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important that the now well-established fact of its being have the opportunity of acquainting themselves thoroughly virulently contagious, should be borne constantly in mind. with the disease, so as to be able to distinguish its sympIt is also proved that it may be communicated by infection, toms from those of other complaints. There will then be that is, that the places occupied or the food breathed upon where attack is suspected, and at once either put down
some one in every locality, who can be called in quictly by diseased animals, will give it to others, especially if unnecessary fears or take proper measures to meet the tainted with the mucous discharge characteristic of its exigencies of the case, without application of any sort to more advanced stages. That there is anything essentially official authorities, or crying out through the papers that epidemic in the Pleuro we very much doubt, although it the whole cattle of a town or county are dying, before it
is really ascertained whether there is one that is seriously appears certain that cases of it may spontaneously occur ill. Some one qualified medical observer will be better where circumstances are such as peculiarly to predispose for this purpose than three or four uninstructed and less the system to its attacks, and it is probably equally cer- capable visitors who would go and return in a day or two tain that there may be atmospheric, climatic or other really no wiser than they went. peculiarities especially favorable in certain seasons or lo
As to the present condition of affairs in Massachusetts,
the more light we can get upon the subject, the more we calities to its prevalency or violence. ,
incline to the opinion that for two months back there has 2. Keeping these facts in view, we remark in the second been little reliable evidence of the extension of the disease place, that the Pleuro-pneumonia is no new thing in this beyond the limits it then occupied. After a state of gencountry. In support of this assertion we refer to the let- eral commotion, whether well founded or not, there gen. ter from E. P. PRENTICE, Esq., on page 396_showing the erally comes a season of calm, and unless we much miscourse it ran in his herd five or six years ago, and the take the tendencies of the public mind, the excitement measures which in the end accomplished its extinction. upon the Pleuro-pneumonia has already passed its highest If Mr. Chenery could have secured the services of some point. We do not know all about it, even now, it is true;. one acquainted with these facts, at the time of the first but we know so much that we have no longer an ill-defined outbreak among his cattle, his own losses might perhaps goblin to contend with, but an enemy, sufficiently ugly, have been partially prevented, and, at any rate, the vast we do not deny, and by no means to be despised—but still expense and anxiety to which the whole State has since one which, if properly restrained and imprisoned, will work
been put, would have been spared. The great lesson, to out, in a great measure, his own extinction. Without · which we wish to call particular attention, not only as illus- neglecting caution, there is no reason for lack of courage; trated in Mr. PRENTICE's experience, but also as directly and it is our earnest recommendation, as the best source pointed at in all the testimony taken before the Massachu- of public security, that each man attend as judiciously and setts committee, is, then, that the only safety lies in iso earnestly as possible to the welfare of his own stock, withlating the different members of an infected herd, and that out inundating the public with surmises, or depending upon the disease may be thus in no very long time wholly driven Commissioners to kill or cure in his behalf, and upon the out.
public treasury for a premium upon any complaint which 3. Under the circumstances of the case in Massachu- he can distort into the guise of this troublesome and noisy setts, for a little outline of which see the letter from our invader. Boston correspondent—we think the action of the Commissioners should receive the cordial support of the pub
The Pleuro-Pneumonia here Six Years Ago. lic. The laws enacted by the Legislature are calculated to restore public confidence, and the report of the inves- The following is the important letter from E. P. Pren. tigations now concluded, will diffuse just the needed TICE, Esq., of Mount Hope, near this city, to which we al. information over the country, so that we hope to hear no lude particularly in the leading Note upon page 400 of this more of the spread of the disease, for, should it anywhere appear, the means of keeping it in check are entirely within number of the CountRY GENTLEMAN :the reach of all.
MESSRS. EDITORS--I notice that a good deal of alarm is 4. It may be remarked, however, that there should be felt in different parts of the country about what is called little confidence reposed in the numerous rumors of its the cattle discase. breaking out here and there, over the country, for any From the diagnosis given in the papers, I have no doubt affection of the lungs or other ordinary illness among cat- this is Pleuro-Pneumonia, with which I had some acquaintle will be very likely to be represented as the pleuro- tance a few years ago. If it is the same, my observation pneumonia for some time to come. Unless the opportu- and experience may be of some service to those suffering nity for the influence of contagion or infection is clearly now. known to have occurred, the presumption is, in cvery It was introduced into my stock in the fall of 1853, by such instance, that something else is the matter. If there one of my own cows, which in the spring of that year I is real cause for suspicion, let the endangered herd be at had sent down to my brother in Brooklyn, to be used duonce separated-one, or at most two or three animals by ring the summer for milk. She was kept entirely isolated themselves in any one field or building, and kept thus throughout the summer, and in November was sent up by isolated at whatever cost of time and trouble, until the the boat. There were no other cattle on the boat at tho whole danger has passed by.
time, nor could I learn that she had come in contact with 6. We trust that the Massachusetts Commissioners will any in passing through the streets on her way to the boat, at once carry out the provisions of the law for the estab- and she certainly did not after leaving it, until she mingled lishment of a hospital or quarantine, by the adaptation to again with her old companions, all of whom were then and this purpose of some farm and range of buildings where long afterwards perfectly healthy. After she had been the disease already exists, and where it may be fully stud- home about two weeks we noticed that her appetite failed, ied, both in its own developments and in the action of the and her milk fell off; she seemed dull and stupid, stood contagion and infection upon healthy animals introduced with her head down, and manifested a considerable degree for the purpose of experiment, and which need by no of languor. means be of an expensive kind. The poor-house establish- Soon her breathing became somewhat hurried and with ment at New-Braintree, where we witnessed last week the a very decided catch in it; she ground her teeth, continued examination of some infected cows, would afford a good standing, or if she laid down it was only to jump up again spot for the purpose, and investigations might there be instantly. Her cough increased, and so too & purulent conducted, which, so far as our reading has extended, and now bloody discharge of mucus from her mouth and have no prototypes in Europe with all that has there been nostrils. The excrement was fetid, black and hard. Baid and done upon the subject.
In this case we twice administered balf a pound of 6. When such a hospital is once known to exist, acces- epsom salts, and afterwards a bottle of castor oil. Very sible to the visits of interested scientific and practical men, little but a temporary effect was produced by these duses. it will be very well that delegates from other States should The symptoms all increased in intensity, strength di.
minished, limbs were drawn together, belly tucked up, &c., all, thoroughly scrubbed with ashes and water, fumigated until the eighth day, when she partly layed and partly fell and whitewashed with quick lime. I have had no case down, and never rose again.
since, and am persuaded I should have avoided most of In a post-mortem examination, the lungs proved to be those I had before, if I had reasonably admitted the erigorged with black, fetid blood, the substance of them to dences of my senses in the second and third cases. be thickened, soft and pulpy. The pleura and diaphragm Mount Hope, June 14, 1860. E. P. PRENTICK. also showed a good deal of disease and some adhesion,
This cow on her arrival here was put into her usual place in the stable, between others. She remained there
MR. ALEXANDER'S SALE. for two or three days after she was taken sick, before we The sale took place as advertised, on the 13th inst. removed her to the hospital.
In about three weeks from the time she died, one and The threatening aspect of weather in the early morning then the other of those standing on either side of her were changed about 10 o'clock, and the day proved a delightful attacked in the same way, and with but two days between. one. The attendance was large, and contained a sprink. This certainly looks very much like contagion, but my at- ling of breeders from Ohio, Indiana, New-York and Contention had not before been called to this particular dis-necticut. The prices were higher than realized last year, case, and to suppose inflammation or congestion of the as the stock was also of better quality. It will be seen lungs contagious, was so opposed to iny preconceived no. tions that I did not even then adnit it, and these animals from the following statement, that several animals found were suffered to remain with the others until their own com- Eastern purchasers :— fort seemed to require the greater liberty of open pens.
Cows AND HEIFERS. 1. Orba 20, Robt. Clarke, Ky.
$100.00 One of them was early and copiously bled twice, wbile 2. Mary Ann 18th, G. W. Anderson, Ky., epsonı salts were administered both by the stomach and 3. Many Ann 20th, J. B. Dun, Ky..
4. Mary Ann 22d, S. W. Robbins, Conn.. with the injective pump. The other we endeavored to 5. Chance, 5th, S. W. Robbins, Conn.,
205.00 keep nauseated with ipecacuanba, and at the same time 6. Pearlette 2d, J. S. Johnson, Ky.
295.00 7. Mary Cattley 20, Ezra Cornell, N. Y..
130.00 to keep her bowels open by cathartic medicines. All 8. Prune 3d J. B. Dun, Ky., proved to be of no avail. They both died, the one in ten
3. Emma 21, J. O. Sheldon, NY..
10. Filligre 4th, J. o. Sheldon, N. Y.. and the other in thirteen days. Before these died, low- 11. Pearlette 3d, S. W. Robblps, Conn..
205.00 ever, others were taken sick. And thus later I bad eight
12. Maid Marion 5th, S. W. Robbins, Conn.,
200.00 sick at one time,
14. Lilla Languish, E. Cornell, N. Y..
75.00 The leading symptoms in all were the same, with minor
15. Eveline, J. W. Jones, ky,
16. Mary Allen, Mr. Shields, Mo., differences, and so too was the appearance after death on 17. Margaret Allen, Mr. Shields, Mo...
19. Idle Girl, Jas. 0. Sheldon, N. Y...
150.00 Of all that were taken sick (sixteen) but two recovered, 18 Cows and Heifers, averaging $132.63—total, $2,747.50 and they were among those we did the lcast for, after we
1. Lord Languish, Rankin Baldridge, Ind.....
$225.00 had become discouraged about trying to cure them. In 2. Derby Duke. Merritt O'Neal. Ky..
170.00 all the last cases we made no effort at all, but to keep them
3. Fitz Bell, Rufus Bryant, (Shakers,) Ky.,
4. Juniper, John Monett, Ohio,. as comfortable as we could.
5. Election, Mr. Shieids, Mo. In one case the acute character of the disease changed
6. Marske, J. S. Wolfork,
275.00 to a chronic, and the animal lived six or eight weeks, until 8. Phantom, W. B. Hudson, Tenn... the whole texture of the lungs had become destroyed.
9. Rataplan, D. S. Huttstotter, Ind.,
105.00 10. Morisco, C. C. Crisman, Ky..
87.50 She had become inuch emaciated, and finally died with the 11. Zinganee, C. A, Stevenson, Ky.. ordinary consumption.
12. Falconer, R. W. Scott, Ky....
157.50 13. Langar, J. R. Ward, Ky..
205.00 At the time the first case appeared I had a herd of thirty- 14. Mogul, R. G. Dun, Ohio,
15. Peter, R. Weisiger, Texas, one animals, all valuable Ayrshires, in fine condition and
75.00 16. Marion, B. C. Bedford, Ky..
350.00 health. In all the first cases I had a veterinary surgeon 17. Fordham, John Ross, Ohio,
18. York, J. B. Wilder, Ky.. of considerable celebrity and experience, and every ordi
19. Hopeful, Dodd Helm, Ky....
50.00 pary approved mode of treatment was resorted to and persevered in. The last cases, as before intimated, we only
19 Bulls averaging $153.42---total,..
S.T. strove to make comfortable.
es To the account of Mr. R. A. ALEXANDER's late After I paid the third or fourth forfeit, I began to wake SALE, given above, should be added the Imported Bull up to the idea that the disease was in a high degree con
“El Hakim," sold for $250 to J. R. Bryant, Pleasant Hill, tagious, whether I would have it so or not, and that my Ky. A number of Soutlı-Down sheep not then reported, future security was in prevention and not in remedy. . I were also disposed of, and the following is a correct recatherefore separated all the remaining animals, in no in-pitulation of the whole : stance having more than two together, and generally but
20 Short-Horn Bulls sold for.. $3,165.00-average per head... $159.95 one in a place.
Cows & heifers, 2.747.50.
do. .. 152.03 All were removed from the infected stables and put into
34 head of cattle..
155.59 quarantine. Isolated cases continued to occur for some 9 South-Down Bucks,
391.00weeks after this, but the spread of the disease was stayed,
194.00 do. do. .. 32.33 nor did a single case occur after this, which we did not Total of all sales, ....... $6,497.50 think we traced directly to previous contact. It is impossible to account for the first case of which I
[For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) have spoken. But as the cow in that case was put into a
Charlotte Russe. sales stable in New-York wbile waiting for the boat, though Messrs. EDITORS --I will give you a recipe for Charlotte there were no cattle then present, yet I have supposed it Russe, with the directions for making it, which I consider in not unlikely that diseased animals had been there, and had a recipe quite as essential as the ingredients : left the seeds of disease.
1 ounce of gelatine. But account for this case as we may (and I have no doubt
6 ounces of sugar.
Yolk of four eggs, it is sometimes spontaneous,) I feel convinced it is very
1 quart of cream. highly contagious, and that the only safety to a herd into
1 pint of milk, which it has been introduced, is in complete isolation, and
Dissolve å lillle less than ono ounce of gelatina in a pint of in this I feel, as convinced, there is safety.
lukewarm milk-then scald it, and put it upon the beaten My cattle were not suffered to return even to the barn- eggs and sugar-stir them well together-set aside till it be
comes lukewarm--then season it well with vanilla, (some uso yard, or to any part of the cattle barns, except as invalids brandy also ) were sent to the “hospital” to die, until late the next fall Whip the cream while the mixture is setting, and skim tho -. e. the fall of 1854. In the meantime the hay and froth as it foring. The day before make sponge cake -- tho straw had all been removed, the stables, stalls, cribs, and weight of eggs in sugar, and half the weight in flour. Marr.
Vuquiries and Answers.
to know how-and likely many of the readers of the Co. Gent. would be benefitted by the information SUBSCRIBER. Barnes
ville, Ohio (Will some of our readers who possess practical Rose Bugs.-Will you please tell me through Tex Col- skill, please give us a description of the process, at an early TIVATOR, what will protect cherry trees against the ravages day ?) of the rose bug-also when to slit the bark of such trees. J. BONE DUST FOR TURNEPS.-In last Co. Gent, a corresponS. EWELL. Byfield, Moss. (We know of no remedy for the dent wishes to know what the effect of sulphated bones is on insects but to kill them. Wheu very numerous, they have turneps. I have not used any of it, but have the dust. Last been knocked off the trees on sheets and thrown into hot summer I sowed 200 pounds of dust on 70 square rods of water. We are not aware of any advantage in slitting the ground. Product 200 bushels of the finest turnips that I
I ever bark of trees.)
saw-got plenty that weighed five pounds with the tops and CEDAR BERRIES.- When is the proper time to gather the roots cut off. Some of the seed came up where no dust was red cedar seeds ? Il gathered in the fall should they be ex- sown, and the turnips were not as big as a silver dollar; havo posed during the winter ? R. (A suitable time is late in used four tons of it on grass, and see the effects in a much fall or during winter-thoy may be washed off the pulp and greater yield. M. GOWDY. O'Bannon's, Ky. mixed with moist sand, exposed to frosts, and planted in COLEBROOK SEEDLING POTATO.- A writer in The Homespring. They will grow the first and second years.)
stead, speaks of this variety as an excellent table potato, PLASTER.- I wish to question in regard to plaster. In plant- especially for summer use. He says, " They are large, smooth, ing my potatoes, I experimented with plaster. On one half very productive, and free from rot.
At this season,
when of the land I put a tablespoonful in each bill. The land seem- potatoes begin to grow soggy and distasteful, these are dry as ed to be better than the other part; the season was dry, but I meal and pleasant to the taste." We would be glad to know the yield was much less where the plaster was used, than on more of this variety from those who bave grown and used the other and poorer part. I think the soil contains a mixture them.
Tyro. of iron: Would that have an effect upon the plaster? What SUDDEN DEATH OF SHEEP.-As we have received much is the opinion of your readers in regard to it? I have also valuable information from the Co. Gent, I now write to solicit sown plaster broadcast upon wy mowland, and could perceive information on a subject that may perbaps prove pecuniarily no benefit therefrom. Eliac Brown. Blandford, Mass. interesting not only to myself, but to many of your readers. TOn some soils, plaster is no benefit, and it is needless to ap. For the past few weeks I have been losing my sheep, and am ply it. We do not think it injured the potatoes, but that the at a loss bow to account for their death. Those that I havo diininution was owing to other accidental causes.)
noticed before death, have a frothing at the mouth and bowYellow Clover.—En::losed you will find a specimen of els much distended. They are in fine condition, and on openthe flower and stems of a species of grass which has rooted out ing them could find nothing indicative of poison or disease. the clover in my fields, and in those of some of my neighbors, We have lost sheep from eating Ivy, all of which turned and which I would like to know the name of. Supposing you green before they died, or in other words their flesh assumed would be likely to know, I send it to you with the request that a greenish hue. The flesh of those I have lost recently, has you will give its name and the best method of eradicating it. its natural color. We have examined the field, (which is cloI am plowing it under. J. W. D. Mount Holly, N. J. (The ver and blue grass,) and could find nothing that I would conplant sent is the Trifolium procumbens, or yellow clover, an sider poisonous to a sheep. Any information that you or your introduced foreigner, a somewhat troublesome weed in some readers can impart on the subject, will be gratefully received. places. Plowing under and good cultivation will eradicate it ]
Mont. Co., Md.
Jas. E JONES. Paint FOR STOPPING CRACKS.- I have an upper porch the FLACK ANTg.-Will the editor please inquire through the floor of which leaks and lets the water down on to the lower columns of the Country Gent., if there is any remedy for the floos, and it also leaks where it joins the house. Now will common small black ant in gardons, as mine is almost overyou tell me what to do with it? What kind of paint can run with thein; the leaves of the flowers looking as if they I use on it, that will fill up the shrunken places, (pine,) had been pierced with an awi, and I can find nothing else to and be permanent and cheap? m. Marshall
, Iu." (We charge the destruction to but these ants. Mrs. D. Č. Nye. know of nothing better than white-lead paint, and where the (We have never been seriously troubled with ants, and therecracks are largo, the paint may be thickened to any desired fore give briefly such remedies as we have heard recomdegreo my mixing in with fine clean sand - making it thicker mended, with the request that our readers will furnish such acoording to the size of the cracks. This we have found ex. as they know to be better: smear the inside of a vessel with cellent for all kinds of leakages in wood-work.)
honey, and invert it over their nests or places of most frequent . INFLUENCE OF THE Moon's Shadow.—Some of the good resort, and when covered with them, jar them off into boiling old farmers here tell me there is a time, governed by the water. Flour sulphur sprinkled on their haunts is said to changes of the moon, for planting potatoes. transplanting repel them. Spirits of turpentine, poured on their hillocks shrubbery, laying fence, deadening timber, putting on house destroys or disperses them Bottles partly filled with sweetroofs, &c., &c. One thing tends to make me incredulous –
ened water attract them, and imprison and drown them.] that is, that some of the wise ones are governed by the BUTTER DAIRY.-Will you please give in the columns of ebanges of the moon-others by the ascent and descent of the your journal a plan—with cost-estimate - of a butter dairy sign. If the changes of the moon or the signs have any effect and ice-house, which will accommodate the milk of thirty to upon timber, vegetation, the soil, or anything else with which fifty cows. Situation, a hill slope on north side of dwelling. farmers usually have to deal, I should like to know what it A small stream of spring water is near at hand which I can is. Will you please informn me what the opinion of scientific easily introduce into the house, and on the north a yard men is on the subject. Young FARMER. .Va., June 1860. where I propose keeping my swine. A. B. (We should (Our correspondent will perceive by a moment's reflection, esteem it a favor if some of our readers in the dairy districts, ihat the mere circunstance of the sun shining on this or the who have given attention to the erection of such dairies as our other side of the moon, 240,000 miles off, could not possibly correspondent inquires for, would furnish us a plan or design, have any effect on the things of this world. Careful journals with accompanying explanations and estimates.) have been kept for years by scientific men, and no general BLOOD SPAYIN.-I bare a valuable maro who has a blood result could bo reached, although limited observations would spavin (as it is called,) forming, and I would be glad to know sometimes benr towards one rule, and again towards another, if there is any cure, remedy, or relief for the disease. There as accident happened to lead. We are aware that some far- is now a swelling of about the size of a hen's egg, near the mers have favorite, notions on this subject, some one way ani center of the joint, which, after considerable exercise, will some another, and that being fixed in their belief, one acci- disappear, but return again with the usual stiffness whilo dental coincidence serves more to establish them, than twenty standing in the stable. Can anything be done to help it ? exceptions would do to upset their opinions. The light of the
Bath, Me. moon at night has been claimed by some as affecting vegeta
HYDRAULIC Ram.--Could you or any of your subscribers tion--but as this light is but little more than half a millionth give through the CULTIVATOR a description or an engraving part that of the sun, a single day of sunlight would do more of a hydraulic ram, capable of raising water 100 feet, with good than all the light of the moon from the days of Adam the price and where it can be bought ? AN OLD SUBSCRIBER. until now.)
(We hare so often published engravings and descriptions of Preserving Fruit !N ALCOHOL.--Will you please inform this apparatus that our best way is probably to refer the inme how to put up cherries, currants, &c., in spirits, so as to quirer directly to the implement catalogue of almost any preserve and not take all the color out of them? I have tried extensive dealer. For example, Exnery Brothers, or W. W. brandy and diluted alcohol, but they take all the color out; Eggleston of this city, would probably supply him at onco and I have seen them colored vory naturally, and would like with all needful particulars.]
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) ly possible. Successful nurserymen and fruitgrowers, who OATS AND CARROTS TOGETHER. make large trees, in a few years, out of small ones, and
even from seed, (as is oftener the case,) and cover them MESSRS. EDITORS-I notice in the Co. Gent. of May with fruit, or load them with rich foliage, are careful to 17, REPORTER wishes to learn the experience of those who attend to trenching and drainage. They will show you have tried the experiment of raising oats and carrots to- trees of five years growth, exactly twice the size under gether. As it is a rainy day I feel tempted to comply with this management as under the common mode of letting the request, and give my experience upon the subject. It them take care of themselves and do their own subsoilis some six years ago May 1, that, after sowing a piece of ing; and will tell you the latter mode of procedure, is like cats, I sowed about an eighth of an acre to carrots, by way casting a child of early age upon the world to attend to of experiment. The ground was a sandy loam, in corn its own support and education. the year before, and well manured. The oats were sowed
Trenching in gardening, and subsoiling in field culture, broadcast by hand, and the carrot seed by a seed sower. combined with underdraining, is a sure protection from The oats were very heavy, and some of them lodged. the effects of drouth.
G. P. 8. After harvesting the oats, the horse and small plow were passed twice between the rows, which were about the dis
Draining---Its Importance and Results. tance we usually plant corn. The carrots were then carefully hoed and weeded by hand, and a little home-made The following is one of the numerous letters written by poudrette applied to each plant, and the poudrette cover our correspondent, John Johnston, in answer to the many ed with a little loose earth. Little or nothing more was
private inquiries addressed to him. We copy it from the done to the carrots until harvest. Product, 61 bushels.
I have not continued the practice, because I do not think Chester Co. (Pa.) Times, to which paper it was communioats a profitable crop for me to raise, except where I wish cated by the gentleman to whom it was addressed : to sow clover or other grass seed. I seldom fail to get C. F. TAYLOR, Esq.-In answer to your questions regood clover after oats, and I am pretty sure to get good specting the increase of crops by draining, you must be herds grass and red top after clover, unless it is some dry, aware that it will depend wholly upon how wet the land sandy plain. Clover fails after being mowed one season. is before draining. For instance, I purchased ten acres Chicopee, Mass.
from a neighbor of mine some fifteen years ago, in order
to get an outlet for a number of my drains. That land (For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.)
would not produce any kind of grain,-at least, not half DISINTEGRATION OF SOIL.
enough to pay the cost of tillage. My first crop, which No discovery has been so important in its results since from were sufficient to pay the expenses of draining, as
was corn, was a very large one, and the proceeds there. the invention of the plow, as that of underdraining in the well as the cost of the land. On a field of twenty acres, preparation of the soil. And the requirements of the soil which I have owned for nearly thirty-nine years, I could in respect to its drainage, should be inquired into even neither raise corn or winter wheat before draining; but before the plow is ready for action. The first of all duties my first crop of corn after draining, yielded over eightyin the preparation of land, seoms to be that of ridding it three bushels of shelled corn to the acre, and that is a of superfluous moisture, so that no standing water may very great crop for this part of the country. In fact, I remain about the roots of plants, keeping them continual don't think it was ever equalled for the same number of ly cold and wet, but that they may stand in dry ground, and a warmer temperature be made to pervade the soil as been drained about twenty years, and last harvest I got a
acres together, in Western New-York. This field has far as the roots of plants usually go.
plump thirty-five bushels of wheat per acre, which was Open drains of very ordinary character, show clearly sown on barley stubble, once plowed. the value and necessity of such a change when the ground is not naturally dry. As soon as this is accomplished,
My neighbor, from whom I bought the ten acres above wherever it is necessary, the soil is to be broken for cul- referred to, was greatly opposed to draining at the time; ture; and the deeper the better—not that the lowest soil
, after thorough drainage, he commenced draining his own
but when he saw the corn and wheat I raised on the land to the depth of three feet or more, should be turned up: Iland, with equally good success. Almost every farmer in side down above the surface soil, but loosened ; mixed it this neighborhood has done more or less tile-draining. We may be, with sand or gravel, if too clayey and hard. The experience of every day in gardening, makes it as
have a great many tile-works now,- I believe eight within plain as the nose on a man's face that plants delight in about six and a half miles of where I write. Some of the and are benefited by growing in a loosened subsoil, where machines are worked by steam-power, some by horseall their energies are not at task to enable them to push power
, others by hand, and yet a great many more tiles their slender roots through the hard clay. It is a marvel would be used, if they were made. Some farmers are that they are able to make any growth in such soil, and draining with stones, where they cannot get tiles; but the we wonder that they live at all, since naturally grown drains has to be a great deal wider, and costs about double
latter are by far the cheapest, because the ditch for stoneplants are of little value when compared with their im. proved condition under cultivation, and it was not des of those for tiles; then, the laying of the stones costs half signed that plants should perfect their character and the as much as tiles cost here. amount of their productions without cultivation, but that I am not one of those who believe that all land requires they should develop their perfections under the intelli- draining; still, much more requires it than any man can gence and ingenuity of man. When growing in a hard suppose who never drained any. A good way to prove subsoil, (though the effect is not so apparent upon forest whether land needs draining or not, is to dig a hole or trees of large size,) little nourishment can reach the lower holes, say two and a half to three feet deep; and if, at fibers from the surface of the soil, and they must be com- the end of eight or ten hours, water stands in them, your pelled to feed almost entirely by means of their upper land needs draining, and will pay for it. In protracted fibers and rootlets.
drouths, however, the water may be dried out of land By thoroughly loosening the subsoil and trenching it which at other times would be too wet for tillage. deeply, when united with thorough draining, the manure Believing that thorough drainage is the foundation of at the surface has gradual access to the spongioles of the all good husbandry, and that the farmers of this country lower roots of the plant; and the roots, on account of the are but half awake, as yet, to the importance of it, I am openness of the subsoil, are not forced to retard the ex- glad to see the increased interest manifested in the subpansion of the plant above the surface, but increase in ject, in different parts of the country. Twenty-one years equal proportion; moreover the air has access to the sub- ago, I was the only man using tiles on this continent, and coil, and permeates it more or less, changing the charac- there was but one person manufacturing them; now, the ter of offensive matter, and neutralizing acids injurious to demand for tiles wherever a machine has been erected, the growth of the plant. Too thorough trenching is hard. I cannot be met.
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.)
single spot of canker, while those, as I have said above, on PEARS ON QUINCE STOCKS. the deeply rooting pear, are much cankered, thus showing SAWBRIDGEWORTH, ENGLAND, MAY 16, 1860.
how necessary it is in cold soils to keep the roots of trees Some months since I remember seeing in the columns on the surface. of your excellent and interesting journal, an inquiry wheth- I have been much interested by the excellent practical er my plantation of Louise Bonne pears on quince stocks, articles in your columns on pear culture, by "G. P. Norwas still in being. I have much pleasure in saying that ris,” “C. Smith," and, above all, by “T."—the latter has my trees, now twelve years old, are perfect pictures of fer- indeed left nothing to say. tility, being at this moment, (May 16th,) just on the eve My idea of planting pears for profit may, however, be of setting a most abundant crop of fruit, as we have not worth giving to your readers. A small plantation, well had any late spring frosts to injure their blossoms. My done, is infinitely preferable to covering several acres with plantation of this sort numbers just 2,000 trees. They trees planted thinly ana baaly. I will merely say what I stand five feet apart in the rows, and 24 feet apart row should do were I in your country, and about to make a from row, standing north-east and south-west. The spa- pear plantation for market. I should begin with an acre ces between the rows are occupied with young fruit trees, of good loam, rather inclined to clay than sand. I should mostly trained trees for espaliers and walls, and as these mark out my rows from north-east to north-west, so that are highly manured, the pear trees partake of the benefits the mid-day sun would shine between the rows. of such cultivation, and I may add interfere but little with I should plant my trees six feet apart, tree from tree in the usual nursery operations in educating espaliers and py- the rows, and eight feet apart row from row; an acre will ramids. You must understand by educating I mean the hold at this distance, about 850 trees. The space between pruning, training, and biennial removal of such, for in this the rows I should keep stirred with the horse-hoe all the country, trees full of blossom buds, and roots a perfect summer, and between the trees I should use the hand-hoe. mass of fibres, so as to bear the first season after remoral, The mode of planting, manuring, &c., &c., is so well given are much desired and well paid for. This I call education, by “T.” that scarcely a word is required. which is carried on four, six or eight years before the trees As to choice of sorts, this must be according to climate are sold.
and experience gained; but Louise Bonne as a market When I planted my Louise Bonne pears five feet apart pear is unrivaled. The Bartlett, or Williams', is here altree from tree in the rows, I calculated on removing every most too fleeting. A pear likely to be very valuable for . alternate tree at the end of five or six years; but to my market, coming after Louise Bonne, is Doyenné du Co
agreeable surprise their side branches do not nearly touch, mice, and Beurré Superfin, although rather a thin bearer and I begin to think they may remain as they are for sev. when young, will prove of great value, as it bears freely eral years to come. My pruning is very simple; every
when six or seven years old. The Beurré Hardy is a year after the fruit is gathered, the shoots of the preced- robust grower—its fruit very large and handsome, and of ing summer are shortened to about four inches, or from excellent quality; it is quite worthy of a trial. Another two to four inches, with pruning scissors. The trees that are pear likely to be of consequence to your growers, is Beurré not very vigorous, the latter length. If they were fancy Clairgeau; this keeps well through November, and is trees, I should in June pinch in closely the shoots inclined “very good," and most beautiful. . To make it quite safe, to be vigorous, at the upper part of the tree ; but I now it should be double worked on some good growing sort, tell my simple practice, because it answers well
, and can such as Beurré d'Amalis
, or best of all
, Prince Albertbe done by any good laborer.
this is the most free-growing pear on the quince known, As usual with beginners, I made some mistakes in
the union with the stock is so perfect. planting, for a part of my plantation was made before the
I shall bud this season, 10,000 of this kind merely for ground was trenched, so that after that operation I found double working, and your nursery-giants (for they are not my trees too deep in the ground, and too near the clay, men,) will soon work 100,000 annually for the same purthese I had raised, and now they are all right. I still hold pose. In short, with, I think I may say, the majority of to the proper medium in planting, and cover the stock
our fine pears, this system of double working is the only
up to the junction with the pear, but not over it. I will tell way to make their culture quite safe.
Thos. RIVERS. you why. Some few trees which were covered over the junction, struck root from the pear immediately, putting
WHITE CLOVER IN PASTURES. forth large roots, which penetrated the clay subsoil to the depth of six feet-growing vigorously, but bearing but The growth of white clover on soils natural to its profew fruit. These trees are better looking than those con- duction, may be encouraged and promoted by a top-dressfined to the quince stock; their leaves are greener, and ing of plaster and ashes. Its chief value is for pasture, as their shoots (much inclined to canker) are stronger, for it is of too dwarf a growth to give much of a hay crop, owing to my soil being highly calcareous, the leaves on A writer in the Boston Cultivator says “there is an adthe other treos on quince roots are inclined to be yellow. vantage in pasturing white clover which does not strike islı, and the fruit of a bright crimson, of high flavor, and every farmer. Each joint furnishes a fresh root, (and of perfectly beautiful. I give these trees, biennially, a sur contact with the soil, consequently the more it is trodden
course a fresh plant,) whenever such joint comes close face dressing of soot, in a circle round each tree three feet the thicker it will spring up. Hence one reason why it in diameter; this corrects the tendency to turn yellow, and grows most luxuriantly near the bars and gateways of our seems to answer 'well. In the neighborhood of Paris, pastures, where cattle often congregate." thousands of pear trees on the quince may be seen with a
Many farmers have observed this last mentioned fact yellow tinge on their leaves, owing, as in my case, to the without getting hold of the reason thereof. The natural calcareous soil. It is to me very interesting to find all my a matter of curious interest to the naturalist and the far
growth of various grasses, self-sown upon all our soils, is Louise Bonne pears confined to the quince stock, without a mer observant of nature.