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Contents of this Number. PUBLIC SALE or PURE BRED SHORT-HORN
North Devon Cattle;
Brood Mares, Colts and Stallions;
Berkshire, Essex and Suffolk Swine, Farming in Lincolnshire-the Feng-a Yeoman FarmerFeeding Sheep and Cattle,
233 And a small flock of South Down Sheep. Draining, Rotation and Crops--- Manuring-Hoeing the "THE ALBANY COUNTY BREEDING ASSOCIATION," will Wheat-Labor, &c.,
234 sell at Public Auction at the "Log Tavern Farms," on the New EDITORIAL CORRESPONDENCE--Mr. Conger's Sale - Visit at Mr. Scotland Plank Road. two miles from Albany, N. Y., on WEDNESDAY, 'Thorne's, &c.
235 SEPTEMBRR, 12th, 1860, at 12 O'CLOCK, M.,
a select and large herd of Culture of Hard Baked Soils,
SHORT-HORN Cows, Heifers, Young Bulls, and Calves; including Sandy and Clayey Soils Contrasted,
"Minna," by imported Duke of Gloster (11382.) and the imported A Good Use for Dogs,
cowy Flattery, bred by Earl Ducie, and got by 4th Duke of York, Raising, Hoeing and Thinning Out Root Crops, by P. F.,. 239 (10167 ;) Bloom, bred by Mr. Fowle, and imported by Col. L. G. Mor. Wheat Culture on Light Soils,
241 ris ; Finella, bred by S. E. Bolden, Esq., and imported by Mr. Alex. Iinprovement in the Hay Rake, by A. D. BROWN,
21 ander, got by Grand Duke, (10284,) and her calves by imported Sirius Visit to the Society of Shakers at Canterbury, N. H., by LEVI BART- and imported Neptune. - also imported Neptune 3192, (11847,) and LETT....
242 several Bull and Heifer calves of Neptune's get, Nash's Improved Farm Fence, by S. E, TODD,
NORTH DEVON Cows, Bulls and Calves, mostly bred from impor. Winter Barley, by JOHN MACKELCAN, Jr.,
241 ted stock, including the celebrated prize bull Empire (434,) and his Turnips Sown among Corn, Tlie Tornado in Iowa, by SUEL FOSTER,
245 TWENTY BROOD MARES, of the BLACK HAWK and MESSEN. Improving Too Large a Farm, by J. L. EDGERTON,
345 GÉR breed, including the celebrated Black Hawk Maid, by the ori. Apples for Pork Making-Whitewood Honey-Cooked Food for ginal Vermont Black Hawk; “Rose Allen," by Ethan Allen," and Hogs.
245 others sired by Black Hawk, Messenger
and English Stallions. Crops on Drained Land, by JNO, TALCOTT,
246 Also 13 spring colts, 13 yearling colts, 10 two years and three years A Note from Virginia, by E.,
247 old, nearly all of which were sired by the noted trotting stallions Farming Billy Land,
247 "Black Murat," George W. Adams' English Horse "American," "Hen. Hay and Grain Racks,
247 ry Clay," "Logan."Gray Messenger," " Ethan Allen " The Spirit A liood Farm Gate, by J. M. KINKEAD,
248 of the Times, Chevalier the Black Hawk, Gray Prince, the sire of Mole Trap, by M, D. BOWMAN,
249 General Darcy, and Addison, who was sold for the sum of $5000. Manuring the Wheat Crop,
251 The proprietors have been many years engaged in breeding the Surface Manuring again, by J.LR.:.:.:
253 FAST TROTTING HORSE, and they fatter themselves that there Letter from JOHN JOHNSTON,
254 has never been offered to the public for sale, at any one time, such a Draining and the Mole Plow, by HAWK EYE, .
354 numerous and desirable stock as can be found named in the CataThe Wheat Midge, hy S. W. RAYMOND, .......
254 talogue. Sale positive, without regard to weather. Letter from North Carolina, by W. NICHOLSON,
235 TERMS.-Good notes at four months, without interest. Value of Corn Cobs, by J, B. B.......
CATALOGUES now in press, and will be mailed by applying by letter or Inquiries and Answers,...
256 otherwise, to either of the undersigned, or to R. H. BINGHAM, 43 NOTES FOR THE MONTH,
258 Steuben Street, Albany, N. Y. THE GRAZIER AND BREEDER.
Carriages will run hourly from the Stanwix Han.
WILLIAM M. BULLOCK, Bethlehem, near Albany. Feeding Eheep and Cattle in England,
JOSEPH HILTON, New-Scotland. Sale o Mr. Conger's Stock,
WILLIAM H. SLINGERLAND,Norman's Kin. Ayrshire Prize Milkers; ...,
WILLIAM HURST, Albany, N. Y.
GEO. W. ADAMS, Whiteball, N. Y.
BREEDERS AND MANAGERS.
WM. R. PRINCE & CO., Flushing, N. Y., offer the following, Trailing Annuals and their Enemies, by CHARLES STEWART,... 339 When very large quantites are wanted, the price can be fixed by neTo Destroy Worms on Apple Trees, by S.,..,
239 gotiation. The following $1 per 100. $5 to$ 1 per 1,000. Alpine Woori, Protecting Trees from Rabbits, by WM. MCKIBBIN,
239 (red and white.) Boston Pine, Burr's Pine, Crimson Cone, Early Horticultural Exhibition at Skaneateles, by W, M, BEAUCHAMP, Cutting back Trees when Transplanted,
313 May. Early Scarlet, Genesee, Hooker. Hovey,' Hudson, Iowa, Mo 216
Avoy's Superior, McAvoy's No. 1, Moyamensing, Orange Prolific, Kules for Pruning Grapes,. Native Fruits and Errors of Opinion,
216 Peabody's Prolific Hautbois, Rival Hudson, Scarlet Cone, Walker,
247 Wilson's Albany, $5 per 1,000. These', $1.50 per 100, 47% to $10 per Striped Bugs, by J. L, R.,.
250 1.000,- Alpine Monthly, (red and white.) Dicton Pine, Baltimore, Watering Plants, by L.,..
Bridgetown Pine, Charles' Favorite, Durfee's Seedling. Imperial Grapes in Texas, by S. B. BUCKLEY,
Scarlet, Jennie Lind, Jessie Read, Longworth's Prolific, May Queen, Raising the Red Cedar from Seed,
255 Omer Pascha, Read's No. 1, and Gold Seed, and Black Pipe, Primate, A Hint to Orchardists, ...,
261 River's Eliza Seedling. Prince's Scarlet. Magnate. 47% per 1.000, Scar!
let Melting, Trollope's Victoria, Triomphe de Gand, Vicomtesse HerRURAL ARCHITECTURE.
icart, Western Queen. These, $2 per 100-Boyden's Mammoth. CutIrregular Country House, with View and Plans,
240 ter's Seedling, Cornucopia, Diadem, Eclipse, Globose Scarlet, Le Bar. Balloon Franies, by G. E. WOODWARD...
219 on, Ladies' Pine, La Reine. Malvina, Myatt's Prolific, Montreuil. Sir Two Plans of Houses,....
253 Harry, Stewart, Triumphant, Scarlet, Voorbis, Ward's Favorite. The
following by the dozen-Austin's Seedling $3; Fillmore, Randolph THE DAIRY DEPARTMENT.
Pine, Prince's Scarlet Climax, Prince's Excelsior, $2. These 01Sore Teats in Cows, by A.........
250 Bartiett, Chorlton Prolific, Downer's Prolific.. Elizabeth, Ladies' FinDirections for Milking....
250 ger. These $1.50 per dozen-Minerva, Perfumed Pine, Prince's GloWhen to Skim Milk, ......
250 bose, Fortunatus. Florence, Fragrant Scarlet, Hermine, Seraphine,
Scarlet Prize, Victorine, Waverly, Oscar, La Constante, Wonderful, DOMESTIC ECONOMY.
Duc de Malakoff, Nicholson's May Queen, Bonte de St. Julien, Recipe for Ginger Beer, by G. GEBHART,
N. B. Many other varieties are for sale, and are described in our How to take out Iron Rust, &c..
245 Catalogues. Preserving Green Corn for Winter Use, by G. K.
REJECTED. Black Prince, Cushing, Brighton Pine, Jenney's Seedling, How to Get Rid of Red Ants, by J. E. PubLPs,
246 Climax Scarlet, Bishop's Orange, Dundee, Harlaem Orange, Monroe Valuable Wash for Buildings, by E. F. AKIN,..
47 Scarlet, Marylandica, Pennsylvanica, Kitley's Goliath, Rival HudHow to make Currant Wine,
5 son, Scarlet Cone, Scott's Seedling. Cocoa Nut Drops and French Loaf Cake by MARY,
In our New Descriptive Catalogue we offer 160 varieties, including Good Rhubarb Wine, by CHARLES STEWART,
257 all the new varieties.
July 28-wśmit Recipe from Another Correspondent, by H., On Currant Wine Making, &c., by P. A. NAUTS,
261 TORSE POWERS, THRESHERS THE BEE-KBEPER'S DEPARTMENT.
AND CLEANERS. Eddy's Patent Protective Bee-Hive..
PLEASE LOOK BEFORE YOU LEAP!! Question for Bee-Keepers, hy G. W. L.,..
I am at present manufacturing and prepared to supply a necessari THE POULTRY YARD.
ly limited number of the very best Maxims for Poultry Keepers, by L.
THRESHER AND CLEANER 255
extant. Just look at the advantages that I have over others, any one ILLUSTRATIONS.
of which is sufficient to induce you to buy, if you wish to be suited to An Irregular Country House,. 240 Hay and Grain Racks, 248 a dot. The whole machinery is driven by a single band, and conse Improved llay Rake, 241 | Farm Gate,
218 quently less power is taken to drive it. The cylinder and concare is Improved Farm l'ence, ...... 244 Mole Trap,
249 wider than other two horse machines, enabling more grain to be Two Plans of Houses,
22 threshed in a given time. The separator is much wider than the cy
linder, so that plenty of room is given for the straw and grain to spread and separate thoroughly, and no grain is carried over. The
separation is also more fully insured by means of forks which raise LOOMINGTON NURSERY, ILL. and lower at every vibration of the straw.carrier, keeping the strax
WILSON'S ALDANY STRAWBERRY, Large Early Scarlet, Crimson in constant agitation. The shoe containing the seives his the side Cor* and other good sorts, pure, 100 plants packed. 81; 1000, $5. Tulips shake of the common fan-mill, giving the grain a more thorough now : eady: 300 named sorts, 100 strong roots, double and single, of 20 cleaning. Bach machine is furnished with a dust spout, entirely refine named sorts, $4; 12 roots of 12 named sorts, 50c, to $2. Mixed lieving the feeder froin the usual annoyance of dust. Those who have Tulips, $1, 1.50 and 2ốc. per dozen. Hyacinths, choice named, 62 per ever used a threshing
machine, will appreciate this. dozen, mixed &l per dozen, with a general assortment of bulbs, fruit
ORDERS MUST BE SENT IN EARLY if you wish to have them and ornamental trees.
P. K. PHENIX.
filled promptly. July 26-w13t.
ALL ART WARRANTED.
CHAS E, PEASE.
Excelsior As. Works, Albany, N. !. 5 feet long, 4 inches in diameter. These powerful screws bring out a third more juice than the portable presses. Made by
L. M. ARNOLD.
Agents wanted. SHAW & OLARK, Biddeford, Maine. June 28-Feowth
Poughkeepsle, N. Y. Foundry. July 26-w2Bt.
GREAT CURIOSITX; Particular sent free
AGENTS IN NEW YORK :
PUBLISHED BY LUTHER TUCKER & Son, mates he should add
at least two-fifths for the interrup
tions of rainy weather and other contingencies. This will J. J. THOMAS, ASSOCIATE EDITOR, UNION SPRINGS, N. Y. prevent him from undertaking too much, which is, next
to laziness, the most fruitful cause of all bad farming; of C. M. Santos, BARKER & Co., Ag. Book Publishers, 25 Park Row. hurried operations, and undestroyed weeds. THE CULTIVATOR has been published twenty-six years. A New
There are two great requisites in all successful husbandSERIKS was commenced in 1853, and the seven volumes for 1833, 4, 5, 6, ry,—to make the best use of all spare moments; and to be 7, 8 and 9, can be furnished, bound and post-paid, at $1.00 each.
TERMS-FIFTY CENTS A YEAR.–Ten copies of the CULTIVATOR and always ready in advance for every emergency. These two Ten of the Annual REGISTER OF Rural Arrains, with one of each essentials work together, for by properly using the spare free to the Agent, Five Dollars.
moment, ample preparation may be made. Slip-shod far“THE COUNTRY GENTLEMAN," a weekly Agricultural Journal of 16 quarto pages, making two vols, yearls of 416 pages, at $2.00 per mers are too much like the man with a leaky roof; in fine year, is issuedby the same publishers.
weather no repair was needed, and in rainy he could not
do it. It may perhaps be laid down as a universal truth, ORDER AND SYSTEM.
that success in all enterprises depends on being able to A well conducted Farm is a beautiful machine. We predict beforehand what will be wanted. The need of a have seen a steam-engine of fifty horse power, that ran single tool in haying time, may result in arresting the lawith such perfection that it could not be heard at a dis- bor of ten men, and in the loss of ten tons of hay by an tance of twenty feet. We have heard some, much smaller, approaching storm. The want of good implements of that gave out a mixed jargon of thumps, rattling of iron, tillage may delay the sowing of a crop, till rains may postand rushing of steam. At a celebrated trial of agricul. pone the operation a fortnight. “For want of a nail the tural machines, there were two mowers--one could be shoe was lost, for want of a shoe the horse was last." heard nearly a mile ;-the other scarcely more than a few A workshop with tools is indispensable for every farm. rods, and the cutters went through the grass like a hot The owner should supply himself with a complete list of knife through butter. There were likewise two threshers all implements. A place should be provided for every -one was huge and ponderous, and when in motion one, and every one should be in its place; and on every trembled throughout, with a noise somewhat like thunder. rainy or stormy day, an examination should be made and The other, a two-horse tread machine, ran so perfectly repairs promptly performed. Tools should be kept conthat nothing could be heard at ten paces, but the tread of stantly in order, as a standing rule, and not be left broken the horses' feet on the rolling platform, and the whistle of till wanted for use. This is still more important, if they the grain and straw as they were shot from the cylinder. are to be sent to the village mechanic; for if taken in
It is precisely so with the machinery of a farm. If well time the errand may cost much less than to wait till the conducted, every part will move on noiselessly but effi- moment required for actual use, and then to take a horse ciently—all will be promptly done in its season, there will from a plow or from a hay wagon, to send three miles for be no confusion, and a great deal will be accomplished. a trifling but necessary repair. A badly managed farm, on the contrary, if not wholly ne
In order to be able to accomplish farm labor promptly glected, will be hurry and disorder, with every thing out and in season, teams must be healthy and in the best of joint, and very little will be done. The farm is a com- working order. To be healthy, they should be fed with plex machine; and like all other machines made up of great regularity and uniformity, whether working or not, many parts, must be perfect at all times, or one small part with good wholesome food and not with musty hay and will suspend the motion of all the rest. A broken cog, grain or short pasturage. Their apartments must be clean a missing bolt, or a bent axle, will derange the whole.
and pure, and they themselves well curried. Some farTo come somewhat to particulars: The farmer must mers lose much by giving their horses more work than know at the start what he is going to do. His yearly they can perform comfortably—they are consequently operations must be distinctly before him. It will not be worked too hard, enfeebled and made poor, and premaprofitable for him to stop, and consider, and plan, after a turely worn out. Not being supplied with sufficient animal piece of work is partly executed. He must begin at the force, favorable chances are lost and work allowed to acbeginning-must have his fields well laid out-his rota- cumulate, and increased labor will be required for its per. tion digested—and the extent of each crop prescribed. If formance, and a waste result from delay. An extra working he is a practical farmer, he will of course know how much animal partly pays its way in manure, and sometimes its time will be required for the preparation of the land, sow. whole yearly keeping is returned in increased crops from ing, cultivating, and harvesting each crop,—to which esti- 'early seeding and prompt cultivation.
Every farmer should carry a memorandum book. It is wheat-stubble, when there is danger of their getting much his compass and log-book combined. A page for each of this inflammatory grain. On oat or barley stubble they week, by way of assisting the memory, laying out every may fallow without danger, unless it be to the young thing clearly before the eye, and for recording the numer- clover, to which these and wheat fields are, or should be, ous suggestions for future experiments, which must con- generally seeded. Upland pastures are the best for sheep, stantly occur in practice, would prove invaluable another though on lowlands, when dry, they may run without inyear, and in ten years would develop an inexhaustible jury to themselves, and very generally to the improvefund of facts.
ment of the character of the herbage.
Lambs should be weaned at from sixteen to eighteen CARE OF SHEEP IN SUMMER. weeks old, and when separated, the ewes sbould be given
short pasturage for a week or ten days, the better to dry It is not "good management,” to say the least of it, to off their milk. The lambs should have fair grazingleave sheep to take care of themselves through the sum- something new, like young clover, and if a few tame sheep mer-merely giving the attention of washing and shear- are put with them they will be far less wild, and will learn ing. They need constant looking after—the eye and care to eat galt, and to follow the shepherd' very readily. at least of the owners, to see that they suffer no neglect disturbed, save by the presence of some one to whom they
Lambs should not be placed where they will be frequently during the grazing season. To make sheep husbandry are to become accustomed ; quiet is best for sheep if we profitable, the animals should always be thrifty and im- would have them orderly and always thriving. proving, and it requires no great expense, save in atten. We have said nothing of salting or watering sheep. tion, to secure this important end.
The first we regard as occasionally beneficial-say once in
ten days at first, and less frequently afterward. The last “Sheep well wintered are half summered," is an old does not seem particularly necessary while heavy dews and very correct adage, for if the flock comes in good fall, and the pastures remain succulent. Our sheep seldom condition to a fair bit of grass from their winter yards, come to the spring for water at this season, though they they will retain that state very easily. Ewes with lambs could easily do so. A change of pasture occasionally is should have a better pasture than store sheep require, as and cows, where we could conveniently do so, both for
beneficial, and we would divide the time between sheep the flow of milk and growth of the sheep, as well as the the beneật of the pasture and the animals themselves. flesh of the dams, depend upon their being supplied with
To conclude, we repeat that it is important to give an abundant supply of nutritive herbage. If on red sheep that care in summer, which will fully prepare them clover pasture, it should be in full supply, that it may not to endure, without loss, the rigors and deprivations of the
This is the only profitable method of be eaten too closely; and the same is true of timothy. winter season, Blue grass, white clover, and the like, will bear shorter sheep husbandry, and it should be the golden rule of man
agement, “Keep the flock always in thriving condition." grazing without injury. When shearing, the farmer should select out all the
LIME AND WHEAT. sheep he intends to dispose of during the year--the old ewes first, as well as all that are in any way defective in GEORGE H. Chase, an enterprising young farmer of wool, form, or constitution. In this way a flock of ewes Union Springs, N. Y., has tried an experiment the present can be kept right, and looking right. We would never season with salt, ashes, and lime, on wheat. An acre each suffer a sheep to get old on the farm, unless it were very
was selected for the three experiments. About two barrels of choice breeding animal. These sheep should be given salt were applied to one, two two-horse loads of ashes to good pasturage, so that they may attain good marketable a second, and a hundred bushels of lime to the third acre. condition, and then find ready and profitable sale. We said, The result has not been measured as yet, but the effects of let the farmer select these at shearing time. No good each are very visible. The salt proved least useful ; the sheep-keeper allows purchasers to pick from his flock- ashes more so; and the lime most so of all. The line of and at shearing he can judge most correctly of the age, superiority marking the boundaries of the limed portion character and value of his sheep, and mark or sort out at was as distinct as a line fence. The increase of the crop that time. At any rate, whenever he sells, let him make by liming, over the portions not dressed with anything, is bis own selection, and be sure and "weed out” his flock. at least ten bushels per acre. In selling wethers, various circumstances are to be taken would not have produced an equal result. This will re
The question occurs whether a smaller quantity of lime into consideration. An old sheep farmer once gave us ceive the test of another trial. The land is a strong or some rules on this subject, rules by which his practice was guided. If pasture was scarce, he would sell immediately or a limestone region, where the country is underlaid bg
clayey loam; and what is worthy of notice, is in the midst after shearing. If pasture was plenty, and winter feed the rocks of the corniferous limestone, which is abundantscarce, he would sell in the fall. Pasture and feed both abundant, he fattened for drovers or butchers in the early bonate of lime in the surface soil.
ly scattered over the surface. But acids do not show carspring months, never keeping a wether over five years old, and seldom selling them under two years age. When
Ready-made Yeast. good prices for lambs prevail, we may profitably sell wether lambs in the fall, especially if all our older sheep are of
In a late number we gave directions for making Feast. A good character, and we desire only a small advance in successful housekeeper who has just read it, informs us that number, such as the best ewe lambs will supply. But as she has adopted that mode for many years, but that she finds a general rule, we should seek to keep our flocks always the addition of the potatoes of no benefit and no injury, and composed of young, healthy and thrifty sheep. Better easier to make. In using the yeast for making bread, sho
for years has used only Indian meal, which is simpler and that old and inferior ones should be sold at half their omits the soda, believing the bread better and more whole. value, than good, young, thrifty ones at a fair price." some without; and those who have enten bread of her man
Wheat harvest is now in progress, and it may be well ufacture, would have to travel a lopo road before they would to remark that sheep cannot safely be allowed to glean I find better.
THE FARM AND THE WORKSHOP.
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.]
FRUIT-GROWING IN NEW-JERSEY. Our correspondent, Mr. S. E. TODD of Tompkins coun. ty, has prepared a volume, announced several weeks ago Much attention is now given to the cultivation of small in the Country GENTLEMAN, under the title of “The fruits, which are far more profitable in this vicinity than Young Farmers' Manual.” The “Farm and the Work. common farm crops, and many persons having but a few slop,” which is added on the back of the book as a sub-acres of land devoted to choice fruits, clear more money title, expresses its character much more nearly. Every than others who cultivate large farms in the ordinary way. good farmer should possess an acquaintance with the use Strawberries have yielded abundantly, and brought reof many tools, the employment of which he has never munerative prices. Wilson's Albany produced with the learned as a trade, and the “various operations of the writer over two hundred bushels per acre, and averaged farm” which the Preface of the present volume announces four dollars per bushel. One gentleman in this neighborit to be the author's purpose “to instruct the young far-i hood gathered one hundred bushels of strawberries daily mer how to perform,” are mainly those of the workshop, sults have followed the use of the subsoil or mole plow,
through the height of the season. The most favorable retogether with such outside matters as locating the farm- by which the beds and alleys are thoroughly loosened to buildings, and putting up fences of various kinds. Brief the depth of 15 to 17 inches. The plan is, soon after the chapters are also given upon Draining and Plowing. fruit is gathered, to take a strong team and pass the plow
It is not the object of the present notice to review criti- several times through the beds, going below the plants, cally “The Young Farmer's Manual,” but to give to our admit air and moisture, and gives to the plants new life
which lifting the earth a little makes it so mellow as to readers who have not as yet purchased it, a general idea and vigor; there being a greater depth of soil prepared of its contents-in the progress of which endeavor, it can for the roots to penetrate, they will better resist the acnot fail to be apparent that the book must include a con- tion of frost in winter, and the drouth in summer. siderable store of useful information. It may not be im
Raspberries have yielded better this season than usual ; proper to remark in the beginning, that Mr. Todd has ac- ed cultivators to introduce new varicties and give better
the high price at which they have been selling, has inducquired this information-almost exclusively, unless we are treatment. The earliest varieties commenced ripening mistaken-from his own experience. He has gone very here about the 20th of June, and have yielded with me fully into detail with regard to many particulars on which forty bushels per acre, and brought eight dollars per bushel. this experience has shed light in the saving of labor and when properly treated yields large crops of perfect ber
The Allen raspberry is being extensively grown, and expense, and while this will be a recommendation to the ries, and the most delightful favor. Some persons havclass for whoin the book is primarily intended, namely, ling depended on it alone for a crop of fruit, have failed, for beginners, --some may be found to wish that its design as the blossoms are deficient in pollen, and unless im. had admitted of a little greater condensation, particularly pregnated by some other variety, will not develop its fruit upon one or two subjects that quite overshadow all the any more than a plantation of Hovey Seedling strawber. rest in the length at which they are treated. For instance, grower with red canes, bears abundantly by itself of most
Allen's Red Prolific, however, which is an upright on the title page we are promised “full directions for per- beautiful berries, which have brought 31 cents per quart forming nearly every branch of farming operations," while and upwards during the whole season, and is amply suffithe following table will show the divisions of the work it- cient to impregnate the Allen Antwerp, and should be self
, after we pass the 25 pages composing a general intro- mixed with them in planting. Thus treated, the Allen duction :
has continued to yield a full crop of fruit with me to the
close of the season, and has suffered less by exposure to Chapter 1-The Buildings of a Farm, Il-Fencing.
the sun and dry weather than other varieties. The luxuIl-Tools for Fencing,
riant growth of young suckers thrown up around each hill,
protect the fruit and bearing canes from the direct rays of Total pages about Fencing,
the sun, which upon other varieties not producing suckers Vi-Plows and Plowing.
sufficient for sbade and protection, have withered up preVII-Harrows and Harrowing,
maturely. The proper plan for field culture is in hills, ix-The Farmer's Workshop,
and by farming each way with the plow and cultivator, In other words, more than half the book is made up of superfluous plants can be destroyed as easily as grass and the chapters on Fencing and Fence Tools, first published weeds, and are not so objectionable as has been stated for
a family garden. in the Transactions for 1858 of our State Ag. Society, but
As the raspberry season is about closing, blackberries Dow to some extent re-written or re-arranged. A second are commencing. The Dorchester is now at its height, volume is to follow, as we learn from the introduction of having been ripening for ten days past, is yielding a full the present one,-in which we are referred (pp. 15, 16,) crop, and will be mostly over by the time the New Ro. to it for “ Fitting up Machinery,” “the Principles of chelle is fairly under way; price thus far has been 28 to Draught," &c., and also, as we are glad to find in another cents per quart, although the market at the same time was
31 cents per quart. My whole crop last year averaged 21 place, for a chapter on “how to make a good farm better." overstocked with the common wild blackberry. Several For, in a farmer's “manual"-however important more at. farmers in this vicinity have from 12 to 25 acres each in tention to better machinery may be and is—it should not cultivation for market. be overlooked, that, after all, a tolerably fair proportion of
Currants and gooseberries have done well. One genwhat the young farmer must learn in order to become a tleman having 12 acres in gooseberries, informed me that good one, is disconnected very widely from the mere they yielded him 100 bushels per acre, and he was then keeping of his fences in good order, or the ability to receiving $2.25 per bushel, and paid 28 cents per bushel plane
a board true and sinooth.” The more, in fine, that for picking them. Mr. Todd can tell us of his own PRACTICE, the higher the
We are now preparing to sow buckwheat and rye torank we shall award his work as a Manual for other far- gether on new stump land; for ‘wo years past I have mers.
adopted this plan, and had excellent crops of both buck
wheat and rye from the once plowing. Both crops being AWBER VARNISH.-Will some of your subscribers give a well adapted to destroying the wild nature of the ground, recipe for amber varnish through The COLTIVATOR. leave it in fine condition for succeeding crops with but lit
B. F. SEVERANCE. tle labor. WILLIAM PARRY. Cinnamixson, N. J.
VIII-Sowing Grain, &c.,
Editorial Notes Abroad.
Mangold crop, and to the directions Mr. L. had furnished
him for its culture. These directions I copy below: No. XXXIV--Across the Irish Channel.
"Take dry land, well drained, -not clay—that will work
fine, say after wheat. Manure with twelve tons of good Into Sleaford, then, I came on the Monday morning manure to the acte, at least, and the more the better. of the week in which the Irish Show was to take place at Plow it in six inches and leave it till spring; then when Dundalk, and consequently with too little time at com- dry enough, barrow deep, roll and work fine with plow mand to learn as much as I should have liked of the good and harrow. Sow broadcast at least 560 pounds of salt; farming of the Messrs. Lowe and their neighbors, whose twice the quantity is better. Throw into ridges, twenty. farms I visited upon Lincoln Heath. But there were two seven inches apart with a common plow. Soak the seed peculiarly English features of the visit, which are wor- eighteen hours in water, and lay on a dry cloth twentythy of a moment's attention.
four hours. Drill with a hand-drill, three to six pounds of
seed to the acre. Market Day and Rent Day.
Examine and see if the seed is sound In the first place it was the Market day at Sleaford. My or has been eaten by an insect. Drill 100 pounds of sufriends, like many others of the farmers of the vicinity, perphosphate with ashes, the more the better, with the seed were in attendance with little bags in their pockets con
on the ridge, the ridge having been first rolled lightly to taining samples,—as, greatly to the convenience of both flatten it. Sow one inch deep, dropping the seed six parties concerned, the buying and selling is all transacted inches apart. Hoe as soon as up—thin out to one foot by sample, as was remarked in the course of my Norfolk apart. Horse hoe and keep clean. Look over and be notes. These markets are constantly increasing, I under- sure to bave but one plant in a place. stood, in number and importance throughout England; "In October or November gather without breaking the and there can be little doubt but they would be found es- skin, cut or twist off the top an inch above the root, resentially of service to the interests of farmers in this move the earth with a dull instrument, so as not to cut the country. We might not require them, at first, so frequent root. They are usually stacked and covered with straw and in their recurrence, or so numerous in a given area, be- earth in England, but will probably, (says Mr. Lowe) keep cause there are seasons of the year when our roads are not like potatoes anywhere. Average crop 26 to 30 tons of so passable as theirs, and because, moreover, the demands 2240 pounds to the acre. Spread the leaves evenly over of purchasers here would scarcely warrant it.
the ground and plow in. By no means remove them from In the second place, Tuesday (July 26) was the Rent the land. Do not feed out till February, because the manday—an occasion of considerable importance, you may be gold is poisonous early in the season, and will scour the sure, to an English farmer—and the Agent of the pro. cattle and do them no good.” prietor was in waiting during the morning to square the Agricultural Education in Ireland. accounts of the year with the tenants. In the evening, in
How I was obliged to hurry away, the journey to Dunthe absence of the landlord, the same gentleman presided dalk, and the story of the exhibition that there took place, in his stead at a dinner to those who had previously been were all recorded in my letters at the time, with brief recontributing so much to render his exchequer a heavier and ference to a visit at the Agricultural School at Glasnevin, their own a lighter one. Although by agreement, I think, the notes of which last, accompanied by a sketch of what the rent is due quarterly, unless I am mistaken, it was the is now going on to advance the cause of Agricultural Eduusual custom here to make the four settlements at once, cation in Ireland, even at this late date, will be new to at the same time each year. The which having been com- many readers here. The official report of the Commissionpleted in a satisfactory way, one naturally feels that the ers of National Education for the previous year, (1858) has burden of a twelve month is ended, and enters upon that been published since my return home, and was at once of the coming year the more cheerily for a re-union in kindly forwarded to me by Dr. KIRKPATRICK, Inspector which kind wishes and good healths may be mutually in- of the National Agricultural Schools, with some other interchanged. I suppose that the class spirit, if it may so teresting papers, from which, and the information gatherbe termed, is getting to be nearly as strong among English ed at the time of my visit, I draw the following facts. farmers, as a body, as it is among the manufacturers and
Although the subject had been previously discussed and commercial inen of the country; it is at least much stronger partial action taken, it is to “the deplorable effects of the than here—the farmers are consequently a more united famine of 1846–7 on the agricultural community of Ireand inluential body, understand their interests better, and land," that the present extended plan of operations is asfeel a correspondingly greater syınpatlıy with each other, cribed, having, as its object, "to bring agricultural knowland jealousy of any interference with their affairs by any edge within the reach of the great mass of the small tenant other class in the community.
farmers and laboring poor.” The system has since been By the kindness of Mr. Lowe, I was present at this din- developed by degrees until, December 31, 1858, it inner, which, succeeded by tea and subsequently by pipes, cluded, beside the Albert National Agricultural Training kept many of the company together until after midnight. Institution at Glasnevin, with 71 pupils, schools partially It afforded me a fresh opportunity of discussing agricul
or entirely under governmental control as follows, if my tural matters with the intelligent and energetic tenantfarmers of that part of the county, and illustrated through which there does not appear to be any aggregnte table ap
summary is correct of the statistics given in the report, of out quite forcibly the prevalence of the feeling alluded to above.
pended : Culture of the Mangold Wurtzel.
Twenty schools under exclusive management of the Commisioners,
666 pupils. It was to my friend, Judge French of New Hampshire, Twenty-one Model Ag. Schools under Local manage that I was indebted for a note to Mr. L., and many were Forty-seven ordinary Ag. Schools, with the references made to his visit there two years previously Add for Glasnevin, mand, among other circumstances, to his interest in the
Total, 156 schools, with
do. do. do. do.