes an ample
In our last number, p. 364, we gave an account of the manuring for several successive grain crops. The decom
appearance of this disease in New-Jersey. In the Newark position of the abundant roots and stems of the grass siip: Daily Advertiser, Dr. I. M. Ward, who was present at the ples nutrition for growths of a different character, and examination to which the statement we published referred, having a greater money value to the farmer. Hence it
gives the result of his observations as follows: may be good policy for the farmer to give a large share of
In all cases examined the ravages were confined to the his labor and attention to producing a heavy growth of respiratory organs; in some cases the right and in others grass on all lands when devoted to this crop, knowing that the left lung, had been the seat of the disease, and in this most cheaply and effectively prepares his soil for the every one involving the whole mass of lung with its covproduction of other crops.
ering, and extending from it to the living membrane of
the ribs. Hence its name Pleuro-Pneumonia. The apIn another point, we see that grass-growing tends to im- pearance of the bronchial tubes gave evidence of participrovement, when it is produced for the consumption of pation in the disease from extension to them, from the animals upon the farm. We can have no better resource substance of the lung; disorganization of structure being for manure than in the practice of stock-feeding, and found alone in the lungs and its coverings. especially is this true of sheep and fattening stock, and
SYMPTOMS.—The incipient symptoms are loss of appein a less degree of all the aniinals of the farm. Indeed, tite, hanging of the head, and as the disease progresses an
extension of the head-bright and watery eye, breath hot, it has become an axiom of husbandry that stock-keeping breathing quick, with more or less agitation of the flanks, must have a place in the management of every farm to with an occasional cough, always dry; more or less thirst; render it profitable for a course of years.
horns and ears hot The quick and occasional cough, A second grand resource of the farmer for manure--for coupled with great prostration of strength, more particu
larly mark the progress of the disease. keeping up and increasing the fertility of his farm—is not
The ear applied to the side of the animal readily detects only to pasture and fodder stock, but to fatten them by the impediinent to a free circulation of air through the the aid of the grain products of the farm. This course lungs, from the violent congestion that exists. Šo une. will not only largely increase the amount of manure, but quivocally declared was the existence of the disease by will give it, under proper management, a much greater declare not only the existence of its fatal advance, but the
auscultation in one of the sick animals, that we venture to effective value as a fertilizer. It was a maxim of an exo portion and side of the lung to which it was confined. cellent farmer, Mr. Coke, late Earl of Leicester, “ that the This animal being selected for experimental observations, value of farm-yard manure is in proportion to what it is the post mortem examination proved the correctness of made of. If cattle cat straw alone, the dung is straw
the diagnosis. alone; the cattle are straw, the farm is straw, and the far- ter death, proclaimed it an inflammation of the lungs, as
The symptoms above detailed, and the examinations afmer is straw—they are all straw together.” And to come sociated with a low grade of fever, depressing so remarkto an authority at home, John Johnston has advocated this ably the vital energies as to characterise the disease one of course as the most effective and profitable for improving exhaustion. It baving been long observed that fever in the value of our farms. “High feeding,” says he, "would cattle would assume a typhoid form, we venture the opinmake higher manuring, by both making a larger quantity occasionally prevails epidemically in some sections of our
ion that it is analogous to the Typhoid Pneumonia, which and a much better quality."
extended country, in the human race, as a desolating A third grand resource may be found in the inexhausti- scourge. What of the disease we have witnessed with us ble muek beds so abundant in most sections of the coun: call it contagious if you can do so without raising a con.
is unquestionably communicated from animal to animal ; try. These contain vast supplies of “highly concentrated troversy about the word contagion, but not epidemic. If vegetable food, not only partly cooked but seasoned," 10 this is so, let the sick animal be at once separated from the quote Dana's “Muck Manual.” It has been found by l herd, and all comunication with other cattle be at an end.