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"GRASS AS A MANURE."
general rule, applying manure, if at all, to the corn crop
before plowing. Another takes care to return to grass beIn a recent article on the “Manurial Resources of the
fore his soil is over cropped with grain, depending upon Farm,” we put grass-growing in rotation with grain crops the former for the power to produce the latter
, and we as the first grand resource of the farmer for raising and keeping up the fertility of his soil. Having since noted sev- may say that it is a dependance not likely to be misplaced,
if we give the grass crop the attention which it merits both eral facts bearing upon this subject, which may tend farther to illustrate and enforce the inportance of attention from i's intrinsic value and the place which it must hold to this fact in husbandry—“ that the growing of clover
in all self-sustaining, farm improving systems of agricul. and the grasses lies at the foundation of all profitable
"When we manure our meadows plentifully," says farming," we note them for our readers. That on many of our natural wheat soils good crops of
Thaer's Principles of Agriculture, “we are quite sure of that grain have been grown every three years, and even
a sufficient supply for our arable land," and when we find every other year for many successive periods, is a well a farm under management rendering it capable of producknown fact. We find in the Rural New-Yorker of July ing good crops of grass for pasturage or mowing, as said 21, a letter from P. Hathaway of Milan, O., who for twen.before, we may rest assured that it is really fertile, and
A limited supply of manure, ty years raised wheat annually on one of three fields, the may easily be continued so.
we think, would go farther is applied early in the fall (in wheat being seeded in spring to clover, dressed with a bushel of plaster per acre, pastored the next season, and a fine state) on sward land than in any other way. It
would tend largely to thicken the turf by increasing the then summer fallowed and sowed to wheat the third year. " The depth of plowing was uniform—what a yoke of oxen growth of roots and leaves beyond what would otherwise and span of horses attached to a No. 4 Iden plow could ac- take place through the autumn and winter, as well as giv
ing it an earlier start in spring-benefitting, in fact, both complish.” The average yield of wheat for the first seven years was twenty-six bushels per acre ; near the close of as protection and nourishment. Its value would be enthe term, thirty-six bushels, and now, on the same land, hanced by this result, and the turf, when plowed under,
would furnish a rich manuring for any desired crop. Deep he had wheat growing which will yield from twenty-five to thirty bushels per acre, and this sown on oat stubble with plowing, draining, irrigation, any means to promote grass two plowings. “ The midge," he adds, “for a time was
growing will give us at the same time profitable grain a bafiling pest , but now, when we escape its ravages, the fartus on all soils suited to its production, as, indeed, to
one kind or another, most soils are. land proves itself unimpaired in fertility." While we would not advocate any severe course of crop
WHEAT THICK VS. THIN SEEDING. ping tending rapidly to exhaust the soil, we would advise farmers to grow all the clover and grasses possible, if they
The season of sowing is once more at hand, and the would keep their farms fertile and productive when de- matter of seed and its commission to the earth is again voted to grain. As long as a soil with the aid of a bushel and increasingly, we believe, receiving the attention of of plaster per acre will grow heavy crops of clover, we farmers. No course of conclusive experiments has as yet need not fear but it will grow grain erops at suitable in- settled the important question as to the proper quantity of tervals without further application of manure. We may wheat for seeding an acre, or decided definitely and authorifind it most profitable to feed the grass grown to stock, tatively on the contest of Thick vs. Thin Seeding of this taking the manure they supply meanwhile in return; still and other grains. Much has been said and written upon this would only be grass in another and (for this purpose the subject, but the experiments detailed as proof, point perhaps) better form, with some additional elements gain to such opposite conclusions that both sides claim the deed from the animal organisms through which it has passed. cision in favor of the mode which they have practiced. But we did not intend to attempt any discussion of this Thick seeding was most popular when the drill system was branch of the subject.
brought forward, resting in part its claims to superiority Among the questions proposed to every competitor for on the saving in amount of seed, and bringing strong tesa farm premium by our State Agricultural Society, is this: timony in its favor. Evidence equally conclusive is abun“ What do you consider the best mode of improving the dant on the other side, and thus the question seems left soil on your farm ?" with reference to the different kinds to the judgment of the individual directly interested—the of soil, clay, sang or gravel; and it is curious to observe larmer himself; he must follow his own views-employ how uniform have been the answers received. One (in the his own discretion—and sow the amount of seed he thinks Transactions of '58) plows greensward under in the spring will produce the best crop. for corn; “likes to have a coat of grass on the turf to turn Under a perfect system of tillage giving all the ground under; ” some apply manure during the course of cropping and all the strength of the soil to the one product of before again seeding to grass. Another says : “My method wheat,no doubt the rule would hold good, that the greatof increasing the product is by the use of plaster (sown on er the number of perfect stems and heads per acre, the clover ;) on the “ home farm’I also use barnyard manure.” greater the amount of grain produced. Such would seem Another top-dresses his meadows, to increase the growth to be the teaching of the experiments given in our State of grass with a portion of his stock manure, while another Transactions for 1849, where wheat sown in squares one puts all his manure on his newly seeded grass lands. These and a half inches each way, taking nearly four bushels of are mostly dairy farmers, who yet grow a considerable seed per acre, gave a product of almost seventy bushels, share of grain for home consumption.
while one-fourth the amount of seed, in squares of three Turning more particularly to the grain growing farms, we inches, gave fifty-one bushels; and other trial plots, using still find grass, and clover particularly, the basis of their two bushels of sced, and three-fourths of a bushel, gave improvement A clover lay of two or three years turn- respectively products rating at sixty and at forty-five ed under in May for coin, or in August for wheat," is the bushels per acre. English experiments give about the same result, pointing strongly to an even distribution of
(For the Country Gentleroan and Cultivator.) the seed over the ground on all cleau soils. Weeding, Travels in Iowa-Farmers' College. where needed, compensates for the loss of space in drill.
MESSRS. EDITORS—I left Muscatine July 24, for the culture, and we are not without experiments showing thin College Farm in the centre of the State, 176 miles—38 of seeding very favorably by the side of the more liberal sup- which is by railroad to lowa city, and the rest by stage and ply, espcially in cases of early sowing on rich or very care
on foot. At present this farm is between three principal fully cultivated soils.
routes of travel, one west through the Capital, one up the These various discussions and experiments point at least Des Moines valley, and one up the Iowa river. It is on to one fact for the guidance of the farmer-but one very the route of the Chicago, Iowa and Nebraska railroad. generally kuown and considered—that rich, deep thorough
It may be thought wild to talk about railroad routes in ly worked soils do not need as great an amount of seed as Iowa; "they were exploded two years ago.” If persons those of a less fertile character. In the early settlement could have traveled with me nearly 400 miles last week of the great wheat section of this State, farmers long and this—if they could have seen the beauty, goodness practiced sowing about one and a half bushels, or less, per and greatness of this agricultural and horticultural counacre, and on their fresh, unworn soils, doubtless raised as try--if they could have seen the beautiful golden harvest large, if not larger crops than they would with more in shock, and the beauty of the uniformly and luxuriant abundant seeding. As the years rolled on, the amount of growth of corn—not the wonderful great crops, but the seed was increased in many cases to two and one-fourth to
wonderful ease with which they are produced—they would two and a half bushels, the plant showing less disposition have understood and rejoiced with me at the sure prospect to tiller and grow luxuriantly than before. The use of of the rapid advance of this country in all the improvethe drill effected a saving of at least half a busliel perments of the east. And even now, in these “exploded ” acre, from the greater certainty of germination when cov. times of the west, they are laying the iron rail 17 miles ered to a uniform depth, over the variable amount of soil west of lowa city, and will soon have it 30, up to Merangiven when covered by the harrow.
go. And on my return, as I left Iowa city, we bad 16 It is found also, that the amount of seed necessary is loaded freight cars, and before I left the train, in 26 miles,
it had increased up to 30. The quantity of freight will be effected by the variety of wheat, as well as the soil and greatly increased from month to month. the time of sowing; some kinds showing more disposition The cattle look as fat and sleek as otters, running at to tiller than others, and all making a greater number of large, and in this dry time gathering in herds about the stems when gaining a fair growth in autumn. Their in- streams; mostly scrub stock, but many very fine Durbams,
Our farmers are beginfluence should be considered by the farmer, but we would and occasionally a fine milch cow. not advise him to rest satisfied with the fair results of thinning to appreciate the difference between a scrub and a
large well formed Durham. Quite an improvement in the seeding induced by the scarcity of seed for the last few breed of hogs of late. Sheep few. Mr. Grinnell of the years, but to give a full trial to the long settled practice town of that name, has brought in this season 2,000 fine of the best wheat-growers of ancient and modern times, wool. Our country is not half stocked with animals, and in seeding liberally with a pure article of carefully select- our farmers are determined to increase it until their stock
will consume their great crops of corn. We must count ed grain, remembering that in this respect as in all,
on the amount of money we can get for a ton of produce ye sow, so also shall ye reap."
-wool first, butter and cheese second, beef and pork third,
and flour fourth. USE OF THE CLOD-CRUSHER.
This season has been a hot and dry one, having a spell
of drouth in every month, beginning with March and endSANFORD HOWARD states in the Boston Cultivator, that ing with July, for lately we have had a bountiful pouring the following course is successfully pursued in Scotland out of showers over most of the state, and probably all; with the clod-crusher. It is of course only used on heavy for although it was dry and the corn leaves were rolling clay lands, which on plowing, break up into large clods; up when I came down the Iowa river two days ago, since
then I have seen copious showers. This completes the and the land must be comparatively free from stone. The crop of corn, and it is as heavy as I ever saw it in lowa, and soil having been plowed, and left in large cloda, a grubber forward-many pieces in roasting ears this 3d of August. is passed over the whole, loosening up the clods, and lear- Wheat first rate. In a former communication I had said ing them at the surface. The grubber, as our readers may it would be a good average crop, but it is above. I have be aware, is like a harrow or cultivator, with long hooked heard of some being, threshed which yielded 30 bushels teeth, which loosen the soil as deep or deeper than the I never saw it harvested so promptly in good season—a
per acre, spring. It is of best quality, plump and clean ; plow has run. The clod-crusher is next passed, which little tardy in stacking, but probably these showers will not breaks the clods into fragments, at the same time it tends continue long enough to sprout it-price 65 cents a bushel. to p ess the soil too compactly together. An indispensa- What is the prospect of foreign demand? We first hear ble part of the operation is now to follow with a grubber bility is there is not much failure." Is not this proba
of failure of crops in much of Europe; then “the probato loosen the crumbled soil.
bility” for speculation in grain ? Is it not English policy We may add that lieavy and tenacious soils, which have and American dealers' policy, to cry up the qantity and been regularly drained, and are judiciously managed, do cry down the price ? not often become a mass of large clods, yet this is some and beautiful rolling prairie—70 acres in crops—120 under
COLLEGE FARM.-We have 648 acres of land, timber times the case when hot, drying weather succeeds heavy fence a good bank-barn 42 by 60 being built-brick rains, before plowing can be accomplished. In such in- burned for the kitchen, wash-room and wood house of the stances, the successful planting and cultivation of a crop, farm house, and when these are all paid for we shall be at could not be expected. We bave known a corn crop to the end of our first $10,000, appropriated by the State two be nearly doubled in product by the use of a one-horse and a half years ago. We have no session of our Legislaclod-crusher between the rows, to reduce the lumps into half years to put up our College buildings, when we hope
ture next winter, and we shall wait patiently one and a mellow earth. On undrained clay soils, its use would un- in three years to open our farin school. SUEL FOSTER. doubtedly be often eminently advantageous.
Muscatine, lowa, Ang. 3.
[For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.)
(For the Country Gentleman and Coltivator.) Harvesting and Keeping Root Crops.
"BALLOON FRAMES"5th Article. Messrs. EDITORS-In complying with the request of A. There is at the present time among monied men who J. M., in the Co. GENT. of July 12, present vol., I shall seek investment for their capital in the constrnetion of perhaps be able to say but little that is not already fami- buildings, a desire to ascertain the very nice point that liar to the most of your readers; as my experience in limits the union of economy and absolute safety, and this harvesting and keeping roots will not vary materially from point to which one may approach with confidence, and the recorded experience of others.
never, under any circumstances, go beyond, is a leading In harvesting roots, I begin with mangolds and turnips, subject of study for the Civil Engineer and Architect. It which should be taken up before there is any hard freez- has been stated by a distinguished Civil Engineer that the ing weather, as in consequence of growing more or less failure of a bridge, or any work, under the proper tests, out of the ground, they are more likely to be injured than conveyed a better lesson than its success, as illustrating other kinds that grow mostly below the surface. Man- the position of that point which theory alone can never so golds are pulled, first, in consequence of growing a con- well show. siderable part of the root ont of the ground; they can It takes many years of experiments to overcome popular generally be pulled by hand without any trouble; but prejudice, brougbt up to believe that a certain amount of where this is not the case they should be loosened with a strength, weight, size and labor are requisite for a certain spade. They are spread on the ground a few hours to result; we look with suspicion on any one who has the dry, when the tops are cut off, and those intended for energy, the courage, or the impndence to pronounce the winter feeding are taken to the cellar; and the portion old fashioned mortice and tenon timber frame, with its that is intended to be used in the spring buried in round heavy beams, wasteful extravagance of timber and labor, shallow pits about one spade deep, twenty-five or thirty a relic of by-gone days handed down to us with all the bushels in a pit. The same course is pursued with tur- prejudices and ignorance clustered around it. Every day nips, wbich are next gathered. Carrots I have always we can see examples of such frames changing shape or taken up with a spade; but where there is a large piece, tumbling down with their own weight, built with a conit wonld be better to rum a plow close along one side of dition that they shall be strong enough to support themthe rows, and turn away the ground, so the roots may be selves, and then sufficiently strong besides for the uses inturned out into the furrow and easily pulled by hand. tended, a double motive the balloon frame does not reParsnips can be taken up in the same manner as carrots, quire. that is, those that are wanted for winter feeding. All Many mechanics will say the balloon frame is a humbug, that are not wanted until spring may remain in the ground an impracticable affair, or, at best, only adapted to the until that time.
smallest of frames; they are evidently not posted, or else All the curing I have ever given to roots, or supposed they consider the balloon frame a sad innovation on their they needed, was to let them dry off a little, and that is business. Certainly the business of framing with heary mostly done to allow whatever dirt may be attached to timber is somewliat interfered with, but then there will be them to get dry, so that by handling them the most of it none the less money expended in building. If men can will rattle off, and which, as my land is a sandy loam, and put up buildings cheaper, they will build them larger, or they come out of the ground pretty clean, is all the clean- build more of them. ing that is found necessary as a general thing, though There is, however, the undeniable and indisputable fact some kinds of turnips will have more or less small fibrous in every town and city, and on nearly every farm in the roots that will hold the dirt. In such cases I scrape the great west, and in California, that the balloon frame is not fine fibers, dirt and all off, with the back of a large knife a humbug, is not impracticable, but is used indiscriminate. that is used to cnt up roots with. But this is not done ly for every grade of building required, and has been used until they are wanted to feed, for the reason that roots, to since the early settlement of that portion of the west bekeep well, should be bruised and mutilated as little as yond Lake Michigan, say from twenty to twenty-five years, possible.
and thoroughly successful. There will be much less trouble in digging, cleaning On the outskirts of some of our large cities of late years and taking care of roots, if it is done before the long there have been many attempts made to cheapen the morbeavy rains, late in the fall, make the ground wet and tice and tenon frame. Economy certainly has been intromuddy. From the first to the tenth of November is duced, but at the expense of strength and security. We generally the best time in this latitude. In cutting off have seen sticks three by five inebes used as posts for two the tops of all kinds of roots, care should be taken not story buildings, having a tenon on each end, and ten morto injure the crown of the plant, as they will keep much tices cut in its length to receive the girts and braces-in better when the stems of the leaves are cut off just above other cases the braces are beveled to the angle and nailed the crown, where the last leaves are starting out.
to post and girth. Others introduce some peculiarities of The best method of keeping roots through the winter, the balloon frame, but as a general thing these frames are I have ever tried, is to bury them; as when it is well very inferior to the genuine balloon frame, and cannot be done, they will come out in the spring as fresh, tender erected at so low a cost, and do not possess those qualities and sweet as when they were first pulled. In barying of strength and security. We have seen mortice and tenon roots plenty of straw must be used. It should be put on frames in the upper part of New-York city that are as light the pile in the manner best calenlated to carry off all rain in every particular as the balloon frame, and every way and snow water, so as to keep the roots as dry as possible. inferior-inferior because the original strength of the tim. About half the amount of dirt that is necessary to keep ber is cut away, and the thorough basket-like system of potatoes from freezing, will be all that ought to be put on tying, cross tying and diagonal tying not being used. An roots, as a little freezing don't injure them in the least, ordinance should be passed requiring such buildings to be while if kept too warm, they will grow badly, and some put up with a balloon frame, for two reasons; one is the times rot. Each pit should be finished, and covered for buildings would be stronger and safer; the other is that it winter, the same day it is begun, as if left open a day or would be economy for the owner. two, or longer, mice will be sure to find it, and make nests and winter in it, destroying more or less roots, and some of the balloon frame is the dependence put on nails," that
We have seen it stated* that "the most prominent fault times making a good many holes through the covering, “it is liable to get out of place and constantly grow weaker letting in water, and causing them to rot.
by the corrosion of the nails, and the wearing of the nail * The Regulations and Premium List of the Iowa boles." Upon the same principle the most prominent fault State Agricultural Society for 1860, are at hand. The of the Niagara Suspension bridge is the dependence placed exhibition takes place at Iowa City, October 2–5; Presi- on the small wires that form the cables. dent, Hon. G. G. 'Wright; Secretary, J. H. Wallace, Mus
Corrosion of nails in permanent work is considered decaline.
* Patent Once Report 1879.
sirable, and adds much to the force required to draw a nail. mended; but perhaps the stratum of nine inches of old We have sometimes recommended the use of green timber manure, would manufacture enough of this, when the water or studding to produce this very effect
is let on. The plants, as they grow, are merely loosely Wearing of the nail holes is an objection we cannot tied up with bass matting; and the young suckers and
We confess our inability to see how it can be small leaves at the base, are removed. The trench or bed produced, a case of this kind not having occurred in our must never become dry—there should always be a puddle practice. We have examined balloon frame buildings that there. It is earthed up only three weeks before needed have been crected 10 or 12 years, in exposed situations, for use any celery will blanch as white as a lily in three without discovering any defect of this kind; rigidity is a or four weeks. For this purpose, the soil thrown out in principle of this style of frame, and the objection may be excavating the bed is returned. Late in autumn the whole urged more forcibly against tlie old style. The balloon bed is covered with forest leaves a foot or foot and a half frame may be confidently relied ou in the erection of every thick, with a fe:v cornstalks to prevent their blowing away. description of wooden buildings; there are, however, cases From this bed the celery may be readily obtained at any where it is not practicable to construct without making time, fresh, sweet, and crisp, during the winter. some use of the old fashioned principle of framing or use of This we have no doubt is an excellent method of raising heavy timber; for instance, a barn built on piers will require and protecting celery-the mode of raising is founded heavy sills; wide openings as sheds, doorways, &c., require simply on the principle of giving plenty of manure and heavy lintels, on the same principle that a bridge of 200 plenty of water, and requires a large supply of water at feet span must be built stiffer and stronger than if it had a band—and that of covering, which has been practiced be. pier every ten feet. Balloon framing requires a solid fore, or the well known protective power of successive foundation for each stud, as each stud runs through the layers of dead leaves with their numerous thin interposed building, supporting its share of each floor and rafter, and strata of air. will not admit of extra wide openings without a heavy lintel to support the weight above.
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) We see no objection whatever in the way of freely adopt- PEA-NUT, OR GROUND PEA. ing the balloon frame, and very much can be said in its favor ; it is absolutely safe and secure and its economy a R. T. Brooks asks for information as to its culture, strong recommendation. We are willing to risk a well and as it is grown commonly in the south, I will give the earned reputation in advocating its merits.
information. The peas are hulled or the shell broken Geo. E. WOODWARD, before planting—the ground prepared as for corn, rows Architect and Civil Engineer, 29 Broadway, New York, three feet apart, and the seed dropped about one foot
apart in the drill. The after culture, with a view to keepNEW WAY OF RAISING CELERY.
ing down grass or weeds and the proper tilth of the soil. The last number of the Horticulturist publishes a com. unlike any of the pea family in every respect. It has no
Bedding or hilling is not to be practiced. The plant is munication from “Fox Meadow," on the cultivation of bush or vine, but projects its limbs, horizontally, upon the celery, according to a new theory,” and which has proved surface of the ground, in length varying from one to three very successful-single sticks having been grown, and feet, and in all directions from the center or root. These after being washed and dressed for the table, have weighed limbs bloom as they grow, and in this respect are unlike eight pounds! The practice is undoubtedly an excellent any other plant with which I am acquainted. The bloom
(small yellow,) rises on a slender stem and opens to the one, but the theory needs crutches,-inasenuch as it in. After the germ is impregnated, the stem turns down cludes the notion that the leaves "condense moisture" to the ground and projects the young pea under the surand send it down to the roots for their benefit. This is face from one to three inches, where it grows to maturity. the same error as the old one that weeds shade the soil It requires clean culture and a loose soil. It is most conand keep it moist, when as every careful observer knows monly planted on our poorest land, for the reason that it
makes more on that kind of land than any crop cultivated. they pump up and throw off moisture from the earth at a We plånt in March or April, and gather after frost. Yield rapid rate, which is the reason that the earth will be always from one to two hundred bushels per acre, measured in found much drier on the removal of a rank growth of the shell, which is considered two-thirds' of the bulk. wveeds, than where the soil is bare and exposed. The Time to mature the crop, six months. We are indebted author of this theory does not ridge up celery, because the to the African for this valuable pea. Their name for it is
gouber; the Indian name, pindar. P. T. GRAVES. ridge throws off the water from the roots. Now if he will
Lownds Co., Ala., July 31, 1860. examine his celery roots carefully, he will find that the fine wbite fibres, of which they consist, have extended as
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) far from the plants as he has made the mellow and com
Ginger Cakes-No. 1. posted soil, and that consequently ridging, if it had any
One pint of molasses. sensible influence in this direction, would only tend to One cup of butter. throw the water at the end of the rootlets, where it is
One tablespoonful of saleratus. wanted. lle proposes to “copy-right" this theory, but full of boiling water.
One teaspoonful of alum, cach to be dissolved in cup half we think he may as well omit it at present. There is one One tablespoonful of ginger, and flour enough to roll out in part of it, however, that is correct, but not entirely new,
little cakes. and on this his success depends, namely, that plants, and eelery especially, grow and fourish with plenty of water
A LARGE MILKER.- About a month ago we published --and this brings us to the practice, which is no doubt (p. 29) the amount of Milk produced in five days milking excellent, and which we give in substance :-
of several Ayrshire cows, in competition for prizes offered
in Scotland by the Duke of Atbol. An extract from a A bed is formed six to twelve feet wide and as long as convenient; the soil is duy out nine inches deep and Scotcl paper of later date, states that the cow which thon thrown on each side ; the basin thus formed is filled nearly stood first, yielding an average of 26 lbs. 5 oz. of milk in full of old manure, which is then thoroughly incorporated each of 10 successive milkings, "improved wonderfully into the soil below ; set out the plants nine by twelve in the amount of produce after she was put on the grass. inches over the whole surface; soak it thoroughly, and She lately gave the astonishing quantity of 75 imperial shade for a few days. Then make an embankment around pounds, or 74 imperial gallons of milk per day for sevethis bed a foot high, so as to keep it constantly saturated ral days in succession. The largest quantity at one milk. with water. Manure water or guano water is recom-ling was 39 pounds."
(For the Cultivator and Country Gentleman.) In Southern Illinois many mines are now worked, and the GOOD WHEAT CROPS.
coal sent to market by railroad and river.
Good water is generally found by digging from twenty NEAR GENEVA, July 24th, 1860. Messrs. L. TUCKER & Son-Along with this you
will to forty feet deep. In the hilly country good springs are receive a sample of my Mediterranean wheat of this year's In the fifteen southern counties of the State there is but growth. I think the sample superior to last year's, more little prairie ; the surface in some parts is very hilly and particularly in the color than in anything else. I never broken, but generally agreeably undulating ; swamps are saw Mediterranean wheat as fair as this. It is wonderful not found except occasionally in the extreme south, on how it has improved in quality since I first sowed it. This portion of the State is covered with a heavy growth
the low grounds near the Ohio and Missiseippi rivers. When you have examined, please hand it to my friend Col. of white, black, red burr and post oak, yellow poplar, Johnson to place in his State Rooms, and if he gets a hickory, ash, gum, sugar-maple, walnut, hackberry, pecan better sample I would be pleased if he would let me know and other timber, with an undergrowth of dogwood, sassait. I may possibly send samples of the May wheat and fras, pawpaw, red-bud and innumerable wild grapevines.
The climate is temperate ; there is neither the protracted Soules. They are both very fine. Mr. Swan has a very cold of the north, nor the sultry heat of the south. The fine crop of Soules. The land was manured for the pre- thermometer in the shade rarely indicates a higher degree vious crop (oats,) then summer fallowed, and subsoir plow- of heat than 90, or a lower than 10 above zero. The ed before sowing the wheat. It is impossible to tell the ground is invariably clear of frost by the 1st of March, and yield until it is thrashed and measured, but I am satisfied in good plowing condition during the same month. Ordithat it surpasses his crop of Soules last year, and that gave narily the wheat harvest begins about the 10th of June, 41 bushels per acre. In 1863, this same field, before it thus giving to the farmer several weeks advantage over was drained or manured, gave not over 5 bushels per acre, his brerbren of the north, in marketing his wheat. The when my drained and manured land gave nearly 29 bush. autumn months are dry and pleasant; frost rarely appears els. Now I think it probable it gives a larger yield than before the 1st of November, nor snow before the 1st of ever I had. It ripened remarkably slowly. Was that January.
A. BABCOCK. owing to running the subsoil plow some ten inches below the first plowing, which was all of eight inches deep?
PLOWING IN CLOVER--LIME. Whatever was the cause, it is a remarkable crop-straw not long, but the sheaves almost as heavy as a hickory log Some discussion on the policy of plowing in clover, of same size. Manure and good cultivation will do won- buckwheat, rye, &c., as a manure, has recently taken ders, and manure will hide a multitude of faults in the cultivation. We will have all the wheat in thut field (25 place, in which examples of both good and bad results are acres) in the barn to-morrow, if fair weather. We have given. In reply to the statement that there was liability had rather an anxious time in hay and harvest, having had! (if the amount of vegetable matter turned under was great rains, yet I think the wheat will be all safe after all. ( large,) of souring the land by acetous fermentation, the Truly yours,
Homestead says that slaked lime, either sown before plow.
ing, or strewn along the furrow, or better applied both (For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) Soil, Crops, and Fruit of Southern Illinois.
ways, is a certain preventive from any injury by this cause.
“The result is a quick, and so to speak sweet fermentaI enclose you a statement giving a pretty accurate de- tion, and a rapid conversion of the whole of the vegetascription of Egypt. Fruit growing is beginning to receive tion into good manure." Ashes are valuable for the same much attention here. Eastern men are planting extensive peach orchards of choice varieties at or near the sta
purpose. tions of the “Illinois Central Railroad." Apples and
Another writer on this subject, in the N. E. Farmer, pears are being planted considerably also, and bid fair to thinks that “in plowing under a heavy crop of clover for do well. Taking into consideration the facilities for mar- wheat, or any grain or farm crop, instead of turning it unketing, and the adaptation of the soil and climate to the der when in the blow, I think it would be better to wait growth of fruit
, and I think Southern Illinois offers fully till the crop is about half ripe, or half the heads are dead. as great inducements as any locality this side of the Rocky Mountains, for peach growing, especially.
In this way a good share of the acid would have left the The soil of this region, especially in the timbered lands, stalk, so that decomposition would readily take place withis unsurpassed in productiveness; it is light and easily out at all souring the soil.” cultivated; the subsoil is of great depth and richness, capable of receiving and retaining moisture for a long time, Hardiness of the Pear and Peach. and, as a consequence, the crops are but little affected by drouth,
Eds. Cult. AND Co. GENT.—As I am preparing to plant Winter wheat is the staple crop; the yield is from 20 a pear orchard, I take the liberty to trouble you with a to 40 bushels per acre, of an average weight of from 64 few queries: to 66 lbs. to the bushel. Oats, rye, barley, buckwheat, millet, red clover, and timothy, are excellent crops. In
1. Can the pear as a general thing withstand a spring dian corn is grown abundantly in all parts of the country,
frost while in bloom or after, without inquiry, as well as and yields from 50 to 80 bushels per acre; cotton is the apple, other things being equal ? [The pear is more grown in the southern counties, but for domestic use only; certain in its crops than the apple, and less liable to the tobacco is extensively cultivated in a few counties as an accidents of the weather, while the trec is more subject to article of commerce; Irish potatoes grow well. The soil maladies. We often have good crops of pears when the and climate are peculiarly adapted for the growth of the sweet potato, immense crops of which are raised.
apple fails.) Apples do well, and are a certain crop; peaches are
2. If peach trees are kept well cultivated and shortened uvsurpassed for yield and quality; the soil and climate in, and the young fruit thinned out when the trees are are eminently adapted to the growing of grapes; pears, too heavily loaded, will they not be less liable to fail in cherries, plums and quinces do well. Limestone and brick clay abound; quarries of superior ed trees on the same ground or location? (We have
producing annual crops, on account of frost, than neglectsand-stone, both red and white, suitable for building pur. poses, are found in several of the southern counties in never discovered that this treatment had any influence in exhaustible beds of bituminous coal, in strata from five to protecting the peach from the effects of frost-if any efeight feet in thickness, underlie many portions of the State. fect is produced, it must be very slight.] A. BABCOCE.