« AnteriorContinuar »
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.)
Balloon ” has long ago outlived the derision BALLOON FRAMES---IVth Article. which suggested it. It is gratifying to see so many favorable notices in your
The union of concrete with a wooden frame, strikes as columns, endorsing the practicability, economy and gen. very favorably; if a suggestion would be in order, we eral usefulness of the balloon frame, and with such practic would use the balloon frame for this purpose. The studcal suggestions and improvements as have been made by ding we would rip from the floor plank, 17 inches thick, C. G. Taylor, of Rock Island, III., Suel Foster, of Musca- and place them three or four feet apart. It has been detinc, Iowa, and W. S. Hand, Milwaukee, Wis. Opinions monstrated that a concrete building is sufficiently strong from these gentlemen are opinions worth having, because without any frame, but the introduction of a frame obvithey live in a section of country where the balloon frame ates all other objections that we know of to concrete alone. is in the aseendancy, and they are also practically aware The balloon frame with concrete, admits of ties in every of all the merits and demerits of the old fashioned frame. direction, makes the whole wall stiffer and stronger, and We should like to have somebody take the other side of gives the floor joists a better bearing ; a universal brace to the question, and give some practical reasons why the bal- a piece of timber, makes a great difference in its strength, loon frame is not 40 per cent, cheaper, and not better and changes its capacity from hundred weights to tons. A adapted to the construction of wooden buildings than any perfect familiarity with every known form of economy in other known style of frame. If the balloon frame has a the erection of buildings, warrants us in stating that we weak spot, we should be glad to have it pointed out. As believe a union of concrete and the balloon frame to be a matter of economy in architecture, it is worth the atten. within the line of the most rigid economy yet found in any tion of all the building community; it will pay them to other manner of building, and that a building put up in thoroughly investigate it; it will pay for the New-York this manner would be cheaper, (inside finish excepted,) State Agricultural Society, and for the Agricultural So- than the frame of a house constructed in the old style. cieties of other States, to appoint a committee to examine Any person contemplating the erection of a wooden and report its advantages, and its disadvantages if they building, would save money by investing fifty dollars in can find any.
travelling expenses, to examine a balloon frame; a barn
20 by 40 has just been completed at Irvington, N. Y., for The balloon frame belongs to no one person ; nobody Joseph W. Hartley, Esq., and a number in the vicinity of claims it as an invention, and yet in the art of construction Newark, N. J., both dwellings and barns. One gentleman it is one of the most sensible improvements that has ever inforined me that he had put
up a building some years ago,
after reading an article on the subject by Solon Robinson; been made. It is safe to say that there is not a farm west so well is he pleased with it, that he has built another in of the great lakes but what can furnish an illustration of the same manner, and he estimates that he has saved beits success; the wooden buildings in Chicago, Milwaukee, tween two and three hundred dollars by adopting the balDubuque, St. Paul, San Francisco, and other cities of the loon frame. west and far west, with scarcely a single exception, are this frame to the largest class of barne.
In a future article we will illustrate the application of built with hailoon frames. The depots, freight houses,
Geo. E. WOODWARD, and other wooden buildings of the Illinois Central, Chicago
Architect, Civil and Landscape Engineer, 29 Broadway, N. Y. a:id Galena, Milwaukee and Mississippi, and other western railroads are constructed in the same manner. We know
MOLE TRAP. of a block of five buildings in Chicago, used as stores, total dimensions of which are 125 feet front, by 100 feet deep, about mole traps, 1 send you a description of one which
Having seen an inquiry some time since in the Co. Gent., three stories high, that perfectly fulfils all requirements for we use in our market garden. It is cheap, efficient and storage and business, and has done so for years. A hotel durable. Any farmer can make it himself. at Sparta, Monroe Co., Wisconsin, above 40 feet square, has the studding spliced three times, and the upper room is used as a ball room, the most severe test that can be applied to it, and when dancing times are over, it is used as the "school section," a prominent feature in every western hotel. We have seen farm houses and town houses in Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa and Minnesota, built with balloon frames, and nowise inferior in size, comfort, convenience, wire, well sharpened at the points. These teeth are set
It consists of six teeth, nine inches long, made of 7 inch style and finish to the best examples in the State of New into an inch plank, 9 inches long, and 34 inches wide York.
three teeth being set at each end. Nail this piece of plank The only instance of a balloon frame having moved from containing the teeth to a 4 inch scantling, about 18 or 20 its foundation, that has come to our knowledge during inches from the end. The scantling should be about 6 feet eight years practical experience in our profession at the
On the opposite end of the soantling nail a board hollowwest, was some years ago, at Oshkosh, Fond du Lac county, ed out on one edge, and rounded off on the other, with Wisconsin. A tornado, about 3 a. m., lifted and moved the convex side up. This is to hold the trap firmly to its entire about 80 or 40 feet, a balloon house, and doing no place, and should be pressed into the ground when set. further damage than waking up the family; at the same
Now make a set of common dead fall triggers, and your
trap is complete. time an old fashioned frame in the immediate vicinity was
Set your trap with the teeth immediately over the mole uttterly demolished. There is the same difference between track.' In the center, between the teeth, press down the a balloon frame and the mortice and tenon timber frame, track, and let the point of the long trigger rest on this that there is between a bushel basket and a dry goods box; pressed portion of the track. The mole throws the trap drop them from a house top, and you can soon find out by rooting up the hard earth under the point of the long
trigger. Having three teeth on each side, he is sure to be which will stand the most hard knocks. The name of caught, coming either way. [The dotted lines in the figure “Basket Frame” would convey a better impression, but show the position of the mole track.1 M. D. Bowman.
A. R. A.
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator).
the expense of extracting the oil; guaranteeing the abFlax-Seed, Linseed Oil, and Oil Cake. sence of all adulteration; making a more palatable mess
than any fixed with oil, and greater economy. Messrs. EDITORS_Your editorial “Notes from the Connecticut Valley,” in Co. Gent. of June 21st, were ex: ceedingly interesting, in consequence of having heard
SORE TEATS IN COWS. much of that section of country from neighbors who had To cure a wound in the teat of a cow, I would, if the formerly resided there, and also very instructive, as the opening is not very large and the discharge of milk from farmers of Franklin county seem to be first-rate managers, it abundant, take the following course : Keep the cow in and, as a natural consequence, prosperous and progres- the barn and the milk in the bag reduced by frequent sively improving Country GENTLEMEN. Success to them; milkings. Cauterise the edges and inside of the opening and may their industry and ingenuity be extensively imi- with a hot iron ; then let the burn heal by granulation, tated by their brother farmers in other States !
(as of course it would do,) the contraction consequent Your “note” as to the composition of the feeding stuff upon healing by granulation will probably close the artifiused by Mr. Isaac Barton for his growing stock, and cial opening. A. Buffalo, N. Ý. your subsequent remark connected therewith, as to the comparative value of flax-seed and oil cake, called to my remembrance some items of information as to these feed- DIRECTIONS FOR MILKING ing matcrials and as to the use of linseed oil, which I intended to communicate to you and your readers some time
“L. T.” says in the Ohio Cultivator, “That there are ago. Though prevented while the information was yet many good milkers who cannot tell others how the thing fresh in my mind, the delay may yet prove rather an ad- should be done.” He evidently does not lack in the tell. vantage than otherwise, as the statement and the remarks ing part, for we never saw better practical directions to you liave made in reference to Mr. Barton's employment milkers than his, which we copy below: of flax-seed will undoubtedly have awakened attention, and excited to inquiry in regard to the comparative ad- start the milk. Set the bucket a little forward and outward,
“ Brush the udder and flank, bandle the teats a little, and vantages of the various modes of using flax-seed and its the side towards the milker a little raised. Grasp the near products--the oil and the cake.
front and off hiud teat, or alternately, as near the end as posA few weeks ago, then, I was informed by a gentleman sible, without milking on the hand, keeping the left arm in a who had been looking at the stock of some of the more position to protect the pail, if necessary. Place the first forecelebrated breeders of cattle in Ohio, that he learned from finger directly in the center of, not around the teat, and close two of those whose stock he had inspected that they had the other fingers successively down upon the center. Avoid discontinued almost entirely the use of oil cake, and bad conversation, milk as rapidly as possible, and quit when done. substituted in place of it a mixture of ground grain with Never milk only one teat at once, or use only the thumb and an addition thereto of a certain amount of linseed oil, finger, unless unavoidable. If desired to save the strippings Whether this change had been made in consequence of wait ten or fifteen minutes, then take what has collected."* finding some, more or less, of the oil cake in market adulterated or of inferior quality, or with a view merely to
WHEN TO SKIM MILK. economy, the price of oil being comparatively low, my inforraant had not inquired. But from whatever
cause these phatic tone as to the best time: She says that the right
A dairy-woman, in Western New-York, speaks in this embreeders had been led to make the change from oil cake time to skim milk
is " just as the milk begins to sour in to a mixture of linseed oil with the meal of Indian corn the bottom of the pans.' Then the cream is all at the surand other grain, they stated, as the result of their experi. face, and should at once be removed-with as little of the ence, that the change was entirely satisfactory to them, milk as possible. If allowed to remain until the acid reaches and that they were sure that they could thus supply, for the cream or to become thick, it diminishes the cream, and their cattle's use, as much oily and other nutritive matter impairs it in quality. That housewife or dairymaid who as the very best cake ever contained, at a less cost than by thinks to obtain a greater quantity by allowing the milk to purchasing the cake, while at the same time they escaped stand beyond that time, labors under a most egregious misall risk of an inferior or fraudulent article, and could thus take. Any one who doubts this, has only to try i to prove sccure a choice as to what kind of grain or other feeding the truth of this assertion. Milk should be looked to at least
three times a day." stuffs they should combine with the oil. At first, they said, cattle do not relish or take hold of the mixture of meal
STRIPED BUGS, and oil, but after a few days coaxing and fixing of the mess in various ways, they seem to relish the mixture just as The striped bugs-oh the rascals! The Co. GENT. of well as oil cake itself.
the 7th June, p. 367, copies from the N. E. Farmer, a In England and Scotland, also, experiments have been remedy for these fellows-“turpentine, cotton batting and tried in feeding linseed oil and linsced itself, the former a split stick." I tried it without any success. Water would being poured upon and mixed with chaft, bran and other have been just as effectual. The next remedy that came inill feed, and the latter mixed and ground with grain, as to hand was “hen dung,” pulverized and scattered on the is done by Mr. Barton, or mixed with chaffed straw or hill around the vines. Now I have watered mine twice a other bulky food so as to secure thorough mastication. week with liquid manure made of hen dung, as strong as Sheep, as well as neat stock, bave been fed with the oil in it could be made, by putting it around the bill, but not the manner just named, and the experiment is reported to directly on the vines. This I have done for the purpose have succeeded quite satisfactorily, in one instance so much of making them grow, which it has done, but has had no 80 as to lead to a decided preference to the use of the oil effect upon the bugs. I also tried kerosene in the same in this way to that of oil cake in the usual way.
way the turpentine was to be used, with the same results Taking it for granted, then, that linseed oil mixed with they seem to delight in perfumery, (for I take it, it is ground grain, as in the case of the Ohio breeders, or with the odor that is to do the work of expulsion;) it may be, bran, mill feed and cut straw, as in the experiments made however, that our bugs are different from other people's in Great Britain, can be economically and successfully used bugs-their nasal organs may be depraved. One other in the place of oil cake, it seems highly probable that the thing we tried—it was pinching them back as they say of use of the seed itself, either ground with other grain, as grape vines—this proved the most effectual of anybing. Dr. Bartox uses it, or crushed, or boiled, or added to The number that were destroyed in this way is astonishiother feed, as in the case mentioned in Co. GENT., April ing. While upon bugs allow me to say, that I like the 21, 1859, would be found on trial a still better mode of philosophy of the Long Island farmers, as described in the availing oneself of the oily and other nutritive elements of Gent. of June 28, p. 413. This looks as though it might this not yet duly appreciated feeding stuff. The use of work, and although attended with some labor, it is better the feed itself, rather than either the oil or the cake would than to try to lead them off by the nose—they are a nuisecure the following and perhaps other advantages: Saving 'sance any wav. J. L. E. Jefferson County, N. Y.
MANURING THE WHEAT CROP. crop, or for wheat the succeeding year, yet when the soil In an article with this heading given about a year ago, face dressing would be a most judicious application. On
needs something to start the wheat in the fall, a light surthe Country GENTLEMAN took occasion to urge upon Central and Western New-York readers, who would again compact clays wanting largely in vegetable matter, a larger engage in wheat growing, the importance of especial ap- manurial effect, though it miglit produce too heavy, and
dressing would have an excellent mechanical, as well as plications of manure for that purpose. The lesson of
above all, a too late ripening growth of wheat, to prove another season's crop, studied with especial reference to this subject, induces us to recall the subject, that we may
secure against the midge and perhaps other casualties. add some additional considerations in its favor, as well as
We promised to indicate some very generally available indicate some very generally available resources of fertiliz- do so, if the reader will re-peruse our recent article on
resources for manure, but have scarcely room or need to ing material, especially on soils not otherwise so well adap the "Manurial Resources of the Farm,” (Co. Gent., June ted to this greatly prized and valuable cereal product. Mr. Harris, in his Yale Lecture on “Wheat Growing subject. Briefly, however, on a point or two.
14, '60,) where we spoke at some length on the general in America," recently published in this journal, (Co. Gent.,
Could we turn under a good growth of grass or clover, June 21-28, '60,) remarks that "in Western New-York manure is seldom applied directly to wheat; some say it say a month before sowing on our wheat, and then prois injurious.” It was thought as stated in our former arti- perly reduce the surface soil for drilling in the seed, we cle, “to stimulate a heavy growth of straw at the expense still be improved by some fertilizing application on the
should think the prospect good for a crop, though it would of the grain, and by the rankness and succulency of the surface. We but here repeat an old authority on the former, increasing the liability to lodge, and tending also to produce rust and mildew in the standing grain." This subject: Thare, in his Principles of Agriculture
marks that “the best and most successful way of obtaining opinion is far less prevalent than formerly, and for two reasons : We have better learned the requirements of dif- good. wheat crops, is to sow on broken-up clover land;
and if on friable loam, after one single plowing." He ferent soils as to manures, and the effect of different fer would plow under the second growth of clover when eight tilizers on the wheat plant; and the early ripening varieties now sown are far less liable to be injuriously affected or ten inches high, and a month before seeding, that it by manure than the later kinds formerly so popular. The may have time to decompose and the ground become present practice is fast conforming to the view expressed equalized. This, Mr. Harris allows may be a good pracby Mr. A., “ that on most farms the wheat would be very opinion-on heavy soils it would be better to summer fal
tice on light soils, but—and we agree with him in the grateful for a little good, well-rotted manure, either plowed now and apply the same clover after it had been fed to in or spread on the surface just before sowing."
cattle or sheep. In this case a light dressing of good barn “We are very likely," as stated a year ago, to throw away our seed and labor, now-a-days, in sowing any but manure
, well rotted, would be better than a heavy green rich, warm, quick soils to wheat." We must get a large manuring of clover, especially in its effect upon the pro
duct of grain. growth of healthy, early maturing plants, or the wheat midge will destroy the crop, in greater part at least. In of sorrel, yellow dock, and the like,) we think very fa
On loamy soils needing lime, (as shown by the growth order to succeed well on these rather light, but early ripening soils, “wheat," as the lecture remarks, “needs vorably of applying a muck and lime compost, well desomething to give it a start in the fall, and a little well-composed together as a preparation for the wheat crop.
Muck that is already partially decomposed can soon be rotted manure, not plowed in deep,” proves“ very acceptable.” It is found in practice that a loamy soil, in good heart, of muck a foot thick, of a size suitable to the amount to
prepared for use. The process is as follows: Make a bed dressed with from ten to fifteen loads of composted manure be composted. Over this spread a layer of fresh slaked per acre—the same mixed intimately and evenly with the
lime at least one inch in thickness. Put on in the same surface soil—will give "that good start in the fall,” which will enable our early varieties to come out "ahead of the way other layers of muck and lime, varying the thickness
of the former according to the quantity of lime to be used. midge," and produce profitable crops.
Some farmers of considerable experience use from six to That manuring for the wheat crop is no new thing in eight per cent., others less than one-half the amount, acWestern New-York, we could readily show by reference to cording to the nature and acidity of the muck. The lime almost every statement of premium crops for the last fif- should be slaked in brine-using a bushel of salt dissolved teen years. For instance, in 1850, a Niagara county far- in water to six bushels of lime. When the decomposition mer harvested 634 bushels per acre, after manuring his becomes active, which it will in a few weeks, the heap ground with well-rotted barn manure at the rate of twenty should be shoveled over and well mixed, and will very loads per acre, and adding a top-dressing of 40 bushels of
soon be ready for use. From twelve to fifteen loads per lime, over the whole field of nearly seven acres. This is acre would produce good results, especially if intimately a remarkable product, but there are many going above and equally mixed with the surface soil. forty bushels, a large share of them owing their bounteous
Muck and ashes may be composted in the same way, or yield to some course of manuring, either from the barn- muck and any fermenting manure. One-third good stable yard or compost heap, or by plowing under clover or top manure to two-thirds muck forms an excellent compost dressings of lime or leached ashes, these last in some in- for any crop, and from repeated experiments we are prestances stimulating a very large product of grain. pared to commend it as valuable for the particular use of
Our heavy soils, most natural to wheat when underdrain. which we have spoken in this article. In conclusion, we ed, will bear, and well repay moderate applications of ma- would particularly commend the application of muck comnure. In most cases, however, the effect sought could be the material—rery likely it is just what is needed to re
posts, in all cases where the farmer may avail himself of more economically reached by applying the manure to the store his farm to a condition for profitable wheat growing, land while in grass, to be plowed under for some other I under judicious management.
TWO PLANS OF HOUSES.
from $1,200 to $3,000. My house cost $1,500, all ready
to move in, all finished from cellar to the chambers. The We have received at different times many plans of dwell. same plan can be varied to suit builders, to have larger or ings from our correspondents, for which they will please smaller rooms, and still keep its well formed and beautiful accept our thanks. Some of them, which have appeared proportions. the most meritorious, we have occasionally inserted in our columns. The necessity of both re-drawing and reducing them in size, involves considerable labor, and has in some instances delayed their appearance longer than we bave intended. This is the case with the two plans we have here selected for insertion.
The first, (Figs. 1 and 2,) is from B. F. Fisher of Zilwaukie, Mich., with several alterations or improvements in accordance with his request. He makes the following accompanying remarks:
“Here is a plan for a house, containing a full supply of suitable rooms for health, convenience, comfort, economy and gentility, and costing only from $750 to $1,500, according to the cost of materials. Here it would only cost the first sum. I think that in most places it could be built for $1,000. I wish to see the plan published in the COUNTRY GENTLEMAN. It has many excellences, but I do
Fig. 3-PRINCIPAL FLOOR,
Fig. SECOND PLook. not wish to take up the space to point them out now. IL. Entry-K. Parlor, 16 by 15-1. B. Bed-room, 8 by 12--C. Bed. offer the plan for criticism."
Sitting-room, 16 by 15-H. Bed. room, 16 by 15-D. Bed-room, 16 room, 11 by 16--F. Kitchen, 16 by 18
by 17--G. Pantry-E WashA
room, 10 by 14-C. Woodroom,
"My house stands on the southrely side of the road, and from all the main rooms you can see the road; the kitchen is on the warm side in winter and cool side in summer. It is well adapted to a corner lot, and for any corner on the lot, no matter on which side of the street Just imagine the plan on the other side of the paper, [i. e. hold it reversed up to the light,) and it will suit the north side of a road and face the south and west, as all
houses should on that side, as this does on the south side. Fig. 1-PrixCIPAL FLOOR.
Yig. SECOND FLOOR,
“I find in most plans in the books, that the most essenJ. Parlor-G Dining room ---E. Kit. A. B. P. Bed-rooms.-C. Closets tial parts are left out, that the inexperienced builder needs
chen-H. Bed-room-I. Closet- -E. Library or Sitting room. C. Pantry-B. Wash-room--D.
most—that is, a full working plan of the house, and the Store-room-F. Entry-A. Wood
details of the contract between proprietor and contractor. house. The alterations we have made consist in, 1, connecting tions, perspective view, working plans and contract, with
I have thought that one good planned cottage, with elevathe two front verandahs, which were entirely separate in quality and cost of material, would be worth more to the the plan sent, and consequently more contracted in ap- people, if inserted in your REGISTER, than half the costly pearance; 2, reducing the number of windows and en- books ever published. larging the size of some; and, 3, in altering the arrange
“You will perceive that the main rooms are all about ment of the second floor, by curving the stairs at the top, the bracket and outside finish cut on one bevel, which all
one size; and the long rafters will be all the same length; economizing room, and avoiding a bad shape to the larger carpenters will appreciate.” of the rooms in the rear, caused by the projecting closet This plan is quite similar to the one given on page 24 from the smaller rear room. If the latter needs a closet, of the first volume of RURAL AFFAIRS, and reversed; but it may be placed ae the dotted lines indicate, removing the as it contains some additional conveniences, we think it window to the other side.
worthy of insertion. It is less compact in form than the This appears to be a neat and compact plan, and capa. preceding one, and will therefore require more exterior ble of being built at moderate cost for the room furnished. wall and cost more for the space furnished; but it supThe kitchen has hardly enough light, there being but one plies a greater number of conveniences, is better adapted window, and that under a veranda. The want of windows for a fine house and would present a better external apon opposite sides may make it hot in dog-days; this ob- pearance, if the latter was properly designed jection may however be partly obviated by opening the door and window of the pantry, or by allowing fresh air
WATERING PLANTS. to blow from the wood-house. The second design is from CLARK Swallow of East
During the summer it becomes necessary to resort to Bridgewater, Mass. He remarks :
artificial watering for garden plants, trees, &c., and it is a
matter of considerable importance to perform this opera“I take the liberty to send a sketch of a plan of a cottage house, built for myself the past season, from a plan tion in the best way and at the right time; the chief obof my own. I looked in vain to find a plan to suit ine inject being to supply just as much water as the plants need all the books that I could find, including your excellent and no more. To do this, notice their condition at the yearly, the Rural RegistER; I could find plans that would time of application. If trees, which have been trausdo, but were too costly for me, or those that were not planted in the spring seem to be inactive, and thus throw. large enough to accommodate my family. The plan I send you is well adapted to the wants of the mechanic, the ing off but a small annount of moisture, very little water farmer, or the gentleman, and to those of moderate or is required; young trees especially are apt to remain three good circumstances. The same plan can be made to cost or four weeks after being set out, without making any
THE WASHING OF THE MANURE IN TIMES OF RAIN.
growth, and to give them an abundance of water would 3. In connection with the house, a poultry-yard should be cause them to remain dormant rather than to help their provided, which should contain a grass plot, gravel, some growth. In such cases it is best to use water but very quantities of slacked lime, and dry ashes. little. Again, if a tree grows fast and draws most of the 4. The inside of the poultry bouse should be whitewashed moisture from the soil, water should be given, but not twice a year or oftener, which will serve to keep it free from upon the surface. Break the top soil, and let the water vermin, and the hens will be kept in better condition.
5. Pure water in sufficient quantities must be provided soak well into the ground and not run off or form a hard
several times a day, in winter and in summer. crust upon the surface.
6. Feed should be given at regular periods. To fatton In watering garden plants the operation often does more fowls, they must not be allowed to run at large. hurt than good. By applying it on the top a crust is formed, and if water is again poured upon this crust it
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) immediately runs off or helps to make a thicker crust upon
SURFACE MANURING AGAIN. the surface. This keeps the ground dry and the plant
MHSSRS. EDITORS—I have no disposition, even if I had makes but a poor progress. A better way is to make several holes in the plant beds, or small ones by the side the ability and leisure, to enter into the discussion of this of the plant and pour the water into them. In this way it question. But as this is an excessively wet day—wind
northeast and chilly—the out-door prospect dark and gradually soaks into the earth and the moisture is easily obtained by the rootlets of the plant. It is indeed the gloomy, I thought it a fit time to say a word upon this
dark subject the application of manure. only proper way of artificial watering.
I have been led to this from an article in the Co. Gent. Evening is the best time to water plants. The sun is not shining and the state of the atmosphere is usually of June 28, p. 410, in which the writer uses many argumoist, which prevents a ready evaporation.
ments, and makes some explanations to sustain his theory.
Now this may all be satisfactory to him, and manure ap(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.)
plied to the surface may be his best mode of using it—as GRAPES IN TEXAS.
in some cases it undoubtedly is--not because nature, "his
teacher," points out this as the best way, but simply beThis is a fine grape region, and seems to be peculiarly cause the manure to be used, the soil upon which it is to adapted to the growth the vine, and the making of be put, and the crop to follow, were better adapted to this wine. The Mustang grape is very common, covering mode of epplication. many a tree. It is now beginning to ripen. Its grapes Then again, the lay of the land, it seems to me, would are large, of a black or deep blue when ripe. Its racemes make a good deal of difference as to the best and most are small but abundant. Some vines are said to produce economical way of applying manure. Hilly or rolling land as high as forty or fifty bushels of grapes. It is a great that is liable to wash more or less during the fall, winter, runner, sometimes extending over more than one tree. I and spring rains, and while the frost is in the g ound, so measured a vine recently which was eight inches in diam- that the water cannot settle off, or when the snow passes eter. It almost covered a large post oak. The Mustang off rapidly in the spring, while the ground is yet frozen, wine is of a rich, red color, acid, and pronounced by except an inch or two of the surface, must lose much of many to be superior to any native wine. This grape seems the manure when put upon the surface in the fall. With to be a form of the vitis labrusca, the parent of some of land quite level and flat the objection would not be as our best native grapes.
great. The Post Oak grape is another common grape in this
To illustrate from my own experience. My farm lies section, but it is so low in its habit that its grapes are rare- in an oblong form, it being about one-third longer than ly suffered to mature, being greedily devoured by wild and broad. The center, through the whole length, is considerdomestic animals. They are large and purple, with a thin ably lower than either side, so much so that nearly all the skin, and very pleasant for table use. This may be the surface water finds its way to the middle, where it passes vitis rupestris of Schule, but as I have not access to his off through a low strip of land into Black river, consedescription of that grape I cannot tell, only knowing that quently this strip through the center was quite wet. it is low in growth, and a native of Texas. I have been When I bought the farın, ten years ago, I put a ditch told of other grapes, some of which I hope to see, and through the center, the whole length, three feet wide aud I will then tell you some things about them. Before clo- from two and a half to three feet deep. Into this I sing I will mention an instance showing the abundance have brought several lateral stone drains, where they of the Mustang grape, which was told me by Dr. Spann were most needed. Now in the fall and spring there is of Washington Co. He and his brother, with some eight quite a stream of water running through this drain, also or ten negroes, collected grapes in their vicinity and made during winter thaws, and it brings with it a good deal seven hundred gallons of wine in about ten days. He of surface soil and mold from adjoining plowed land-of said the time occupied in wine making did not exceed this I am sure, from the fact of my having a kind of sink two weeks at the most.
S. B. BUCKLEY. or basin through which the water runs less rapidly, and Dresden, Navarro Co., Texas, July 1, 1860.
the sediment has an opportunity to settle, or at least a
portion of it, also from some depressions in the bottom of (For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) the drain, which soon become filled up after having been MAXIMS FOR POULTRY KEEPERS.
Now if manure be put upon a surface similar to this in Those who expect to be successful in raising or managing the fall, (and there is a good deal of such land,) how can poultry, or hope to make it a pnying part of farm business, a large waste be avoided from washing? If the manure is should observe a few simple rules which will save them from well rotted and fine it will pass off in the form of sediment much disappointment and trouble.
-if coarse and raw, in a liquid form. At least I think it 1. It is not advisable to keep large numbers of hens to would be reasonable to expect this result. gether, or go into the poultry business on a large scalo. It is
I beg to be excused from “thinking a little songer," found impracticable and unprofitable-besides they cannot be merely to force myself into the belief that nature's mode of kept in so healthy a condition as where but few are together. she does, where man has improved upon and modified her
applying manure is more perfect than many other things 2. It is impossible to keop hons to advantage without hav- works. Nature brought us into the world in a state of ing a suitable and properly arranged house for their accom- nudity, but it would be hardly decent to remain so, or modation. This is as necessary as that a farmor should have comfortable either, in dog days or with the thermometer a stable for his cattle, or a dwelling for his family.
much below zero. J. L, R. Jefferson Co., July 8.