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(say $11.25) per head. They then receive another six years, Mr. Chapman informed me that his wheat crop had months' pasturage, and are marketed about October or averaged for seven years right along forty bushels per during autumn, when they would bring 50s., thus affording acre, sometimes running up to 48 or even reaching 56. 58. profit besides the wool (which was 123.) sheared in the There was a decided change since he could remember; he spring, or a total profit of 178. (say $4.25) per head. knew that in old times five quarters (40 bushels) was con
For the purpose of breeding, Mr. C. hires a good ram sidered a great crop, but now they “thought nothing" of from some careful breeder, to put with his own ewes— anything less than six (48 bushels)—a change ascribed to sometimes paying £9 or £10 for its services during the “better management,” including particularly more manure
and better drainage. The story of cattle feeding was not so fine a one. If a Manuring--Hoeing the Wheat--Labor, &c. beast is put up the first week in November and fed for 6
The manure bere is principally applied to the turnip months, he sometimes consumes during this time as much as crop, and, as far as it will go afterwards, upon the wheat half a ton of oil-cake, at a cost of £5. As a general rule, ground, if not already too strong. About 15 tons per however, Mr. C. wanted a ton of cake to last three beasts acre of good farm-yard dung is the dose be means to emduring the feeding season, and sometimes the sale of the ploy every other year. The breeding ewes eat the animal would net 20 to 30 shillings, above its cost and the stubbles off as closely as possible, and the manure is cost of the cake it had eaten. But as a general rule with carted out—say about the middle of February. On a cattle that are bought in, feeding no more than pays for meadow of six acres and a half, we saw a stack of bay the oil-cake, in money-return; for his interest, his labor, probably weighing 14 or 15 tons. and his fodder, the farmer has to seek returns in the ma- The following statement will show, nearly, the disposi nure that is made. Mr. C. generally raises 8 to 10 calves. of Mr. Chapman's farm last year: In feeding the cattle, he gives oil-cake in morning, follow
In wheat, ............. 50 acres. In permanent grass,.. 40 acres. lowed by oat straw for fodder; then bean straw at noon,
In turnips, cabbages, mangolds and rape, 25 acres. and wheat straw for night and bedding.
And the remainder in grass and clover "geeds.” The pigs of this part of Lincolnshire will weigh “30 to
The wheat fields are sometimes hoed in spring, and the 40 or even 50 stone," when killed; the stone is 14 lbs.
seeds sown and harrowed in; sometimes the seeds are Draining, Rotation and Crops. drilled crosswise with the drills of wheat, which was thought All or very nearly all of Mr. Chapman's land is drained the better way, and is more in use on the wolds. Clover with two inch pipc tile, no collars used, costing 188., (say is cut when well in bloom. It is not customary to salt the $4.50) per 1,000, drains 33 feet apart, and from 31 to 5 hay in curing. It is still more common, I understood, to feet deep. The general depth, however, is three feet and hoe the wheat on the wolds than on the fen, the cost of a half, and the cost of draining is from £2 10s. to £3 per the process being about 2s. 3d. per acre, and, subsequentacre—the soil being a silty mold or clay, easily dug, while ly, at about the time of earing, women and boys go tlurough on the wolds, where it is often stony or a greater depth ne. the field to pull the worst weeds—the cost of this second cessary, the cost is considerably greater. The price paid weeding varying according to the time it occupies. for digging is from 1s. to 1s. 2d. per chain of 22 yards, so The labor employed on this farm is generally that of that the cost per acre for labor alone may be rated at four or five men, up to ten in the busy time, at 2s. (say 50 18 or 20 shillings on the fens, while 38. 6d. per chain cents) a day; some “confined” men get 108. a week, would perhaps no more than cover the labor of digging on with house rent and a certain quantity of bacon, or it may the wolds. The drains here on the fens are made to operate be a quarter of wheat-equivalent altogether to 158. or well sometimes almost on a level ; for instance, in one 168. per week. The rent paid here for laborers' cottages is field there was only a fall of three inches for a length of from £4 to £5 per annum. Noticing a cottage just completed, õ chains, less than one inch to a hundred feet.
with three bed-rooms up stairs, and an out-house, all of brick, The system of farming on the wolds is quite commonly I asked a rough estimate of its cost; it had been built for the ordinary Norfolk or four course rotation. But on the about £90. Mr. C. was then re-draining a field with pipe, fens this is generally varied in one way or another. Mr. which had been drained with brush about 16 years ago. C.'s general practice he described to me thus:
The threshing is here done to a great extent by a porta1. Wheat with seeds sown about May.
ble engine going from farm to farm for the purpose. The 2. Hay crop, feeding the stubble to the lambs, and allowing the land price paid was 258. per day, (say $6.25,) for an eight-horse
to lie all winter-then in spring, sowing 4. A Wheat crop, and fallow after harvest-the next year putting in
power engine and thrasher, with two men and coals found. 5. Turnips-followed by wheat again as above.
The grain was thus made ready for marketing, except one Or else, in some cases, 3, beans or peas; 4, oats ; 5, wheat, dressing; or a machine may be had at a little higher price, and, 6, turnips—making the course another year longer. perhaps 288. per day, to do the whole operation, includ
The rape crop is one often alternated withi turnips in ing bagging and weighing. Forty to fifty quarters, (320 this district—that is, every alternate time that a field comes to 400 bushels,) is considered a fair day's work, taking 8 round for turnips, rape is substituted. Sown about the men and 4 boys to work to advantage, and burning one-third niiddle of June, it is ready to begin to feed in October, to one-half a ton of coals, at a cost there of 12s. to 14s. per and may be taken off the ground in time for wheat in No-ton. vember, by putting say 250 sheep on a ten acre lot- I also spent some pleasant hours with Mr. C.'s brotherwhich would be just in season to provide for them, while in-law, Mr. William Fowler, at East Kirkby. Mr. F. was it is desirable to allow a respite to the pastures. An acre of situated more upon the wolds than Mr. Chapman, occupyrupe, I was told, “won't go as far as an acre of turnips, ing about 400 acres, and I was much interested in our but it seems to feed the sheep faster."
walk over his farm, and in the information obtained from As to the production of the land now and the improve him in conversation. Indeed I found it very difficult here, ments effected in the agriculture of the locality of late as well as in Norfolk, to live up to the arrangements I had
3. Beans, peas or oats.
been obliged to make previously with respect to the
EDITORIAL CORRESPONDENCE. allotment of my time, and there were some points upon The Central Park of New.York-Waldberg and the Attendance at Mr. which I found that so much could be learnt in Lincoln- Conger's Sale-Prices and Purchasers-Springside and Mr. Bement's shire, that in going I only satisfied myself by mentally
Pets in the Poultry Yard-Thorndale and the Druid's Sketches-
The Herd and the Buildings—The Farming and Live Stock of Dutch. forming a determination—destined not to be accomplished ess County-Pleuro Pneumonia and the Crops. to return to the county again before finally setting out
THORNEDALE, Friday Evening, June 29. for home
As the "platform ” of the CountRY GENTLEMAN is a In the system of practice above outlined, there is a con- tolerably wide one, with a “plank” for the City as well siderable similarity with the ways of farming already de- as broad space for the practical and the beautiful of the scribed in other localities. The same general objects are Country, perhaps I may be permitted to open a very miskept in view, and much the same agencies employed in cellaneous and hurried letter with a pleasant drive three reaching them. I have ventured to state the facts I col- days ago, in the new “ Central Park ” of Manhattan Isllected in each case, however, even at the risk of repetition
and. as to their general tenor; the details every where vary,
The idea that the northern side of the New-York City. more or less, and if there are coincidences which may pos- Hall “would only be seen by persons living in the subsibly become tedious, they are all of a kind to impress an urbs,” has by degrees been abandoned even by the most American farmer with the importance there universally stubborn of the Knickerbockers of the last generation, accorded to careful culture, abundant manuring, thorough The progress of the place in less than ten years, indeed, underdraining, improved live stock, judicious rotations, both in actual growth and in public spirit, is illustrated by aud better “management” throughout the whole round of the anticipations of a Park foreshadowed from Albany the farmer's duties. It has been justly remarked that the through the medium of the Horticulturist, in 1851, as principles that underlie the successful practice of Agri- compared with the realization of Downing's arguments culture are the same everywhere; and it may be added now going forward. Mayor Kingsland hazarded the rethat they are few and simple in themselves, however commendation of a hundred and sixty acres of land; numerous and intricate may be the modifications they as- Downing daringly called for five hundred; the city has sume in different localities. The application of these taken more than eight. Twenty streets higher it has gone principles is universally prominent in farming that is pe- to find it, than the location mentioned then; five and a cuniarily profitable, with only rare and occasional excephalf times the sum estimated then, has been paid for the tions, and, unless the reader could trace the action of these soil; partially completed as it only is at the present time, principles, accompanied by the commentary of their re- the thousands are already making it a place of resort and sults, more or less distinctly in every step of our progress recreation. The winter exercises of the skating pond are among the farmers of Great Britain, we should certainly finding a counterpart in the shaded walks and blossomfail in accomplishing the chief end of the journey.
ing gardens" of June; and Downing's “ lovely lakes," Mr. Chapman kindly brought me into Boston—a plea-bis "whispering trees” and “broad reaches of pleasure sant drive, with much that was interesting to see and dis- ground,” are at last shaping themselves one after another cuss in the fields and water courses along which it carried to the view, under the impulse of two or three thousand us. On reaching this ancient and notable city, the reader active laborers. may not care to share in our twilight stroll—to go with us
It was a good fortune that threw me in the way of makto the evening service at Boston chapel, where we may see
ing my visit at the Central Park in the company of friends the memorial to Cotton Mather, toward which our Ame- whose words of criticism and approval as we passed along rican Boston lent its fraternal contributions, or to visit the bore the weight of practical experience perhaps unequal. old church of St. Botolph, with its tower, discernible, it is led, and of extended observation both in this and other said, by the sailor forty miles away, and the inscriptions countries. If I have not time to touch at all upon the that mark the last homes of the Boston fathers who slum- many beauties and utilities” that must grow out of the ber under the shadow of its walls. He might mind it less, undertaking, nor yet to allude at length to the measure of indeed, to be invited with us to a seat in the company far been conducted, it would at least be thankless in no
judgment, good or bad, with which its details have thus room at the Peacock Inn, before one of the juiciest chops, of which the savor still haunts a memory fully appreciative way to refer to the general merits of the plan, the substanof the merits of English mutton-chops calculated, too, to tial and thorough manner in which the work is done, and convey a better idea of the Lincolnshire style of sheep, at the administrative ability displayed by Mr. OLMSTED, the least when eaten with a Lincolnshire appetite, than seve Architect in Chief. Of the busy board of draughtsmen, ral pages of Martin, Spooner or Youatt.
by whose designs and plans the out-door labor is regulated - Suffice it to say, that the next morning I took the and determined from the offices on Mount St. Vincent; train from Boston to Sleaford, westward far enough to of the Bluff across McGowan's pass, commanding the High bring me among the farmers of Lincoln Heath. Here let Bridge in a setting of verdant scenery, and the bosom of me for the present pause.
East River, slumbering beyond ; of the nurseries around
as we descend, and the drains opening into the gorge beTwo-Horse IMPLEMENTS FOR Cors CULTURE.—The neath; of the drive along the grand reservoir from which Prairie Fari has a letter on this subject advising farmers the thirsty city is to receive its streams of Croton ; of Bell to throw aside all their one-horse cultivators, harrows, Tower Rock tunnelled by an avenue of transverse trafic; plows, etc., and procure those which will work two rows of the lake with its two remaining Hamburgh swans, and at a time, to be drawn by two borses. Some such have the iron bridge, in the arch and design of which more than already been introduced, and work well on soils rather the usual quota of grace and adaptedness bas been reached; mellow and free from sods and loose stone. One man of the pathways and heights that render the “Ramble” 80 can do double work by this means, and take care of twice interesting and attractive, and the effective rustic work of the number of acres that he can with one-horse implements. I its two summer-houses; of the terrace, the shrubbery and the flower-beds of brilliant color-of all that was embraced And then succeeded a drive over the well-cared for in our two or three hours' stay, I can scarcely venture an roads of this part of Dutchess, to the scene of the present enumeration—this, and much more, we saw under the writing, where I have been looking at the Short-Horns, polite guidance of Mr. OlusTED and Captain RENWICK, for the South Downs, and the swine of Essex birth. Of none whose courtesies our acknowledgments are justly due. of them am I proposing to inflict upon the inappreciative
- Other engagements, a night, and the somewhat an. reader a prolonged critique. No establishment has ever noying delays of a disconnected journey having intervened, better proved its own advertisement. The full accounts I found myself at length boated at Haverstraw on Wednes- of the English berds, in the Farmer's Magazine of London, day morning in company with my present host Mr. Thorne, have brought us from the pen of the Druid, more than Hon. Wm. Kelly, Col. Johnson, C. S. Wainwright and A. one allusion to the strise for the “ Duchesses” at the TortR. Frothingham, Esqs., for Waldberg, the private landing worth sale; but under Mr. Strafford's revision, their author of Mr. Conger, for whose sale we were bound. There should not have ascribed to "an American company” what were quite a number of passengers upon the same errand was due alone to the enterprise of an individual. A with ourselves—among them Mr. Bradley of Vermont, the pleasant style, minging the language of the sportsman Messis. Bathgates of Westchester, Mr. Thompson of Ball- with the odd epithets of the herd, dotting out a landscape ston, and others. From the landing it is an up-bill drive or a erm by apt recurrence to familiar names,—by no means of several miles to the mansion of Mr. C., and perhaps too exacting as a judge, but more ready to sketch kindly three-quarters of a mile beyond to the farmstead. than cruelly-a fault or two is surely pardonable in the
The attendance was complimentary, probably number- genial writings of Mr. Dixon, and I can wish him no beting not far short of a hundred. Among those assembled ter luck than sometime to be sharpening his pencil and whom we were glad to take by the hand, were Messrs. E. his wits under the guidance of Thomas, in the farmstead G. Faile, Lewis B. Brown, John Jay, L. G. Morris, J. L. at Thorndale. Morris, James Brodie, Henry S. Olcott, S. Campbell, Henry
By comparing the herd of Short-Horns at present here, Wood, Seneca Daniels, and many more, not to mention which numbers as usual nearly seventy, with the catalogue less particularly Thomas Galbraith, who keeps watch and of last years' issue, we have a twelvemonth's farther witward so carefully over the Thorndale herd. The usual ness of what our friend can accomplish with the best of lunch being eaten, the auctioneer, Mr. Leeds of New-York, English blood on American soil. Just a score of young commenced his task soon after two o'clock.
things are to be chronicled as coming on, to replace the As the sale had been announced without reserve, all the sales of 1859 and the sad loss by lightning of imported animals offered, or nearly all
, were disposed of—but at Maria Louisa and 1st Duchess of Thorndale. Grand Turk prices very low, from the character of their descent and of Bolden's breeding and 2d Grand Duke from Tortworth individual merits, as well perhaps as because the terror of Court, are finding their successors in the Thorndale Dukes, the Massachusetts cattle disease had not begun to abate and Lalla Rookh with all her propensities to flesh was not in season to allow of purchasers remodeling their arrange last December, which promises to do justice to his descent
too hearty to leave a young roan in the breeding boxes ments for the summer. Now that Mr. Conger bas disposed of the surplus from his herds, he will go to work on either side. During the four years since I had had the with renewed opportunities for successful exertion, and opportunity of visiting Mr. Thorne, (see Co. Gent., June when the public are invited to a second sale at Wald-5, 1856,) the buildings have been “straightened out” berg, they will at least have the guarantee of the preness and convenience, they compare favorably with any
and many improvements introduced, and now in completesent one, that he will fully and honorably live up to every similar establishment I have seen on either side the water. tittle of whatever announcement may be previously made. The best prices, rather, at this time, were those obtained Indeed, there is much that might be advantageously noted by the Ayrshires; the Short-Horns and Devons brought tails of interest in the general farming of Dutchess, which
down for practical imitation, as there are also many delittle more than fair rates for milch cows or other practi- hereafter I may be able to present more fully and sa:is eal purposes; a stallion and two mares went quite low, factorily than in the present baste. and some lots of Berkshire and Suffolk swine scarcely better in proportion. The total of all sales was in the vicin. of many other of our older districts. It is a story of
The story of Dutchess farming, however, is nearly that ity of $3,000. Mr. Daniels of Saratoga county was the wheat culture nearly abandoned on a scale of much extent; largest purchaser, and bought, it was stated, with a view to of the feeding of more cattle and sheep, and, along the carrying a berd ovorland to the Pacific side early another spring. Among other purchasers were Messrs. John Jay,
railway lines of the Hudson and Harlemn, of the produk D. L. Seymour, Henry Wood, E. C. Armstrong, A. R. tion of milk for the New-Yorkers; of improvement slowFrothingham, A. Davidson, F. G. Frazier, F. W. Noble,
ly gaining ground among a class of cultivators not too Mr. Jolliffe, and, of the pigs, Col. Morris and Mr. Bath? poor to have lost often their thousands in Western specugate.
lation,—whither, also, and to the cities, has too often ebbed - Yesterday morning we called at Springside, when the tide of younger blood, leaving age in the enjoyment at Ponghkeepsie on our way here. Mr. Vasgar's grounds of competence it is true, but lacking the enterprise and are as beautifully kept as ever, and our correspondent, Mr. energy that are found when younger muscle holds the BEMENT, as thoroughly engaged among the curiosities and plow and gathers in the harvest. Improvement particurarities of the Poultry yard. The Fawns of tender age, larly in better tillage; improvement more slow in greater with their spotted hides, and the parental Deer; the talk- manuring and the growth of root crops; wbile, here and ing Cuckatoo ; the Gazelle from Malta, with the roguish there, we find a farmer who is breeding up his stock to grace of its kind; the brilliant Wood Duck, a do- higher grades, cautiously buying a few pure breds, or demesticated Currassow, and the Sand Crane with his hoarse pending upon a Short-Horn or Devon bull to work out the voice, are among the aristocrats of the place, not to descend amelioration of its descendants. Such men as A. M. Unto such as fancy Rabbits and Dominique bantams. derhill and Elihu Griffen of Clinton, R. G. Coffin and
if it is
L. H. T.
Stephen Haight of Washington, Gideon Vincent of Union A late number of the Boston Cultivator well describes Vale, D. B. Haight of Dover, James Haviland of La the method employed in Great Britain. From the mildGrange, and more whose names should be also catalogued ness of the winter of 1858–9, much plowing had been azong the good farmers and more careful stock-raisers in done on the tenacious soils, but owing to an extremely the county, are instances in point. With several of them, wet spring last year, followed by a remarkably dry sumI had the opportunity of some conversation, and shall mer, the land was in a hard baked state--the winter furnope hereafter to extend my knowledge of their practice. rows lying in chunks and clods, almost like brick for hard
I have had also an interview with a very sensible and I ness, but of much greater size. The turnip-sowing season believe a thoroughly qualified and experienced English was at hand, but the weather still remained dry, the clods veterinarian, Dr. H. Moore, of Pouglıkeepsie, who has showed no signs of crumbling. Something must be done been for some years practicing in this country, but who or the season would he lost. did not leave Great Britain until after the importation there The first operation," generally, "was to go over the land with
grubbers. These penetrated to the depth of the furrows, breaking of the Pleuro-pneumonia from Holland, with which he ap- some of the largest lumps, and leaving nearly all of them on the
surface. The crushers followed. It was not always that the so-called pears to be fully conversant. All that hc said strengthen crushers were used. The ordinary form of roller, made of iron, stone ed my confidence in the entire correctness of the conclu- crusher did the work not only the most expeditiously, but the most of
or wood, was sometimes used. Yet on the hardest soils, the clod. sions expressed in a late number of the CounTRY GENTLE- fectually. The clods were principally broken sufficiently fine with
once going over. They probably would not have been if the crusher man, and in the soundness of the recent action upon this had been put immediately on the rough furrows, unprepared by the
grubber" subject of the Executive Committee of our State Agri
It has been objected to the use of the clod-crusher, that cultural Society.
it consolidates the under part of the soil. A roller, a Here the country bas been suffering from drouth. The heavy harrow, or even a common cultivator produces the corn is looking pretty well for the season---some say bet- same effect. Hence ter than usual; the fields are certażnly very clean, but heats
clod-crusher had passed over it. He follows it with a grubljer.
"A Scotch farmer would not think of leaving his clay land just as a must now be needing rain. Grass is getting more and This does not pack the soil; it lifts and lightens all the plow had dis
If lumps have escaped the more parched with every day of sunshine. Rye and wheat crusher, the grubber brings them to the surface, where the next pas.
sage of the roller or crusher crumbles them. The operations are re. are rather light, I believe; Qats had been coming on fair- peated till a proper seed bed is obtained. We saw plowed fields, the
furrows of which were baked like sun-burnt brick, brought to a deep, ly until the present dry time, and may yet give a fair yield. mellow
dith, suitable for root-crops. Still it could not have been done They have a way here, quite commonly in vogue, I was
by the clocl crusher alone. The alternate action of the crusher or roll
er and grubber, chiefly did the work." told, although new to me, of sowing white turnips in the
Implements like the grubber and clod-clushing roller, eorn, at the time of the last cultivating, even as late as the are not adapted to land filled with stones, as are many of 10th of July, and thus obtain often a good crop of this the heavy hard-pan soils of this country. Our clays, howuseful root with comparatively little expenditure of time ever, are usually free from them, and here their introducand land.
tion would accomplish a good work. The latter has been
introduced to some extent, and is found to work well. CULTURE OF HARD-BAKED SOILS.
In some remarks at the annual meeting of the State To produce a proper seed-bed on a heavy or hard-baked Agricultural Society, Hon. A. B. Dickinson took a decided soil
, is always a difficult matter, requiring a great amount stand against the clod-crusher, giving his method of cultiof labor, and often resulting imperfectly at last. Various vating hard baked soils, by once plowing, so as to reduce methods of performing the work have been proposed, and them to the desired fine tilth for a seed-bed. This was to a few thonghts on the subject may interest those of our
“set a sharp plow so as to cut twelve or fifteen inches rcaders who have to do with such soils.
deep, and from one to two inches wide, depending on the If land containing a certain proportion of clay be plow- condition and certainty of its dissolving, of which every ed in the usual manner, comparttively dry, it will present farmer, experienced in soils, can judge,”—and then to a greater or less proportion of ehunks or clods, of a size
“shave up the hard soil without turning it over, but simply proportioned to the depth of the furrow, and the baked shaving it off far enough to make room for the next slice. state of the soil, and very far from affording a seed-bed The mold-board should be sufficiently high to raise it 2 feet, likely to produce any profitable crop. If plowed when as the solid compact soil
, when shaved up in this manner, comparatively wet, ar:d dry weather follows before any fur- will be increased in depth from its original twelve or fifteen ther cultivation ensues, the same cloddy state is the result
, inches to at least two feet.” nor would the preparation of the soil be enhanced by any We have no doubt from some experience with this working given while the soil was in a plastic state. To method of plowing, that its effect would be precisely that produce the best results in the easiest way, such soils must stated by Mr. D., and Wat once plowing would effectually be worked when just dry enough to crumble down ; when pulverize the heaviest soils. It would be diffioult, how. not so wet as to knead, nor so baked as to require great ever, to procure plows wells adapted to the work, or plowforce to break it up, and only in chuuks at that. We find men with a sufficient stock of patience to proceed thus it difficult to explain the matter plainly, but every farmer slowly with an implement which they are in the habit of will understand our meaning from his own experience. crowding to its fullest width of passable porformance in
The question, then, is not when and how shall we best the inversion of the soil. Yet there is hope in the case ; cultivate heavy soils; but how, when a heavy soil becomes we see much more thorough culture and care among farbaked, shall it best be pulverised—best reduced to that mers than formerly, and we shall in time learn to make state of fine tilth to furnish a proper seed-bed for our laste slowly," in order to ensure the attainment of the crops. We cannot always take advantage of that crumb- great ends in view. ling stage of a heavy soil; our forces may be otherwise
A farther remark by Mr. D., is thus commented upon employed, or insufficient to do all our plowing while the by the Boston Cultivator, and the paragraph is worth ground is properly moist; hence we must look for other quoting here: means to accomplish our euds.
"A remark of Mr. D.'s in regard to the degree of pulverization that is desirable, is particularly worthy of notice. He thinks * all experi
J. P. D.
enced wheat-growers will agree that wheat does much better where The whole surface of the land should be well prepared, the soil is left a little coarse, or a portion of it in small chips. than where it is all pulverizer and made fine." There is no doubt of this except it be for the apples and standard pears. Strips 6 fact. Yet we the soil as fine is possible for ordinary crops. It is bau advice. Clay or 8 feet wide will do for a year or two, not longer; bat s'ils, reduced to powder, soon become puddled hy rain, and run into mortar, to be baked by dry weather into a mass impervious to the if grass grows between, great care must be taken to link ļoots of plants. By leaving them in the state described by Mr. Dickinson; the rain passes through as fast as it falls, and they remain com: up every tree late in autumn, with mellow earth, made paratively light and friable."
compact and smooth, to prevent the attacks of mice. The
standard pear trees may be about 20 feet apart, the dwarf SETTING OUT AN ORCHARD
pears 8 or 10 feet, or 6 by 12 or 8 by 12—the apple trees Ens. Co. Gent.--I propose this fall to set out 250 stand- 30 to 40 feet. The strawberries may be set out in rows ard pear trees—500 dwarf pear trees—500 apple trees- about 24 or 3 feet apart, and about one foot in the row, 2 acres of strawberries—1 acre Lawton[New Rochelle is for borse cultivation. The blackberries may be six feet the proper name) blackberries, and 1 acre raspberries.
Will you please inform me through your paper-Ist. apart, or perhaps better about 5 by 8 feet-the raspberWhat will be the probable cost of the above ?-2d. What ries abou: 3 or 4 by 6 feet. will be the best time to set out ?-3d. Will it be necessary to plow or break up the whole of the land, or will it do to Sandy and Clayey Soils Contrasted. subsoil for the berries, and leave the balance until a year or two, only preparing the space necessary for the trees? A writer in the Rural New-Yorker, speaking of a recent -4th. Will the crop of strawberries next season, be apt mention of the advantages of a clay soil, by a correspon. to pay expenses, provided a market can be found that dent of this journal, draws a contrast between light and would net me $6 per bushel ?—5th. What should the dis. heavy soils, from which we condense the paragraph below: tance apart be for the apple and pear trees?—6th. The number of raspberry and blackberry vines required to fill
Clay has a strong affitiity for ammonia ; sand has little one acre each ?—The best manner to set out each of the power to retain this essential gas. But after a summer above lot? Chicago, I.
rain a clay soil crusts over thickly, and refuses atmospherThe cost of the above would be about as follows, the ic food until the erust is broken; if not worked, in hot dry prices varying, however, with the size or quality: weather, the soil soon cracks several inches deep. Hence, 230 standard pears, $30 per 100,...
though a sandy loam requires more manure than a clay, it 500 dwarf pears, $20 per 10), 500 apple trees, 10 per 100,
requires enough less labor to make up for this, and if 2 acres strawberries, say 40.000, 1 acre Rochelle blackberry, 1,200, $4 per 100,
dressed with clay occasionally, will soon acquire the power 1 acre raspberries, 2,000. 44 per 100. Expenses of transportation, say,.
of holding manure. So clays dressed with vegetable ma
nure and underdrained, do not crust so readily or deeply, The strawberries may perhaps be obtained cheaper, if a and properly worked will produce heavy crops of grass and large patch of the right sort can be found, where the owner grain. “It is true,” adds the writer, " that a clay loam would be glad to get rid of his surplus plants at a low rate. if well underdrained, is the best soil for grass, and that it
The best time for planting all these is in the spring, but will form a stiff sod quicker than a sandy loam. But while the trees should be procured in autumn, when a better you can permanently amend a sandy loam, and make it selection may be obtained, and when the delay of trans- forever retentive of manure by light applications of clay, portation would not interfere with early setting; when re- which the frost will pulverize on its surface, you cannot ceived, they should be securely “heeled in" for winter, lessen the tenacity of a clay loam by a mixture of sand. by burying the roots and half the stems with mellow earth, Clay and sand, particularly our calcareous clay, unite taking special care to fill in with fine earth all the inter- chemically, and form an adhesive mortar which when dry stices among the roots, in the most thorough and compact brings fire from the hoe.”
If evergreens can be had, it will be sufficient to cover but a portion of the stems with earth, if the tops are
A GOOD USE FOR DOGS. well protected with a layer of evergreen boughs—other- At one of the meetings last winter of the Shelburne wise it would be safest to cover nearly the whole of the Farmers' Club, the subject of manures was up for discusstems and branches with earth. It is indispensable that a sion. Mr. D. 0. Fisk spoke of the importance of taking dry spot be selected; and if danger is apprehended from better care of this important article by saving what we do mice, the earth should be high banked up all around, and make now, by covering the manure beap, making cellars made smooth, as mice will not ascend a bank of smooth under every barn, applying plaster, muck, loam, and any. bare earth under snow.
thing that will answer as an absorbent; thus saving that The best time for setting out the strawberries is invaluable portion of every farmer's capital—the liquid maspring; but if our correspondent does not wish to lose nure. He objected to the practice of buying foreign or time by waiting so long, he may put them out now, or as patent manures extensively ; likes guano, but cannot afford soon as the crop of berries has disappeared, and by taking to buy it; thinks the money required to purchase a ton of sufficient pains, they will grow and bear a fair crop next guano, laid out in corn and rye and fed to working hogs season. If set now, all the large leaves should be cut off, properly managed, will yield double the profit to any farthe roots dipped in mud, and the plants watered when set, mer in this town. He spoke earnestly in favor of doing and then mulched with an inch or two of fine manure. If something for pasture lands—the right arm of every farset much later than the present time, the plants will not mer. In closing, he very properly rated animal manures become sufficiently strong and established to endure the as taking the lead of all others, and, under this head, gave coming winter, and the plantation will not be so good as the following receipt; mix with ten loads of muck, five if set early next spring. The Wilson strawberry may be dogs, (!) one barrel of lime, ten bushels of unleached ashes, relied on for 150 or 200 bushels per acre under the best compost thorouglıly, and apply liberally. culture; and plantations set now may bear 50 bushels on these principles, and there will be a better prospect
Induce tbe farmers of the country to practice largely next season. Our correspondent can make the rest of the for profitable Sheep Husbandry among us, as well as for estimate as to profits.
good crops of corn and wheat and grass.