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5. Oats

The Albert Institution.

of small farm management, and to present to the sons of The Training Institution at Glasnevin was established in small farmers an example which they might imitate. The 1838, with a farm of 50 acres, extended somewhat in 1819 following five-course rotation is here carried out: and in 1850 to 180 acres, its present size. Its pupils are 1. Turnips, Mangel. Wurtzel, and Carrots,

2. Potatoes, Winter Beans, and Cabbages. “boarded, lodged and educated at the public expense,' 3. Italian rye grass, with few exceptions—there being for example, but three paying pupils in 1858. The requisites for admission are The Italian rge-grass is sown in autumn, immediately the age of 17 years, certificates as to good character and after the harvesting of the potatoes and beans, and a most health, and the ability to pass an examination in the simpler luxuriant crop is thus obtained. In the season of 1858 branches of study, such as reading, writing, grammar, ge- they had grass three feet long, and yielding ten tons per ography and arithmetic, together with some knowledge of statute acre on this farm early in May. book-keeping and geometry. The extent of the course is Thus every opportunity is given the pupil here to actwo years. Dr. Kirkpatrick the Superintendent, has en- quaint himself as thoroughly as possible with the practical tire supervision, both of the educational and agricultural superintendence of farm operations on different systems departments—assisted by two literary teachers and an ag. and degrees of extent. The Albert Institution, remarks riculturist, Mr. Boyle, who is the practical farm manager. Dr. K., in his Report for 1856, is “ the life and center of There is also a gardener employed. Dr. Hodges of the the entire system of agricultural education, and it is the Queen's College at Belfast, lectures on Animal Physiology, great prize to which intelligent aspirants in the National the Diseases of Domestic Animals, &c., Mr. Moore, the Schools look.” It appears, in fine, to be the intention of curator of the Royal Botanic Gardens, on Botany and Ve- its managers to take up the agricultural education of the getable Physiology, Prof. Sullivan on Chemistry and Geo- pupil where the other schools leave it, and by two years logy in their relation to agriculture, Mr. Baldwin on Agri- farther and more careful training, qualify him to go to culture, and Mr. Campbell on Horticulture—each lecturer farming for himself, to seek a place as farm manager for giving a course in each of the two sessions into which the others, or to act as teacher in any of the other schools. school year is divided. The branches of study, aside from The report for 1858 states that of the 48 young men who those embraced in the above lectures, are English gram- completed their course the previous year, there were then mar and composition, arithmetic, book-keeping and math- 21 farming at home for themselves or parents, 7 occupyematics, including land surveying, levelling and mapping. ing positions as land stewards, 4 as agricultural teachers, The instruction in agriculture “embraces all those branch- and 2 as literary teachers. es which constitute the science of farming, as well as al There are $500 awarded annually among the Students detailed account of the enlightened and improved practi- at Glasnevin in prizes—$50 in each of the following brances of the day; and in order that the pupils may become ches, Chemistry, Botany, Animal Physiology &c., Hortithoroughly acquainted with improved practical husbandry, culture, and Literary subjects, and the remaining $250 in they are called upon to take part in the performance of various strictly agricultural prizes. These prizes are deevery farm operation, and the feeding and management of termined by oral and written examinations upon the leclive stock. They have an opportunity, too, of practically tures and studies of each session—in the latter (the writstudying the application of steam power to agricultural ten examinations) a scheme of questions being submitted, purposes, as well as the use of a large assortment of those to which the pupil writes out the answers to the best of modern implements and machines, which are found eco-his knowledge and ability, in a given time—I suppose of nomical substitutes for manual labor.” All the labor of course, without the opportunity to consult any authorities, the farm is performed by the pupils, to whom its appear- but compelled to rely upon the knowledge acquired by him ance is certainly most creditable.

during the studies of the term. As an example of these The land in connection with the institution comprises examinations in one branch of study— Practical Agricultwo farms. One of them, called the large farm, contain- ture—I am able to give the following series of questions, ing a little more than 145 acres, is divided into four sec- which I copy here for the purpose of showing what kind tions, of which one is largely composed of pasture land of practical “training” it is that the pupils are expected and is farmed on a system of its own, while upon the

to receire:

PRACTICAL AGRICULTURE-Examiner, MR. BALDWIN. other three, three different rotations are employed for the

"1. Give the order of succession of the crops in the three, four and purpose of illustrating the different methods most com- five course rotation, and staie the circumstances to which each of

these courses is best adapted. monly approved, as follows: Twenty-one acres under a "2. Supposing a firm of 20 statute acres of good land, under the

three crop course, how many head of cattle could be maintained on three course rotation of

it throughout the year? Give the particulars. 1. Green crops, inanured.

3. Give the dates of sowing the several cultivated crops, and the

soils best suited to cach. 2. Grain, with Italian rye grase, and clover,

**4. Asstuning the value of horse labor at ?s. 6d, a day, men's wages Thirty-six acres under the ordinary Norfolk four course tinate the cost of au acre of turnips. It will be necessary to give the

number of 'hands' required for each operation. shift, of

** 5. Name the four varieties of each of the following crops most in 1. Green crops, manured.

favor among intelligent agriculturists---mangel, turnips, wheat, and 2. Grain, with grass seeds, generally Italian rye grass.

* 6. State the merits of Italian rye grass as compared with other 3. Grass, for house-feeding cattle, and bay.

forage plants.

*7. What are the relative merits of mangel wurzel and Swedish turLastly, twenty-five acres under a five-course system, only nips?

8. State your views on the theory of the rotation of crops. The differing from that last given, in keeping the land under answer must embrace the two following, among other points : -1st.

llow far a farmer siould bind himself to any prescribed course. 201. grass two years instead of one. The balance sheet on low prevent the land from becoming .clover sick," turnip sick, &c. this farın for the year ending 31st March, 1858, showed best time for serving dams.

“9. Give the periods of gestation of the domestic animals, and the a balance of about a thousand dollars (say, £217 3s. 1d.) what’ine probable profit on an ox yo red, which weiklist'ewt. when

** 10. What is the most economical way of fattening cattle; and in favor of the pupils' labor.

put up to fatten? It will be necessary to give the quantities of the

several kinds of leeding, &c." The other, or small farm, of about 23 acres, was estab- The questions submitted upon the other subjects of lished in 1856, for the purpose of affording an illustration study cover similarly extensive ground, and require equal

3. Grass, for soiling and for hay.

1s. 3d., and women's wages 10d., and farmyard manure 4s, a ton-3


4. Oats.


ly thorough acquaintance with their details--not a know. destroyed by it. And these leaves being not thin like those ledge “by rote,” but one that may be made serviceable as of the mustard, but thick and succulent, it is usual for the occasion may require. “Our primary object," writes Dr. insect here to merely nibble little holes into, without reachK., “as a teaching body, is to make known the laws which ing through them, some of the holes being sunk in the

upper, others in the under surface of the leaves. Nor do Science has established, and inculcate those practices these leaves become discolored at the wounded points, as which experience bas sanctioned.”

in the mustard, but retain their green hue. Perforations At the same time it is thought both expedient and occur, it is true, reaching through these leaves, but these beneficial to conduct occasional farm experiments, in appear to be made seldom by this, but mostly by other inwhich, as may be readily imagined, intelligent pupils would

Though the injury sustained from this striped flea-beeat once take a deep interest, while in the course of their tie is usually slight and but little regarded, it is sometimes development there must be many opportunities of impress quite formidable and vexatious to the gardener. Around ing useful lessons upon the memory. The report for 1858 Albany I am told that, some years, whole beds of cabbage contains accounts of experiments carried on during that plants, if not watched and attended to, are destroyed by

these flea-beetles, sometimes in the short space of twentyseason, with regard to the relative value of different ma- four hours. In the winter of 1857, Hon. É. A. Lawrence nures in raising Swedish turnips, and as top-dressings to informed me that, what I recognized to be this insect, had grass lands-also with respect to the comparative merits been very destructive to the cabbage crop in all the garof different varieties of Mangolds, of which the “new dens around New York the previoas summer. In his own yellow oval" was found to yield considerably better than grounds at Flushing, he had planted six acres to cabbages,

but to sach an extent were they wounded and killed by any other.

this insect that he finally cultivated but one acre, and to · But this subject is growing upon my hands so that I accomplish this he was obliged to set the ground over reshall have to defer its conclusion until another opportu- peatedly with new plants, as those previously set disapnity.

peared. And this insect was the principal cause of the

scarcity and high price of this vegetable in the city marNo. 23.---THE STRIPED FLEA-BEETLE. kets that winter, it being nearly double its ordinary price.

Accustomed as we are to seeing this beetle openly exJ. W. L. of Solsville, Madison Co, N. Y., incloses to posed upon leaves in the clear sunshine, and feeding upon me in a letter dated June 19th, some insects which he plants which possess an acrid, pungent taste, we should not says are "committing great depredations upon the bean expect it would penetrate under the ground to get at the crop in this vicinity. They eat mostly under ground. After mild and almost tasteless seed-leaves and root of the bean. the beans are well sprouted, and within half an inch of the But Mr. L.'s account of its gnawing minute boles upon the surface of the ground, they bore minute holes on the in. soft inuer sides of those seed-leaves, is so like the work of ner side of each balf of the bean, and it is, of course, sluno- this insect, that, in connection with the specimens he ed, and soon turns black. They sometimes attack the sends, it appears to render the fact sufficiently authentic. stalk below the bean, also, and follow it down an inch or The bean before it spronts from the ground must, theremore, though this is not common. These insects are very

fore, be added to the plants to which this insect has herelively, and it is difficult to catch one of them. They do tofore been known to be destructive. not seem to fly, but hop. Two or three of the specimens insect, scarcely the tenth of an inch in length, with a pale

This striped fea-beetle is a very small, shining, black are larger, and may be a different insect; yet they are found together, all engaged in the same occupation, that yellow stripe on each of its wing covers, which stripe is of destroying the beans."

not straight but is slightly bent or wavy. NotwithstandI find three different insects in this inclosure, which, ing the smallness of this insect, the whitish stripe upon being taken associated together, merit a notice, as the real each side of its back may be distinctly seen by the eye, in culprit will hereby be more clearly pointed out to any one this insect's leaping with the briskness of a fiea, will suffice

the clear light of day, and this mark, in connection with who searohes for it.

The two largest specimens are young soft field crickets, to distinguish it from all the other insects which are liable recently hatched from the eggs—black, with a whitish to be met with in the situations where it occurs. band across the middle of their backs. Whether these In some specimens, however, the stripe alluded to is feed on vegetation or on other insects is not fully ascer. partly obliterated, its two ends only being present, thus tained.

forming four spots upon the back, and then the insect has Next in size is a specimen of a small black beetle with a considerable resemblance to the four-spotted Bembidium two pale yellowish spots on each of its wing covers, and above mentioned. This four-spotted variety was discorhence named the Four-spotted Bembidium (B. 4-znacula- ered and scientifically described anterior to the normally tum.) This is very common in our gardens. It never marked insect, by Fabricius, in the year 1801, who gave it hops, but sparkling like a diamond in the bright sunshine, the name of Crioceris bipustulata. But as this is only the it runs briskly in a very serpentine or zigzag track, a few name of a variety, it is not entitled to stand as the designainches, till it gains some crack in the ground, or other tion of the species. On a subsequent page of same volcovert, in which it abruptly disappears. It feeds on other ume, Fabricius described the species more correctly, naminsects

, its strength and agility enabling it to overpower ing it Crioceris vittata, but he had already given this those that are much larger than it in size.

name, villata, to another species of Crioceris, hence it Finally, there are three specimens of the striped flea could not be employed to designate this species also. In beetle, the Haltica (Phyllotreta) striolata of Miger. This 1806 it received the name striolata, from Miger, not Fa.s also an insect which is quite common in our gardens bricius as Dr. Harris incorrectly says, and by this name it and often does much injury. Its favorite food, evidently, has been usually designated since. In the catalogue of is the leaves of the mustard. About the middle of June Coleopterous Insects published by the Smithsonian Instimany of the leaves of this plant may be seen perfectly tution, two very distinct insects are confounded together riddled with small holes by this insect. A hungry beetle under this name, the elongata of Fabricius and Olivier, gnaws a hole sometimes the eighth of an inch in diameter which is also the træniata of Say, being a southern species but most of the perforations are smaller, scarcely large, quite different from the striolata, and unknown to our enough to admit a pin, and each of them is edged by a entomologists at the present day, though specimens of it white ring, which again is inclosed in a blackish circle.

have been sent me by both my valued correspondent, Wm. But in addition to the mustard, all plants of the Natural S. Robertson, from west of Arkansas, and my daughter, Order cruciferæ, are fed upon by this beetle, and it thus from Mississippi. happens that the young tender leaves of radishes, cabbages I have only to add, that dusting the plants infested by and turnips are attacked and often seriovely injured or aren'these fea-beetles, especially where the dew is on, with

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lime, ashes plaster, Scotch snuff, or soot, or with two or but a tenth part of the water required for one with thirty three of these mixed together, is the remedy popularly leaves; and also besides this that a fast growing vine will resorted to for repelling them. I have not tested these consame water in proportion to its increase. When the articles with sufficient attention to form an opinion respecting their efficacy. The insect is very shy and timor- wood turns brown the watering should be diminished, and ous, and whenever I see it on radish or cabbage leaves, I when the frult begins to color it must be still more sparam accustomed by striking the hand towards it, and by ringly administered, if a fine flavor is desired. The water brushing and shaking the plants

, to scare it away; and I should be of the same temperature as the air in which the entertain the opinion they will mostly forsake spots where

grapes grow. they are frequently menaced and disturbed in this man

The time for starting the eyes may be in the latter part ner, and resort to situations where they find they can remain unmolested.

Asa Fitch,

of winter, or very early in spring. The strongest, plumpest, and best ripened

buds must be selected; the mode of proCULTURE OF GRAPES IN POTS.

pagating will be found in most books or Eds. Cult. AND Co. GENT.--I would like to ascertain

fruits, and is shown in figure 1. If desired

to fruit the second year, a good bottom through the medium of THE CULTIVATOR, the best practi. cal method of raising grapes in pots. By a description of

heat will be necessary during the early the system, at your conrenience, you will oblige one at

part of the season to hasten growth; and least of your many subscribers. N. H. PERRY.

ck Conn.

à frequent and judicious pinching

will be required to prevent the strongest The culture of grapes in pots requires more skill and at

buds from forming only on the upper part tention than by other modes, at the same time that it pos

of the vine. A similar result is obtained sesses some peculiar advantages. One of these advan- by training the vine downwards. If the fruiting is comtages is the small space they occupy, nearly double the menced the second year, cut back the vines about three amount of fruit being obtained from a house occupied by down, and new canes trained for the succeeding year.

feet high; if the third year, they should be cut nearly vines in pots, as by the ordinary method. Another is the Even when every care is taken to have bearing, vines the facility with which the plants may be transferred from one second year, a portion will be too weak, and will require place to another, as growth, warmth, &c., may require, and cutting back for a third year's bearing. Five to eight thus they need not occupy space in the house when not bunches will be enough for one vine. if heavily fruited, growing A third is the small amount of prepared soil If they sparingly bear, they may be removed afterwards

the vines will bear but one crop and become exhausted. needed for filling the pots, as compared with that required to a new pot, pruning the roots and spreading them out, to make or fill a large border.

and after one year's growth of a new cane, bear a second The skill required is more especially needed in water- year again. Good cultivators, however, generally prefer ing. The earth in which they grow being in small quan- raising new plants from eyes, finding it'less trouble than tity, requires great care to be kept exactly at the right de to recover an old vine, and giving better fruit. gree of moisture. The quantity applied must also vary pend the growth as early as possible the previous autumn,

Where early forcing is adopted, it is important to suswith the size of the vine and the rapidity of growth.

so as to give a period of repose. This is accomplished by Eyes are usually employed in propagating the vines, one watering sparingly, placing the pots on the north side of being placed in each pot. If they grow vigorously they a building, and, if necessary, by turning them on their may be made to bear fruit the second year, but more sides to allow the water to drain off. usually the two first years are consumed in preparing the

The after treatment of the vines during vine, and the thint gives the crop. Some cultivators

the bearing season, is quite similar to that in change the pots often, as the plant advances, but where

common grape houses the shoots being stop

ped when the branches form, and again when fruiting is an object the second year this frequent transfer

the grapes swell. The best and most evenly would check growth too much, and three changes through

distributed bunches must be selected, the out are enough. As there will be a large amount of pre

rest removed-it is much better to have too pared earth in a large pot, unoccupied by roots, when a

few than too many-five or six bunches to a

vine will usually be quite enough. The acsmall vine is first placed within it, the watering should be

companying cut (fig. 2,) will show the mode given only at the center, that the soil may not be needless

of constructing the supports, consisting of four ly soaked and soured before the roots reach it and pump

wooden rods, supporting horizontal wires. up and carry off the water.

Pots or tubs twice the size of a common The compost for filling the pots may be an equal por grapes in pots

. 12 quart water-pail are of a good size for tion of leaf mold, sand and turf, for starting the eyes and the bearing vines. The Hamburgh and Muscadine sucfor the early part of their growth. It should not be very

ceed finely cultivated in this way. fine, but somewhat porous. If, however, the soil from small space which the vines occupy, and the perfect con

A great convenience of pot-culture, consists in the which the turf is taken is light or sandy, the leaf mould trol of position, as circumstances require. Any vacant and turf only will be required. Subsequently, where they are portion of a small or large green-house will afford the reremoved to a larger pot, a compost of the same materials quired space; a moderate or a rapidly forcing heat may with an addition of one-third rotted stable manure, and be given them, observing to keep the temperature of the one twentietla leached ashes should be used. To produce will ripen by the first of summer, otherwise three or four

roots a little above that of the air. If forced, the fruit a rapid growth, liquid manure should be employed for months later; and if set aside in a cool room, the late watering—it may be the draivings of the manure heap, a ripened grapes may be kept on the vines for months, mixture of fine manure with water and a little ashes, with during which time they may even be employed as a parlor the clear liquor afterwards drawn off; or guano water,

ornament. made of one pound of guano to ten gallons of water. Care must be taken to water quite moderately at first; but as reached its Twenty-fifth Annual Fair, which is to be

" The Bourbon County (Ky.) Ag. Society has the plants advance rapidly in growth, and fill the pots with held at Paris on the five grounds belonging to the society, roots, it must be given copiously. It should be remem- Sept. 4-7; President, Brutus J. Cluj-Secretary, A. M. bered as a guide that a plant with three leaves will need Brown.


Cellars should be thoroughly cleaned, ventilated, white. The summer barvests are now secured the chief and washed when needed, and prepared for the crops of astuma remaining labors of the season are the sowing of winter vegetables-that these may be kept neat and in perfect

condition. A cellar in confusion and infested with foul grain, and securing the crops of autunn. But there are

matter, is a most unsuitable place to stow eatables ; while many other operations that should not be neglected. In many places there are muck swamps, now compara

one neatly kept and handsomely filled, is an interesting

sight. tively dry, that may afford a large quantity of the material for manures. If it may be shovelled or drawn out

Hogs should be fed early to fatten-a few weeks at the on a dry platform or hard earth surface, it will be more commencement, early in autumn, may be more than equal convenient for drawing in winter. A large pile of this to as many weeks towards winter. Keep them clean, and kind, thatched with straw or covered with a rough shed, they will thrive better ; feed them regularly, and they will will continue to become drier till winter, by which two fatten faster; and as there is an abundant apple crop this iinportant points will be gained. Swamp muck, when year, half the cost of fattening may be saved by feeding saturated, contains some five-sixths of its weight of water.

refuse apples in sufficient abundance. The labor of drawing when wet would therefore be six

Do not neglect to save a good supply of the best selected

seed corn. times as great as when thoroughly dried. Wet muck will

In cutting up corn, a great deal of valaable not absorb the liquid parts of manure—but when dry it fodder is lost by carelessness in putting op the shoeks. H will take in and hold several times its own weight. The they stand erect, the stalks will be uninjured; if they ingreat point therefore, in using peat or muck for compost- and of little valne, to say nothing of the diseased and

cline or become prostrate, the fodder will be half rotten ing, is to get it thoroughly dried.

feeble animals resulting from feeding sach stuff.

Be Compost beaps, for farm use, should be made wherever practicable, near the field or spot to which they are to be careful

, in putting up the shoeks, to place the stalks evenly applied, with a view to save cartage. If large muck-heaps and compactly on all sides, and tie them up firmly, and can be deposited at those places, a great advantage will they will remain so ; but pile them all on one side in a result; for the stable cleanings, as they accumulate, may

careless manner, and they cannot stand. We occasionally be drawn out there and laid in their alternating layers puss a corn-field in autumn where the shocks stand as they with the muck, the new heap being made closely along should do; but more frequently we see many prostrate

heaps. side the oblong pile of muck. If the swamp happens to be near a remote part of the farm, which is to be enriched, DRILL CULTURE---PLOWING IN GRAIN. many days labor in drawing first to the barn-yard, and then back again, would thus be saved. By making quite

The Homestead, (Hartford, Ct.,) after some discussion thin alternating layers, the labor of mixing over may be of the Drill vs. the Broadcast system of sowing seed, rcavoided.

marks as follows: Preparation should be made early for ample winter “ An approximation to drilling is covering with the shelter for stock, where not already fully provided.

One- plow-running broad, shallow furrows, so that the ground third of the amount of food consumed by animals is saved shall be left in ridges between them, the grain being first

sown broadcast, by proper warmth ; one-th’rd more, in value and insu- clusively on the ridges; here will be a double depth of

When it grows, it springs np almost exrance to the animals, and dairy animals give about one soil-in wet land drainage will be provided--on all but third more milk and butter. The farmer who has, say very dry or washy land, no danger will be apprehended twenty head, will thus save about one hundred and fifty from either too great dryness or washing out of the seed dollars each winter, according to a safe estimate-an or young plants before they are well established, and after amount which would soon pay for the whole expense of the they cover the soil and begin to tiller, there will be no

danger from either of these causes. Land in such shape buildings, to say nothing about the increased value of will take the sun better; there will be less danger from manure where facilities are afforded for saving it. winter-killing—the ridges keeping dry. Moreover, if the

Wet portions of ground, which could be neither culti- snow blows off, only one side of the ridge will be exposed vated nor drained in the spring, if now submitted to tho

-if injured, that on the other side will fill up the space." rough underdraining, will be increased immeasurably in

" These arguments,” adds the Homestead, “are presentvalue.

ed for criticism without our experience or observation to Briers, elders, &c., if cut immediately, will be much back them. We think it would be worth while to test the checked in growth another season ; and if the process is practice thoroughly side by side with drilling and broadrepeated, will be mostly destroyed.

cast sowing," where the grain was covered by the barrow, The vacant portions of time which every driving farmer In some sections of this State, wheat is frequently sown may secure for this purpose, should be expended in build- broadcast and then covered with the gang-plow, and one ing stone fences or walls. Such walls should always be of these implements is manufactured in Niagara county laid in a trench as deep as frost usually penetrates, filled with a seed-hopper attached, so as to sow the grain and with small stone. Unless this is attended to, the heaving cover it at one operation. Most usually, however, the and subsiding yearly by frost, will ultimately throw down seed is distributed by the band, then covered with the triplethe most perfectly built wall. A good stone fence will gang—which does its work very well on any soil fit for never decay, and the removal of refuse stone from the wheat-growing. The field is harrowed before sowing, so land is a great advantage-let it be therefore not neglected. that the grain may lie on a nearly level surface, and the

Root crops, which have been kept clean during the early gang-plow covers it very uniformly from three to five instage of their growth, are apt to be now neglected and ches deep, leaving slight ridges, and throwing up the become weedy. By dressing them out when needed, the loose clods and stones, so as to make a rougher surface crop will be better, and the ripening and scattering of seeds than would be left by the harrow. The grain springs up for a troublesome crop of intruders another year will be more or less in rows along the top of the ridges; not, howprevented.

ever, with nearly the regularity of drill sowing, nor is it


as uniformly covered properly. If the surrows run up and Nature of being false to her professions. But is she so ? down the slopes, and are provided with an outlet ditch on the contrary, is there not an important law of hers through the hollows, they act as drains-otherwise they which we have failed to observe ?

The law is this. rather binder than lielp the passage of surface water. It

Different varieties of fruits and flowers is true, however, that the tops of ridges are generally stigina of the other. The immediate product is not thereby

ing plants mix, by the pollen of the one falling on the dryer tiram the soil would be were it level, and may thus materially changed, but the seed is; and the result is debe beneficial in the wet weather of the season.

veloped in the product of the seed when sown. The great objects of plowing in grain are, we believe,

Thus, I have growing in the same orchard, Seeknofurfirst to secure a better and quicker germination of the thers, Spitzenbergs, Baldwins

, and Northern Spies. Deseed, and second, to give the field a rougher surface, which seed of that fruit; but when it comes to bear, behold I

siring to increase the number of my Baldwivs, I plant the better kolds the snow from blowing or melting away, and have neither Baldwin, Northern Spy, or anything else such affords an important protection for the young plants dur- as my orchard had previously borne. ing the season of frosts, preventing in a considerable de

Again, I set in my garden-for seed-a blood beet, a gree winter-kill or heaving out. It is well known that turnip beet, and a sugar beet. They are in close proxfrom the effect of wind, a field with a smooth surface=imity, it is true, but I gather the seed with care ; puig

the different varieties in different papers, label and put one, for instance, rolled down after plowing—will be bare away for future use. On sowing my different varieties in of snow, while a field left with the furrows untouched will different beds, I find the product “all mixed up." I have retain a considerable covering. It is also true that after neither blood beets or turnip beets or sugar beets where the show has gone, but while frosty nights are frequent, they belong, but all sorts and no sorts, any where but level soils suffer more from leaving out than rough ones

where they were sown. Now, where is the trouble ?

Simply here. I set my seed beets where they mixed in the ridged land, moreover, crumbling and falling down by flowering time, and the result is seen in the heterogeneous day, covers to some extent the roots listed at night. The mass of stuff which is grown on the different beds. spring raius may also have the same effect. These are The same principles apply with certain limitations—to some of the reasons for leaving wheat fields with a ridged all flowering products. The mixing is in the seed, by reasurface, as in plowing in, and to some extent in drilling, pregnated with the pollen of some other variety of the

son of its having been produced where its flower was imand in covering with a coulter harrow,

samne general kind. Farmers sometimes say their potatoes But to return to the first object-the better germination mix by planting in proximity. This, however, is a misof seed secured by covering with the plow. At the time take. The seed within the balls mix, and if they plant for sowing winter wheat—very often the surface soil is too these, the result will be some new kind.' Their corn mixes, dry—sown broadcast and barrowed in, it would be covered their wheat and other grains. But here the seed and the

it is true, by planting in proximity; and so doubtless do with the dry soil, and lie waiting rain, perhaps weeks, be fruit are identical. You cannot separate them as you can fore germination. The gang-plow covers more deeply, an apple from its seeds; a melon or a squash from its, and brings the seed more certainly in contact with the and a beet and turnip from theirs. moist earth. This enables the farmer to sow his wheat their varieties on the same cob; but separate these varie

White corn and yellow corn, side by side, will mingle with safety, without waiting for rain until the best time ties and plant again at respectful distances, and there is has passed by. Wheat, of course, can be plowed in with nothing more seen of the mingling. a single small plow, but not as rapidly as with a gang. The conclusion of the matter therefore is, that Nature

The above are the arguments of those who have long is not treacherous to her laws. She observes the rules practiced and observed this method of covering winter given her at the beginning; but, if we would produce grain; we offer them in part for our friends of the Home from seed, plants such as we desire, we must know that stead, but more for those who may not have tried this our seed has been kept free from mingling with other vamethod for themselves.

rieties of the same general kind, during its flowering stage.

Clinton, August 3, 1860. (For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) The Law of Reproduction with Fruits and Seed

NEW JAPAN PINKS. bearing Plants.

Sereral new varieties of Pinks have been introduced Ens. Co. GENT.-Although the above topic may have into this country this spring for the first time, and have been extensively discussed in our agricultural or horticul- I just flowered with us. tural works, yet it has never been my good fortune to Dianthus Chinensis Heddewigii, or Heddewig's Japan meet with an article on the subject, and, believing it of Pink, is a dwarf annual grow six inches high, bushy, much practical importance, I propose to offer a few sug. flowers borne on a short upright stem, ani which are about gestions, hoping that some abler pen will take up the mat- two and a half inches in diameter, of colors generally a ter and discuss it as it deserves.

marbled velvetty crimson, sometimes rose or violet. The It is a common saying that “like begets like," and in flowers are single and open well, with flat and smooth pethe formation of fruits and herbs, each was appointed to tals deeply fringed. These pinks, it is said, will be in yield “seed after its kind.” Still we are constantly told flower three or four months. that “it makes no difference what kind of apple-seeds we Dianthus Chinensis Laciniatus, a perennial variety, much plant, we never know what the fruit will be till seen.” similar to the last, but with finer leaves and more strag

And the same is true also of peaches, pears, cherries, gling in habit of growth. The flowers are larger than and the endless varieties of fruits produced; their seed IIeddewigii, being fully three inches in diameter, of varigives no assurance as to what quality of fruit we shall ous colors; some double but generally single; said by Mr. gather.

Heddewig to blossom from the end of May until the beginIs not the same true of squashes, melons, cucumbers, ning of frost. beets, carrots, and the endless varieties of vegetables and These new pinks we think will become great favorites ; seed-bearing products with which our fields and gardens they are certainly remarkably brilliant and showy flowers. abound? We plant summer squash, and gather pump- Another season we presume the seeds will be sold at such kios or a cross between pumpkins and squashes which is a price that persons in moderate circumstances can afford only fit for pigs. We sow blood-beet seed, and gather to purchase them, the price this year having been what white beets, pale red ones, and a few such as our seed may fairly be termed a "fancy” one, viz., fifty cents for purported to be, and turn away with impatience to accuse twenty seeds.

S. W. R.

G. B, H,

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