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P. F.

(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) easier, cheaper, and better for the crop to hoe often, and Raising, Hoeing, and Thinning Out Root Crops. thus not only keep the ground mellow, but by hoeing be

fore the weeds get much size they are scarcely any trouble, Ens. Co. GENT.—Hoeing carrots and other root crops except what few may be in the rows, and these being being now in order, with those that raise such crops, and sınall are easily taken out with the hoe. It should always several farmers having called on me and wondered that I be kept in mind that a small weed can be taken out of got along so easily with my roots, and that my carrots, the row easier and quicker with a sharp cornered loe than parsnips, &c., had so much less weeds among them than with the fingers, while a large one, with strong spreading Theirs bad, it las put me in mind of writing, and letting roots, can only be removed by hand, with more or less the numerous readers of the Co. Gent, kuow the course I difficulty and danger to any tender plant it may be near to. pursue to raise these crops, hoping that any one who has

All roots should be attended to, more or less the latter tried the course here recommended, as well as other metli- part of the season, and on no account should any weeds ods, and has found a better way, will let us know all be allowed to go to seed. There are many kinds that will about it.

come up and go to seed after the usual time of hoeing is The first thing in raising roots, is to get the land as past. And although they may not make much of a show clean and free from weeds as possible. To do this, the in the crop, yet there will be sufficient seed matured and ground should be plowed as soon as it is dry enough in scattered on the ground to make trouble for years after. the spring. Then barrow lightly, and let it lay until the While it will take but very little time to go through them weather gets warm and the weeds well started. Then I two or three times in the latter part of the summer and begin with the part intended for parsnips, which are sown destroy all the scattering weeds that make their appearance. about or a little before the middle of May, or a little be. By so doing, and manuring with well rotted mature, roots fore corn planting-and give the ground a thorough work can be grown on the same land year after year with but ing, thereby destroying the worst crop of weeds of the little trouble from weeds. The different kinds being made season; and in fact doing the first hocing before the seed to succeed each other in rotation, will, in a great measure, is sown.

answer as well as raising them in rotation with other crops. The land for carrots and mangolds, is prepared the same Another advantage in baving several different kinds is, way, a week or two later. The ground for ruta bagas, that not being all sown at one time, the hoeing wont all sweet turnips, &c., should be worked over about the same come at once, but may be done at odd spells so as not to tiine, and then again before sowing, which should be done interfere with other work on the farm but very little. sometime the fore part of June.

Western N. Y., June, 1860. In raising roots, plenty of seed should be sown, not only to ensure a good stand of plants, but it is much easier to

(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator). hoe up all that are not wanted, where they are too thick, Trailing Annuals and their Enemies. than it is to look up the scattering plants when they are snjall, and not easily seen among the weeds, while there Ens. Co. Gent.-Last year I gave you a remedy for the is no difficulty in seeing the rows when they stand thick, attacks of insects upon melon, cucumber, squash, pumpand they may be be hoed up much closer, leaving a very kin, and other vines, which proved the most efficient narrow space for the plants, and but few weeds standing, among the almost innumerable remedies advanced by that will have to be taken out one at a time.

books, papers, &c., in every direction. But this year I Now we come to boeing, and find—if the land has been have hit on one still more efficient; I might say, effectual. well attended too, for a year or two back--that there is It consists simply in placing calls or small cages, each comparatively few weeds, and that these have not got containing a hen with her chickens, in different parts of much the start of the crop yet, as we hoe about the time the “patch, "-say 40 or 60 feet apart. The chickens not the rough leaf begins to start. We also find that the only eagerly seek and devour the insects, but also keep plants stand very thick in the row, perhaps ten times as the bugs in continual motion, they being very timid and many as should be allowed to grow; and to a new begin- easily scared, especially the striped bug. One little chicken, ner, it looks like an endless job to weed and thin them with keener eyes and nimble legs, is worth balf a dozen But with a light new hoe, with the corners standing

The application of liquid manure is also strongly out well, we commence first by hoeing along each side of adviseable. I almost despaired this summer of being able the row, boeing up weeds, plants and all, except a narrow to raise a single melon, until, as a dernier resort, I luckily strip, about balf an inch in width, inore or less as the hit upon the “Eureka.” Necessity is indeed the mother plants stand thick or thin, in the center of the row. Then

of invention. Try it readers of the Country GENTLEMAN, with the corner of the hoe pick out the weeds from among and report your opinion.

CHARLES STEWART, Penn. the plants that are left. There still being many more than we intend to grow, we find it a very good way to do

(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) part of the thinning out the first hoeing, so that in taking PROTECTING TREES FROM RABBITS. the weeds from among the plants, it is very casy

hoc out a portion of the surplus plants, still leaving more than

MESSRS. L. TUCKER & Son-I noticed in COUNTRY GENis intended to grow to be taken out the same way when TLEMAN, one of your correspondents is at a loss to know they are hoed again, thus doing all the weeding and thin how to protect dwarf trees from rabbits. My plan is simning out with the hoe. There is much less difficulty in ple, effectual and durable. I make one tree protect anothdoing this than at first sight might seem to be the case. er. Select chestnut saplings, rather larger in diameter than The new beginner will have to be a little careful at first, the stock to be protected; slit the bark say two or three and learn to carry a steady hand ; and also learn the many feet; ring top and bottom; twist the bark off and endifferent ways the hoe can be turned and applied, so as close the stock; it will remain on for three or four years. to bring the corner on to any weed that may be standing I think there is another advantage; in locations subject very near to the carrot, or any other root he wishes to to late frosts, it would prevent the sap from rising, acting save, in such a manner as to remove the weed without as a shade to the stock.

W». McKibbin. injuring the plant. This, though it will appear somewhat

Buck Valley, Pa. difficult at first, is easily done when a little used to it, and he will soon learn that by carrying a steady hand and

To Destroy Worms on Apple Trees. turning the hoe the many different ways that may be re- In the ntorning when the worms are in their nests, take quired to meet each particular case, that he can weed and a shot gun and climb the tree; put in a charge of powder, thin out roots much easier and faster with a boe than he (without shot or wads, of course,)-put on a cap, hold the can with his fingers. He will also soon learn to have con- muzzle about a foot from the nest, and discharge the picce. fidence in what he is doing, and be able to make as quick Thousands of nests can be obliterated in a short time. A and handy motions as in ordinary boeing.

single trial will convince a man whether it is best to set a Another thing in regard to boeing roots is, that it is few trusty boys at the work. Conn,





AN IRREGULAR COUNTRY HOUSE. We are indebted to Calvert Vaux's excellent treatise room connects throngh a pantry with a kitchen wing, which on "Villas and Cottages " for the accompanying design staircase. "A lobby opens on to a kithen veranda facing south,

is also approached from the main body of tbe Louse under the and plans of a Country House of some pretension. Mr. that provides a servant's entrance, and is convenient for hang: V. remarks:

ing out clothes under cover in rainy weather. A kitchen 17 "This design was prepared and executed for a gentloman by 13, fitted up with closets, wash trays and store-room, comof Newburgh; and the general iden of the plan includes so pletes the accommodation on the main floor and wing. By much that is called for by the American climate and babits of this plan the disadvantages of living in the basement are enlife in the northern states, that it will probably be better tirely avoided, and the lady of the house cap superintend worth the attention of those who wish to build a moderate-her servants with ease and comfort. sized cheap house, with a kitchen above ground, thon many “In the chamber plans will be found five bed-rooms and a other plans of more pretension. It possesses one convenient bath-room and water-closet; and in the wing two bed-rooms quality, which some other styles of plans cannot be arranged and a house-maid's sink. All these rooms are supplied with to include, for it admits of many modifications, without sacri- registers near the ceiling, that communicate with foul air fioing its advantages. It may be completely altered in out- Pues separate from the chimney fues. In the garret over side appearance, and doubled in extent of interior aceommo- the bath-room is a large well-lighted linen-room; and as this dations, and yet be in reality the same plan. It can be adap- is planned on the half-landing, it is very easy of acce:s from ted to almost any situation by a proper arrangement of the the chamber-floor. A large store-room, the size of the bed

room over the dining-room, is finished off under the roof in a common way, and is secured with a door after being enclosed from the stairs by a plastered partition. The remninder of the space is open and unplastered. It makes a very roomy

garrei, with plenty of headway all over it; but the windows 170X20

in the peaks are of course close to the floor, and it was never intended thnt any bed-rooms should bo fitted up bere. The

roof is covered with shingles, the flat being floored and corMUITO

ered with canvas. In the basement are cellars and furnaceroom, the kiteben wing foundations not being carried down

farther than was necessary to keep clear of frost. In this 20-6X19.0

house special precaution was taken, by the proprietor's request, with regard to the plumber's work. All the pipes, hot, cold, and waste, were enclosed in a tin envelopu fitted tolerably close to the pipes. As tho work proceeded, this tin caso was soldered up every hore and there, and particularly where the pipe is led through the wall, in the first instance, and

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PLAN OF PRINCIPAL'FLOOR. oofs. Thus, for example, on an elevated and somewhat open site, such a one as this house oecupies, a roof of only moderato pitch is desirable. On level ground, or in a valley, a high pitched roof should be preferred It is also an economioal plan for the accommodation afforded, as will be seen by the particulars of cost that are annexed. The house, as now finished, is constructed with an eight-inch brick wall, furred off off outside, and covered with clap-boards in the ordinary way followed in a wooden building. This plan of construction was

CHAMBER PLAN. adopted in accordance with the spocial request of the propri- where it starts from the boiler. By this means the little inetor, who preferred it to any other method. Its advantages sects that work their way from below, and are often found

bebat it secures to a certainty a perfectly dry interior wall. about water fixtures in rooms, are prevented from crawling On the other hand, it seems undesirable to have a brick house up and down, and breeding among the warm pipes, as they and to give it tho appearance of a wooden one, as brick is the are tempted to do in many situations. superior and more durable looking material. The accommo- " The carpenter's contract for this house was taken at dation may be thus described : # veranda-porch on the east $3500 ; the ninson's at $2500; the remainder of the work was provides a covered approach to the front door. The principal done by the day. balt, 11 6 by 10 fcet, gives access to the parlor and library, "After the contracts had been made, the proprietor left the both of which are on the sɔuth of the house, and also to the work entirely in the hands of the architect; and with the exdining-room. Another door opens on to a staircase-hall, which ception that hard walls were substituted for brown walls is ensily accessible either from the principal rooms or from the throughout, and that some triffing alcorations were made in kitchen wing. This is desirable, as the scale of the house the arrangements for the linen-press, the plans, as signed, would not warrant a second staircase. An east and a south were faithfully executed for the contract amount, without any veranda are supplied to the principal rooms, but each has difficulty whatever. The carpenter's and mason's extras, windows that are unobstructed by any veranda. The dining- which amounted to $350, included the change from brown


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this crop.

wall to hard finish, and all the work appertaining to a large wheat on the ground, sown after barley and spring wheat, out-building at some distance froin the house."

with some twelve loads of fine compost (muck and barn It will be perceived that this house, which cost about manure,) per acre. Twenty loads would have given a bet$6000, might have been built much cheaper of brick in ter crop, and few light soils, whatever their condition as the ordinary way; and at a still less sum, or at one-half to fertility, but would bring profitable returns for the apits actual cost, if built of wood only. We do not recom- plication of manure; not deeply covered, but piaced near mend it for its mode of erection, but for its admirable plan the surface. and fine exterior views

As to the depth and character of the plowing, it must WHEAT CULTURE ON LIGHT SOILS.

depend to a great degree upon the nature of the subsoil.

If readily made fertile, it should be brought to the surface, By a “light soil " we mean one of a loamy and porous and deep plowing would produce the best result. If sterile, character—tho opposite of those containing considerable we should not advise exposing its barrenness, but would clay, and “heavy" or compact in their nature. A sandy break its depthis for other than the wheat crop, plowing in or gravelly loam, never becoming baked into clods, pre- the fall or subsoiling for some spring grain or root crop. sents very different characteristics from one liable to the A loamy soil, in clover, may be broken up after the hay latter state, under certain conditions of drouth and moist- is taken off, and then, aided by a light dressing of manure, ure, and may be cultivated in a different manner, and with produce a good product of wheat. It should be turned far less regard to times and seasons. Hence we have under with a fat furrow, and the manure worked in thothought best to divide some hints we propose to offer on roughly with the surface soil. We have found a light wheat culture-giving in another article some thoughts plow, or gang-plow, an excellent implement for covering on the preparation of heavy soils.

manure, and also for wheat, and prefer to use it without In the first place, we may remark that summer fallow- any subsequent employment of the harrow, in order to ing, save for the simple purpose of cleaning the land of Icave the surface in ridges, the better to retain the snows weeds, is not essentially requisite for wheat growing on of winter, as well as by their crumbling down under the light soils. Indeed, it may be injurious rather than bene- spring frosts, tu furnish a mulch for the roots of the wheat ficial, by producing too light a state of the surface soil for growing in the furrows, thius enabling the plants the bet

ter to withstand the winter. If the land be weedy, however, a thorough summer fal

There is this advantage in devoting light soils to wheat low will most thoroughly eradicate them from the soil

. growing—the labor of preparation is less than that on Weeds, as we have said before, bave been divided into heavy soils, and their warm, quick character bastens the two classes ; those which increase by their seeds, and maturity of the crop, thus furnishing additional security those which are propagated principally by their rootsman against the attacks of that potent enemy, the wheat midge. essential distinction as regards the means used for their The heavy soil, properly prepared and in favorable scadestruction. The weeds produced froin seeds can only be sons, will produce the largest crop of wheat, and that of eradicated by burying‘all the seeds where they will germi- the best quality; but under less favorable conditions, prenate-near or upon the surface and then destroying them sents greater liability to failure. To these considerations by tillage. To this end not only should the plowings be we shall give some thoughts hereafter, and hope our readfrequent but the division of the soil as perfect as possible. ers will join with us in the discussion of the whole subTo destroy weeds which propagate by the root, we must bury ject of Wheat Culture. them deeply and perfectly with the plow, or by shallow surface village cut them up by the roots and expose to the

(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) sun and air.

IMPROVEMENT IN THE HAY-RAKE. On liglit lands, not particularly weedy, what is called a

I have a small but very important improvement on the 'green fallow " may be employed. Field peas sown

Revolving Horse-Rake. It consists simply in bolting thickly will effectually cover the surface and smother all

the handles and sideother vegetation, as well as ripen sufficiently carly for

pieces fast together at wheat sowing. They take little from the soil, and leave

a, (Fig. 1,) so that

there is no spring or it in a fine, mellow state, ready with a single plowing for

working, as is usually the antuinn crop. Beans, planted in drills or hills, hare

Fig. 1.

the case.

The piece the advantage over peas, that they may be cultivated du- of wood that holds the steel spring on the handles, is ring their growth, and the preparation of the soil thus about 12 inches long, 14 inches thick, 4 inches wide, furthered during the summer. They are of the same represented in side view by Fig. 2; 6 is the spring, 14 incharacter in their demands upon the soil, but do not always

ches wide, with a bend at the bottom upwards,

half or three-quarters of an inch, to prevent ripen as early as is desirable in order to prepare in good

the spring from getting out of place when the season for wheat. Corn is a good cleaning crop, but

rake revolves; c, (Fig. 1,) shows the steel ripens too late for wheat, as well as takes from the soil

spring as resting on the rake-tooth, holding it the same elements as the latter crop. The same is true

firmly. of timothy, and this is an important reason why wheat

You will discover by this arrangement, that growers should prefer clover hay and pasturage, especially bolts, with nuts to them. Understand there are two

the ruke is bolted together on both sides with two good on their wheat soils.

springs, resting on two rake-teeth, and when the rake re. A light soil, say a clover ley, if sufficiently rich for volves the springs work like a charm. As usually made, wheat, may bear an intervening crop of peas or beans, and the above nanied pieces of wood are nailed on slanting, then be sown to whicat without additional manure. But and spring outward when the rake revolves; the handles, if not in good heart, or if any spring grain crop be growu them in at every revolution.

resting on round pins, allowing the rake teeth to spring during the summer, it may still grow wheat if properly

This rake, made as I have endeavored to describe, manured for that crop. We bave now a good crop of | makes the rake all solid; the two steel springs give way

Fix. 2.






for the revolution of the rake, and instantly springing back fields of the United Brethren at Canterbary. They had to their place and holding the teeth firmly until you let already secured a large amount of bay, being obliged to eut them loose again by raising the handles of the rake. it thus early upon account of its being badly lodged. Their

These springe can be put on any rake, by shaving off extensive grounds, devoted to the cultivation of almost the lower end that rests on the rake-teeth and screwing every kind of garden vegetable and esculent for family on these steel springs. The expense will not be over fifty use, and for that of medicinal herbs and roots, in pont of

A. D. Brown. clean and careful culture, and straightness of rows, would Any person who uses the revolving rake, as now con- compete successfully, if placed by the side of Chinese or structed, will understand it in a few minutes by comparing Flemish garden culture. this description with his rake, while it is in operation. As chard of twenty-five acres, and large numbers of pear

They cultivate fruit extensively, having one apple orusually made, the handles are made to act as springs, trecs, and an abundance of strawberries and other small springing nearer together as the rake revolves and passes fruits and berries, as also flowers in great variety and prothe sloping wood pins attached to their forward ends. fusion; and we doubt not these are fully appreciated by The improvement of our correspondent supersedes the the kind hearted and modestly attired sisters of the frater

nity. spring of the handles, by attaching steel springs at their

One of the more recently attractive matters connected forward end. The figure of the revolving rake given on with this family, is their large, new and expensive barn,* p. 122 of vol xiv, of the Country GENTLEMAN, does not the main body of which is 200 feet in length, and 45 in represent this attachment, that figure baving been drawn width, with a projection at each end of 25 feet long and upon before this modern improvement was introduced, but about 20 wide, thus making the whole length about 250 all may be easily understood by examining any rake of the same size of the main part of the barn. From the

feet. There is a handsome walled basement or cellar of present construction.

sills to the eaves 34 feet. There are three floors running

the entire length of the main buildings, the hay being eart(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.)

ed into the barn on the upper floor, so that most of it is Visit to the Society of Shakers, Canterbury, N.H. "pitched down instead of up.". The floors, partitions and

ceilings are all planed and finished off, as nice as a dwelling house. There are two hovels extending the whole

length of the barn, the eastern divisions of which are for Ens. Co. Gent.-On the 28th of June I visited the So- milch cows, with slip stanchions for tying up twenty-three ciety of Shakers in Canterbury. Their village is some 15 cows in each. The cows have been so trained that they miles north of Concord, and nine cast of the Merrimac pass into the hovels and take their places with the reguriver. They own about 2,500 acres of land, lying in near-larity of well drilled soldiers. The name of each cow is ly a square body. The society is composed of three fami- printed on slips of paper, in large letters, and tacked on lies. The north family bas a population of between 50 the joist overhead. Like the "world's people," they seand 60; the middle family numbers over 80, and the south leet fanciful names for their cows, such as Tamarind, Flora, bas about 150there being about 300 in all.

Crinoline, &c. By a very simple arrangement, the tumThe south family own about 1,700 acres of land, 600 of ing of a short lever, fastens or unloosens the heads of all which is improved, the balance in pasture, wood, timber, milked at about six o'clock in the morning, and between

the cows in “the twinkling of an eye." The cows arc &c. The large and beautiful village is located upon an extensive ridge of land, and can be distinctly seen from a four and five in the afternoon. They are in the pasture distance of more than twenty miles, from various points night and day, except while being milked. The cows are of the surrounding country. The dwelling houses are

of mixed and various breeds, such as Durham, Devon, large, substantially built, and finished in the most thorough from a wingling of these several bloods. They have five

Ayrshire and 'native,' and the various crosses resulting manner, with every convenience for saving and economiz. ing labor, and are kept with the most scrupulous neatness- yoke of work oxen, averaging over seven feet in girth, Several of the houses are of brick, three stories high, be- besides large numbers of young cattle, sheep and superb sides the basements. They have numerous workshops and horses ; but they do not go the “whole hog” in pork other buildings for the manufactnre of a great variety of raising-not so much as keeping a pig. In fact they wooden wares, brooms, &c., and for the drying and pre- the kitchen, tables, &c., are in part fed to their fowls, the

neither eat pork, ham or lard. The waste matters from paration of medicinal and other herbs and roots, and the manufacturing of medicines of various sorts, all of which ballance goes into the compost heap. The skim milk is are put up in the neatest manner, and without adultera- made into cheese, both Dutch and pressed. The whey tion; whoever purchases the unbroken packages as they from the cheese vat, (and there is a good deal comes from come from the hands of the Shakers, may rest assured the daily making of two 50 or 60 pound cheeses,) passes they are what they purport to be.

off through sewers, and irrigates their grass lands. It A large portion of their cultivated land in this my re- would gladden the heart of Nr. Mechi to witness the remarks will apply wholly to the large or south family', ) is sults of irrigating grass lands with whey. of rather a heavy, moist, strong soil, and is not so well

But to go back to their barn. The roof is nearly flat, adapted to the growth of Indian corn as to that of the hay double boarded; then covered with three layers of stout crop. The production of hay seems to be the great ob sheathing paper, saturated with coal tar, upon which is ject at which they ain in their farm culture. They turn spread a thick layer of coal tar and screened gravel

. The over sward land in the autumn—following scason plant sides and ends of this large barn and two others to be with potatoes ; next, in corn, without manure, -corn with described,) are shingled with good pine shingles of 16 them being a secondary object. Two years cultivation inches in length, being laid but four inches to the weather. eradicates weeds, grasses, &c., and leaves the ground in a

From the center of the large barn, on the south side, exsituation to produce heavy crops of clean grasses. In tends a two story building 100 feet in length by 27' feet stocking down to grass, they use barley in preference to in width. The lott is for the storage of hay, grain, straw, oats or wheat. In the spring, before plowing for the bar- &c. The lower portion is divided into several rooms for ley, they apply from 50 to 75 cart-loads of mavure from calf-pens, store-room, hospital for sick animals, &c., and the barn cellar; a large crop of barley follows, succeeded a well finished room for the herusman. The roof of this, in after years by larger crops of hay—for the two or more

as well as that of the sheep barn, now being built, is years after being laid down to grass, two heavy crops are nearly flat, covered with tar, gravel, &c. The sheep barn annually mown. In my ride to Canterbury, some twenty

is 108 by 43, three stories high. The drive-way, for the miles, I saw hundreds of acres of grass fields, that will cartage of lay is 17 feet wide, the floor of which is level yield most meager products. But it is a rich treat for one with the girtlis; two loads of hay can be driven in abreast ; to cast his eyes over the extensive and luxuriant mowing

* Costing $20,000.

and at the south end it is wide enough to turn round with amount of winter rye, which is extensively grown on the the cart, which can be driven out instead of “ backing light sandy soils bordering the Contoocook, Blackwater and out." The ends of the large barn are so graded that the Warner rivers, tributaries of the Merrimac. These several teams pass in at one end and out at the other. They in- strcams pass into the Merrimac a few miles north of Contend putting up a large shed extending from the south. cord. Apples, pears, plums and other fruits now promise west corner of the barn-as does the sleep baru from the an abundant crop. Insects appear to be much less numesoutheast-running south. The barn-yards will be sepa- rous than for several years past, especially the carly saterrated in the middle by the 100 by 27 feet building, and pillar and curculio. screened from winds by the sheep barn and building yet I saw numerous fields of fine clover in full bloom, opuch to be erected. The yards will be about 100 feet square, of it ready for the scythe-nearly or quite all of which abundantly supplied with water.

appeared to be the medium or western variety, which The Canterbury and Enfield Society of Shakers own

comes forward too early for “timothy and red-top grass.” about 700 acres of “Genesce Flats," in Mount Morris, N. Would it not be well for our farmers to sow at least a part Y., where they raise largely of broom and Indian corn. of their grounds with the large northern variety. On good Last year, they had at the Mount Morris farm 300 acres land it yields a very much larger crop, and coming into in broord corn and 175 in Indian corn. In 1858, they blossom later, it is fit to cut at the same time of cutting had 75 acres in corn which yielded 65 bushels per acre. timothy and red-top: If mown at the "right time," and They can raise and freight this corn to New-Hainpshire, properly made and housed, cattle, sheep and horses will at a cheaper rate than they can grow or purchase it there eat it as readily and clean as they will the smaller varieSo of the broom corn. They also have eight acres of in- ties. From its long and larger root and top, it is far tervale land on the west bank of the Merrimac river, at preferable for plowing in for green manuring to the southConcord. This is inostly used in the production of me

ern or western varieties. dicinal roots, herbs, &c., of which their sales amount to A large portion of the old mowing fields will yield but over $3,000 annually.

a very light clip of grass this year-perhaps there will be With the supply of labor always at command, their a falling off of the hay crop in this section of 25 per cent., farming operations are performed at the right time and in compared with that of the past three years. the best manner I was at their place a few years since, A few more words about barns. The farmers in this (before the introduction of mowing machines and hay region of country, within a very few years past, bave a capu, ) just as they had finished their baying. They esti- real mania for building number one barns. In my jaunt mated their bay that year at 150 tons, every clip of which I saw scores of them-built within the past five years. was cut with the scythe, and every load of it stored in the They are generally from 80 to 100 feet in length, by 40 barn in less than three weeks. and not a load of it was or more feet in widths, all of which have cellars the size of injured by rain.

the barn. They are “finished off” in the most thorough With the mechanical skill and ingenuity possessed by manner. Some are battened; others have the sides and some of the brethren, and the ample pecuniary means at ends shingled; others are clapboarded. All well supplied their command, they seem to lack nothing that will serve with light from glass windows, and painted. Many of to lessen the labor and toil of human muscle and nerve. them have tastefully finished ventilators upon the top of They have invented and patented, (Jan., 1858,) un- the roof or ridge. questionably the best and most efficient washing ma- By the way, when describing the Shaker barn, I forgot chine for large establishments, that has ever been put to notice the three large ventilators (with their Venetian to a practical test. Though but recently brought into blinds) upon the large barn, which carry the warm foul public notice, they are extensively used in great num- air from the hovels, &c., to the roof. There are also six or bers of our liospitals, asylums, and largest class hotels, eight large wooden boxes or pipes from the cellar through and they give the utmost satisfaction, as the “state the roof, for conveying the heated foul air of the cellar ments and coinmendations” of numerous letters and cer- above tlic roof. tificates from many of the most prominent hotel keepers

Warm, comfortable hovels for cattle are all very well, and others, fully testify. They are not designed for com- but for their most perfect health and thrift, fresh, pure air mon family use, but for that of large establislıments, be- is also quite as necessary. Therefore, in the construction ing propelled by steum power. They have already dispos- of cattle barns and stables, provision should be made for ed of over cight thousand dollars worth-being in use in suitable and adequate ventilation. It is a sanitory measure various cities, from the Insane Asylum in New-llampshire that should not be overlooked, more especially in these to Willard's Hotel in Washington, D. C., and from the times of Pleuro-Pneumonia.

L. BARTLETT. Revere House in Boston to thc Tremont in Chicago. Warner, N. H., June 30, 1860.

I attended one of their evening meetings. Of the religious belief and mode of worship, and domestic arrange

(For the Cultivator and Country Gentleman.) ments of these professing cliristians, it comes not within HORT, EXHIBITION AT SKANEATELES. my province to judge them. In pursuing the course they do in these matters, they but exercise their constitutional

Saturday, 23d of June, the Farmers' Club of Skaneateles rights, and worship God according to the dictates of con- held their first exhibition of fruits and vegetables. The science, and no one has the right in an authoritative man- show was good; finer fruit ought not to be desired, and ner, to say unto them“ why do ye so."

we think the lover of rhubarb should feel satisfied. The There are many other interesting and useful facts con- leaf of one measured 3 feet 74 inches in diameter, the leaf nected with the labors and practices of these industrious, stalk over 2 inches diameter and 2 feet 2 inches long. charitable and peaceable citizens, that are well worthy of The strawberries were beautiful. Fifty-three entries were beiug “put in print." But the length of this precludes made, sixteen of which were for strawberries. The Wilany further remarks respecting them at this time, for I son's Albany Seedling bore the bell, but I consider McAvoy wish to say something in regard to the agricultural pros- of much finer flavor. The bouquets were beautiful. Miss pects of the territory through which I travelled, going by E. Suook presented 21 varieties of Pansies, mostly seedone route and returning by another--corn, potatoes and lings; they were superb. The flowers as a whole were beans, generally, appearing unusually well for this early good and well arranged. On Saturday, the 14th inst., we season of the year-so of the growing oats. I saw a large have our second show. Your presence would add to the number of fields of winter wheat, all of which was look interest felt here, and with your own eyes you would be ing most promising, though some pieces were injured to able to judge if we are what we consider ourselves to be, soine extent by winter-kill. The midge recently made its promoters of improvement. Aye, and it would enable appearance, but most of the winter wheat bas" got the you to see that some things are attained here in the grow. start of the insect.” Many fields of spring sown wheat ing of live fences, as well as in England and elsewliere are just heading out, and such probably will suffer badly s. M. Brown, at the close of the exbibition, made a few by the ravages of the insect. In the aggregate I saw a large l appropriate remarks.


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