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shall have rain in an hour”_clouds thickening, wind machine should not be overlooked. We have known the south, &c. But the barometer stood immovable; and no time when" at least one active domestic was required to perrain came, till some hours after it began slowly to sink. form the extra labor of the various operations of building We think every large farmer should bave a barometer—it fires of wet wood, working an awkward churn, washing will probably pay for itself during each season of hay-cut-on a rickety washboard, scrubbing the floor with a wornting and harvesting-in some localities it may not. The out broom, tying the clothes line to a peach tree, horsebest way to understand its movements, is to watch it for post, barn corner, and smoke-house, borrowing water at
We prefer the single column of mercury, a neighbor's, driving the pigs out of the yard, making sour without the circular dial plate and index, the latter being bread for want of good wood, making rancid butter for less accurate, and not nearly so satisfactory. The cost is want of a good dairy, and deficiencies in smaller domestic $9 to $12, for such a one as will answer the farmer's pur- appliances. pose.
2. Let the man of the house and such of his assistants
as occupy it, provide themselves with slippers, and then, DOMESTIC TOILS.
instead of marching with dirty boots directly into the Kitchen toils and domestic cares are extremely oppres- neatly kept rooms, place them in a proper outer closet sive on many excellent women, especially among farmers' and assume the slippers—and if the soiled working coat wives, who are frequently worn down and bent under pre- should also give place to a cleaner one, it would appear mature old age at middle life. They cannot be free from more like civilization. care and toil, neither is it desirable that they should be ;
3. In order to lessen the heary work of providing meals but the excessive weight which some have to bear, calls extensively for workmen, erect cheap and neat cottages, for more effort towards relief. There are many who are so that laborers may board themselves, as we have elsecompelled to rise at dawn, and commence a routine, which where recommended. only closes late in the evening and even then rest does
4. Adopt a simpler fare. We have known men go fond not come, when the care of young children, and possibly of good eating, as to keep several members of the family of sick ones, precludes in a great measure the wholesome occupied from dawn till dark in cooking fine dishes, baking and refreshing repose of sleep. It requires a stout con- or roasting costly meats, and manufacturing delicate pastry, stitution for a woman to wash, iron, mend, scour, bake, with all the numerous appurtenances belonging to this milk, churn, sweep, cook three meals daily, as often wash system of gormandizing. In one case, the man who ordishes, and go through other routines for supplying daily dered these luxuries had to take a blue pill once a fort-, food, besides the care of a family of young children, whose night to set his machine straight, which was constantly endless wants are a continued interruption to all other deranged by bigh living. operations, --without soon being broken down by these 8. Bring up girls to labor cheerfully with their own ceaseless toils.
bands—to make themselves generally useful--to regard A very common course is this :-The mother labors active employment as infinitely more honorable than to incessantly, in order to give her daughters school educa- be nothing but simpering, giggling, coquetting rag babies tion, and perhaps to render them “accomplished;" while Then when they are compelled to take hold with both they are learning, or playing the lady, she is struggling hands, the charge of a family will be natural and comparaunder a mountain of drudging, until she gets them “mar- tirely easy; and instead of being soured because they do ried off.” They in turn, for the first time, are compelled not find in real life what they had read of in sentimental to assume the same course of labor-the change sours and novels, they will find much happiness in two ways,—one, disheartens them, and the bloom and elasticity of youth in overcoming difficulties,—and the other in conferring have all disappeared before the first ten years have gone; happiness on those around them in a hundred little ways. while the greatly higher object of living, namely the continued cultivation and improvement of the mind, forever
PRUNING ORCHARDS. ceases. Whatever unfeeling, selfish, and ill-bred men may say,
Will you be good enough to give me some information one thing is proved by the history of the human race, year to prune, and whether to thin out or shorten in-and
about pruning apple and peach trees--the best time of and that is, the farther a people advance from the savage also the cherry tree? Wash. Co., Penn. or barbaro!is state, the greater is the improvement in the
Very few orchards are properly pruned. If young trees physical and mental condition of woman. There are no
are judiciously thumb-pruned, so as to keep an even and exceptions. All civilized men will therefore seek assidu- regular head, very little after pruning will ever be necesously for the means that shall relieve the condition of sary. But when young trees have been neglected, the women, and restore them from the state of mere drudges evils of dense tops, crossing and crooked limbs, and a bad for the benefit of the men, to a condition of high domestic shape, must be gradually removed by cutting away a porusefulness and mental refinement. What are the means tion each season, for several successive years. Observe for accomplishing this desirable end-of relieving the carefully before cutting,—with a view to make an even housewife from tiresome, weary, ceaseless labor? We symmetrical head, to avoid if possible large wounds, and mention a few—simple, homespun, and practical.
to let the light in from the outside, and not to trim up be1. Provide domestic conveniences. Let the wood-house orchards are distorted and ruined. Peach trees must bo
low or inside, the latter being the common way in which be level with and'adjoin the kitchen, and be always sup-cut in carefully and evenly from the outside, so as to keep plied with good fuel and dry kindling wood ; let the well a moderately open and handsomely shaped head, of limitbe provided with the best apparatus for drawing water ed dimensions. Unpruned peach trees after a while have easily—provide ample cisterns, and connect them by means
long naked branches, and little foliage--by cutting in, the of good pumps with the kitchen-procure the best cook- and excellent crops. Summer is a good time for the work.
tops remain neat in form, compact in foliage, and bear full stove, washing machine, easy churr, butter worker, clothes The cherry needs but little pruning-only to keep the tree frames, carpet sweeper—and if nceded, the family sewing within proper bounds, and of good form.
Wheat, 2% acres.
Edirorial Notes Abroad.
bargain to draw from the number according to his wants
-the wliole to be taken before the end of July. What No. XXXV---An English Dairy Farmer.
were left on hand at the end of June were at that time
weaned. The ewes themselves are fattened, and sold (We defer until another opportunity the continuation of the subject of - Agricultural Education in Ireland" in the midst of which our last along daring August, September, and October,-fetching "Notes" were broken off-in order to present the following Memo. from $12 to $12.50 per head; so that the sheep account randa or a visit in August, 1859, at Burley Hall, the residence of Mr shows, for not quite a year's keeping of each ewe, (1.) a Thomas HORSFALL, near Otley, Yorkshire, whose contributions and experiments upon various ways of cattle feeding, &c., have attracted profit of from 75 cents to $1.25 in the difference between much attention. It is proper to remark, in order to account for the che price paid for her and the price received, (2.) the fact that some of the statements made below have already found their way into the papers-that these Notes formed
a part of Lectures pre: fleece sheared from her in the spring, which is quite an pared by the writer for the New Haven course last year, an abridged item—and (3.) the lambs which she has produced and report of which has had some circulation among our contemporaries, reared—a return which it requires no argument and little although never as yet published in the columns of the Co. GENT.--Eds]
Mr. Horsfall has not so extensive an establishment as I arithmetic to show must be considerably beyond the labor had prepared myself to anticipate, but I regarded the time of caring for her, and the cost of what she has eaten. expended there as employed quite as usefully, as any other
Turning now to the cattle, we find that Mr. Horsfall equal number of hours during my whole absence. The buys the bullocks he fattens in April or May, grazes them farm includes not quite sixty acres along the bank of a
through the summer, finishes them up in the stables, and pretty little stream, either the Wharfe itself, or flowing sells in November; milch kine being found to pay better into it, I am not certain which. Forty-three acres, or for winter care. It is the custom, Mr. H. remarked, with fully three-fourths of the whole, are in grass. The stock the London dairymen to buy in fresh cows as fast as others upon the place, at one time and another during the sea
run dry and are sold, or whenever they need to increase son, had been as follows:
the quantity of milk for sale. It is his system, as I reHeifers and bullocks,.
member what he told me, to keep about twenty cows con21 Two tups and 62 ewes........ Likewise four pigs, two horses, and a pony.
106 stantly in milk. He generally bugs about the time the Making a total of small cattle and large, numbering 218 first or second calf comes in ; but if he finds the right sort head—a tolerably heavy stock for sixty acres to carry of animal, say at three, or still more frequently at four The land not in grass was employed as follows:
years old, he did not seem so particular as to the season | Satngolds and Swedes, 3% acres.
of the year in which she came in his way; milking them Beans, three acres-one acre of winter beans, and two of a long cow's extraordinarily good milking qualities seem to jus
for two or three years—the latter period only when the podded garden variety.
The winter beans, sown in October, were then, Aug. tify it. They go dry from two to three months in the 17, just harvested, and had turned out apparently a good year, and by a little skill in selection, they average about crop. It is one of which Mr. H. is quite fond; it is out twenty quarts per day when fresh. Mr. H. appeared, like of the way sooner than spring beans, so that the ground some of our best dairy farmers, to prefer a cross-breed to may be more readily prepared for a succeeding crop of a pure ; he said that what he always chose when possible, wheat. This is sown without manure, the land being was a kind of cow half Short-Horn and half. Highland already so rich that it is difficult to give the straw stiffness Scots, of which sort, in that part of Yorkshire, there are enough to stand up till harvest. On the wheat field of generally some to be found. As an illustration of the this year, (24 acres,) 18 cwt. of salt were sown in the value of such cows as he would select in that part of Engspring upon those parts where the grain was most liable land, I may mention that the week previously he had purto lodge; the amount of seed sown upon the whole was chased three head of these Yorkshire Short-Horus, for only two and a half bushels, and the yield had been two £45—say $75 a piece. hundred stooks of st eaves—then not thrashed, so that I These milking cows he keeps constantly in good order, have no other data for estimating the product obtained. and maintains that much of his success in milk-producing After the wheat a rape crop for spring feeding would be has been due to this fact—that it must indeed be ranked likely to follow, and then oats, perhaps followed by wheat as one "leading feature of his practice." Accordingly, again, and then roots or beans. This would be a rotation when the cow runs dry in her sixth year, she has been of six or seven years, but it is not adhered to with any gradually getting fatter and fatter for some time back, and particular care. Wheat which was to be ured for seed, a month’s “ finishing” in the stall is all that is necessary Mr. H. did not house as soon as the rest, in order to allow to make her the best of beef. He does not breed any to it to dry and mature more thoroughly.
raise himself, but by this method, some farther particulars The particular interest of the place centers more in its of which I am about to give, he accomplishes the double live stock and grass fields than in its crops, however, and object, as one might almost say, of getting both the milk. of these we will begin with the sheep, so as to defer the man's and the stall-feeder's profit out of the same animal. cattle and dairy matters for our conclusion. Mr. H. gene:
As we go out now to look over the pasture and meadow rally pays in the vicinity of 458, sterling, say $11.25 per lands, we shall obtain a little insight into Mr. Horsfall's head for ewes in October, to the number of sixty or there out-door management, and then an examination of his abouts. Fifty-nine of the number purchased in the au- stables will lead to that part of his in-door operations tumn of 1868, had brought him the 106 lambs he had to connected with feeding, while a subsequent glimpse of dispose of in 1869. They come mostly from the north, bis dairy will enlighten us as to the final manipulation of and are probably a cross of the Cheviot male upon Leis what it is the business of the rest of the establishment to cester ewes. He made a bargain with the butcher for his
produce. lambs this year in one lot at 24s. ($6 each) fatted, a few about twenty cows and twenty-four sheep, from the time
We saw fourteen acres of meadow, then, which carry beginning to go off as early as May, when only four to the grass is well up until the middle of October, with very six weeks old, and the purchaser being allowed in the little assistance from other sources. Another lot of twen.
ty acres, every yard and foot of which is such that the cat- or fescues being generally regarded, I think, as peculiarly tle are fond of it, has usually supported, Mr. Horsfall told suitable for low lying grounds. For under grasses, as he me, a bullock and one and a half head of sheep with their calls them, and clovers, he don't care so much. His lands lambs, to each acre. To these pastures the cattle and are all drained, the lines of pipe tile running eight yards sheep are generally admitted about May 16th, previous to apart, and froin three to four feet deep, the latter depth that time grazing upon the lay or meadow land, and thus being found preferable, and having been employed in the allowing the pastures to have a good starty-the best pos- drains most recently put down. sible security, Mr. H. thinks, against injury by subsequent Mr. Horsfall's simplest feeding stable was an inexpendrouth. The meadow is thus eaten close early in the sea- sive building, of which I had the curiosity to take the exson, but by the end of June will cut two and a half tons of act measurement, as he seemed to like the plan on which hay per acre, and generally yields, also, a second crop and it was put up quite as well as any other, and as its cheapan aftermath. From this twelve acres of meadow I saw ness, moreover, is such as to put it within the means of any a fine stack, and I have not before referred, I think, to American farmer. The inside length was forty-two feet that peculiarity of English farming which every traveler four inches outside width fourteen feet ten and a half notices at once--the stacking up of the grain and grass, inches. The back wall was of brick, seven feet three inches so that these beautifully constructed and beautifully high, the end walls also of brick with doors. The front thatched evidences of plenty and skill, form a most prom- of the building toward which the roof sloped, was probainent feature about every farmstead—a stack cut this sea- bly about six feet high; it was composed of six pairs of son from the field referred to, measuring thirty-three feet in doors, so that this whole side could be thrown open if nelength, twenty in breadth, and fourteen in height, and sup- cessary. The roof was of slate and thatched underneath, posed to contain at least thirty tons. Mr. H. estimated a very simple and not uncommon English method, worthy the weight of ordinary hay at sixteen stone (14 lbs. each, of adoption here, of maintaining a more even temperaI suppose,) per cubic yard, or 224 lbs. ; but his early cut ture, by keeping out extremes of heat and cold-the spa. hay he said, was exceedingly compact in the stack, so ces between the roof timbers being filled in with straw, closely packed, indeed, that he had repeatedly found it by held in place by light strips nailed across, or in some othactual trial to weigh 28 stone per cubic yard, or 392 lbs. er similarly cheap and easy way. In speaking of slate This is remarkably heavy. He finds great advantage, he roofs, I think it is Mr. Mechi who recommends whitewashthinks, in early cutting, never letting the grass get into ing them; because, as he states, the rains of summer will full flower.
not carry it off, and the sun's heat is then reflected, while The best pasture is a deep alluvial loam, but the mea- the snow and frost of winter will at once remove it, and dow, which is irrigated, is naturally a thin soil and a strong then what heat the sun gives will be absorbed. clay. The irrigation comes from a little brook into which
A wing attached to this building contains feed and a the sewage of the village of Burley flows, and is simply well sheltered apartment for roots; while the water from performed by being admitted at the highest point, a ger- the roof is collected.in a tank, from which a tap may be tle knoll, whence furrows having a very gradual descent, added to carry it by one turn of a spiggot into each stall. carry it over the whole, the water when turned on trick. I have forgotten whether the last arrangement was already ling out from these channels through the grass. It is al. in operation, or whether it was spoken of as an improvelowed to run through the winter until March, when, as I ment to be made. One improvement was suggested as have already mentioned, the meadow is grazed until May, worthy of attention in erecting such a stable, viz: The and then another irrigation ensues to give a start to the provision of slides in the doors for better ventilation; or hay crop, and after mowing a third flowing takes place.
what was thought perhaps preferable, the hanging of the I stated the namber of animals kept per acre on the doors in two parts, so that either top or bottom alono pastures, with the qualification of "some little assistance might be opened or shut at pleasure. from other sources." This assistance only consists I Coming now to the interior arrangement, we find that a think in a little cooked food for the milch cows, and iu the little greater width would allow an alley way for feedingfact that when the pasturage begins to be less hearty, say which runs along the back wall, and toward which the at just about the time of my visit in the middle of August, heads of the animals stand-a little wider and more "handy" they are stabled at night, and receive a little grass in the -its width now being only about thirty inches. The stall. This grass is often obtained from the same pasture building accommodated eleven or twelve stalls their width with a scythe, for, at intervals, where the droppings of the being three feet six inches, to three feet nine inches. The animals have laid, the herbage will not have been eaten manger bottom is only two or three inches above the level off, and a man can soon cut enough of the rank growth of the floor. Its inside width at bottom is fourteen inches; thus produced to serve for the housed stock, and if not the inside board is nine inches wide, sloping outwards, and wanted for the cattle, it is cut just the same and given to the back of the manger one foot eleven inches high, also the horses. In this way not only the whole growth of the with a slight slope, so that its inside width at top is fifteen field is completely economized, but the grass itself is kept and a half inches. In front of the stall a timber runs three in better growing order, as well as in better appearance. feet and eight inches high from the manger bottom—say In hot weather Mr. H. is in the habit of stabling his ani- four feet two inches outside height from the ground. This mals in the day and letting them out at night. All the would leave an aperture of about twenty inches from the grass land is also subject to farther manurings, of which back of the manger to this piece of scantling-eight inches we shall speak in connection with the stables and their of which is filled by a board hung upon hinges to the latmanagement.
ter, so that when feed is put in from the alley way it opens of the grasses Mr. Horsfall likes best the poas and the back for its admission, while the cattle cannot push it outfestucas, the former genus comprising a number of varie. wards so as to put their heads through. ties, among which what is there called meadow grass (poa The stall partitions are about five feet wide from the expratensis) is perhaps the best known, and the latter class I treme front; the cattle are fastened by a chain about the
5 lbs. Malt combs,
20 to 12 lbs.
neck, attached to a ring sliding up and down npon a those not benefitted by its application, thus running exact. stanchion about a foot back from the manger in the side ly in the teeth of the long continued and successfal praeof the stall. The floor of the stall is worthy of particular tice at Burley Hall. Dr. V. also advocates the dibution of description. A piece of cocoa nat matting three feet the liquid, a thing that Mr. Horsfall never does drawing square occupies the upper end, having straw under it, and his argument too exclusively as the latter thought, from the securely fastened down. Back of this there are grates Flemish farmers on the sandy soils of Belgium. It is on. opening into a tank beneath, not quite three feet deep, doubtedly true that to use liquid manure to advantage two feet eight inches wide, running the whole length of upon stiff and retentive ground, the land must be well the stable. The grates are of the same width as the tank, drained and in good order; and, of course, with these preeach one three feet three inches long, fitting neatly to requisites, Mr. H. considered its application more effective gether, and with the rest of the floor, and capable of re- there than anywhere else. He would not apply it in very moval one by one for any temporary purpose. The frame hot weather, of course; preferring a marky if not absois made of three by three inch timber, with slats four in- lutely a rainy day, and thought that any previous dilution ches wide, and one and a half inches thick, and two and a would then be attended with evil instead of good results. It half inch spaces between the slats. The distance from the seems quite possible, however, that upon drier and lighter manger to the outer edge of these grates is seven feet eight soils, or in a climate less moist, the reverse should be the inches.
case, as Dr. Voeleker argues. Of the underground tank there are six extensions, an
For steaming the food the eattle get, Mr. Horsfall em. swering as outlets, one at the end of the building, and the other five along the side, the outlets enabling a man to which last in use about two years, and are portable and
ploys cans made of block tin holding three bushels each, work at any part of the tank in removing the manore more conveniently than could otherwise be done, and to some
easily handled. His apparatus accommodates three such extent entirely upon the outside—a cart backed up to where cans, which are filled three times a day for the twenty
milch cows he keeps in winter-the mixture steamed behe is at work and no doors being open to chill the animals. There is a pump to take as much of the liquid as can thus ing composed at the time of my visit in the following probe drawn off. No bedding beyond the mat is used for the portions, the quantity mentioned being that prepared for
each cow's daily subsistence : cattle. The more solid parts of the manure are taken
Rape cake.......... away in carts and sometimes mixed, especially if they are Bran, not to be immediately applied, with the scrapings from the Straw cut to hall-inch length,. adjacent public road or the cleanings of the ditches. But This mixture is just dampened- the degree of moisture it is to the application of this substance to his grass lands, it contais being a very important matter, and one which almost without stint, that Mr. H. owes their unflagging, or experience must determine the food having a greater or rather, I may truly say, their constantly increasing produc- less laxative effect, according as the water in it is increased tiveness. A dozen good loads spread upon an aere just be or diminished. Cotton cake Mr. Horsfall has also emfore a gentle shower, will be washed into the ground like ployed to good advantage, and Indinn meal be considers a healing ointment, there being no straw or other coarse the most fattening food he can get, if it is properly mixed material in the way. The time for manuring the meadows with other substances--indeed the composition of the feed is as soon after the mowing as the weather suits ; for the given in winter, unless I am mistaken, would vary from pastures, during the winter. The liquid manure is often the above by the substitution in it of three or four pounds mixed with the rest for application in this mode; it is also of Indian corn instead of one. The steam is admitted to pumped into barrels and put over the pasture in spots this mass for about an hour, and there is really something where the cattle do not appear to like the grass so well, quite attractive in the odor it exhales an effect which or where it is coarse and wiry, or on spots a little bare; must be increased in a cold day by its warmth. Mr. and three or four doses of this kind in winter or spring, Horsfall modifies his feeding materials of course with are said to bring on the berbage wonderfully, and indeed changes of price at different times. He has in past years seem to change its nature at once. If there is an extra used a great deal of bean meal to good advantage, but at supply of the liquid manure, it may be carried to the present it is too dear for the purpose, and wheat bran and source from which the water used for irrigation is dis- other substitutes are cheaper, as will be perceived from tributed, and poured in there to render it still more fruit- the fact that while wheat has beretofore averaged 56 shiilful of good as it is diffused over the field through the di- lings, and beans 34 shillings per quarter--that is, wbeat verging channels already described. In what I have just at $1.75, and beans at $1.06 per bushel, the former was said about the tank, I omitted to mention that it contained selling last year at $1.25 per bushel, and the latter at a partition having interstices between the boards just so as $1.56. The cooking of the feed he estimates to cost for to let the liquid part through into a little compartment fuel, only two pence (four cents) per cow per week, while with which the pump connects, and retain the more solid with but little additional assistance in preparing the food mass behind. Mr. Horsfall estimates the annual production and in milking, one man has the entire charge of the of manure froin cattle, if it is well preserved, as worth at twenty cows. The advantage of feeding straw, in Mr. least .£5 per head.
Horsfall's view, consists in the fact that you thus utilize Dr. Voelcker had then just published in the Royal Ag. as fattening agents those elements in it, wbich would eserpe Society's Journal an Essay on Liquid Manure, which, as I by fermentation, if it were converted into an ordinary dung subsequently read it after visiting the Cirencester school, heap, while the very ones which alone render it of serappeared to me eminently practical, sound in its general vice as a fertilizer, are those of which the animal economy reasoning, and cautious in its conclusions. But Mr. Horsfall can make no use, and which are therefore thrown off by thought it calculated to inipede rather than increase the use it, and collected in bis tanks for the same destination they of liquid manure, because Dr. V. classes " soils containing a would otherwise have taken, but performing a double office fair proportion of clay, especially stiff clay soils," among when they reach it.
The price at which the milk is sold from this establish- have not room to describe at length, of which the subjects ment is four cents a quart; but there not being sufficient were six cows, it became plainly apparent that “the oil in demand to consume it all in this way, what is unsold is their food was inadequate to the supply of the butter and made into butter, perhaps to the amount of fifty pounds fat” produced from them, some portion of which thereper week. There is an old well at the very door of the fore must have been derived from the starch, sugar, &c. dairy room, employed for the sole purpose, as there are of their food. waterworks which supply all that is used, of cooling the
Going back, then, to the oxygen, carbon and hydrogen cream in hot weather, before churning-a can containing which make up, in different proportions, starch and sugar, it being let down twenty-six feet the night beforehand, as well as fat, -calculating the amounts thrown off in difwhere the temperature stands at about 46 degrees. The ferent ways by the animal economy, consumed in the prodairy room is purposely a small one, as the temperature cess of respiration, &c., together with what is retained in there can thus be much more easily regulated;
the form of increased weight, he was led irresistibly to maintaining it properly, much of his success in butter the conclusion that in supplying this demand, the starchi making is believed to depend. There are several tiers of and sugar of the food occupy a rank equivalent to a cershelving around the room, hollow, several inches deep, tain smaller weight of oil, and he thought himself fully jusand lined with sheet lead. A current of water, cold in tified in assuming that the one, (the starch, sugar, &c.,) summer and hot in winter, is kept in constant circulation would go about five-ninths as far as an equal amount of from one to another, and Mr. H. finds that he can thus the other, (the oil)-in other words, that the proportion keep the thermometers that hang at one or two different of 90 to 50 expresses the ratio between the respective points in the apartment, at from fifty-two degrees to fifty- values of these constituents in the food. Adopting this six degrees with great equability. The upper shelf about proportion, he then constructed a table for the purposes the room was covered with an inch or two deep of char- of comparison between different feeding substances, comcoal, which had been found to operate most successfully puting the cost of the meat that would he obtained from in the preservation of an atmosphere constantly sweet and 100 lbs. of each. To go back again to the straw, he puts pure, without such an admission of the exterior air for it down as containing one-half of 1 per cent. of oil, and purposes of ventilation as would be necessary without this 32 per cent. of starch, sugar, &c.—both together equivaprecaution. Unless I have forgotten, however, the sides lent to an aggregate, according to the above estimate, of of the room near the top were also provided with one or 184 lbs. of oil in 100 lbs. of straw. In conversation with two outlets for the escape of any foul air that may rise Mr. Horsfall duriug my visit, he said, however, that subfrom below.
sequent experiments, conducted (I think) by Mr. LaWES, I was particularly interested in what I saw and learned had led him to modify somewhat the foregoing computaat Mr. Horsfalls, because it showed so plainly the practi- tion, and to consider the ratio of two to five as expressing cal nature of the experiments he has undertaken, and be more nearly than that of 50 to 90, the approximate efficause the numerous details with which it furnished me, cacy of starch, sugar, &c., as an equivalent for vil-an become of double value in connection with his writings, abatement upon his former estimate, explained by supposalready to some extent known in this country, from ab- ing that some oxygen combines in the process of digestion stracts prepared for the Country GENTLEMAN at the time with the carbon of the food to form carbonic acid gas, and of their appearance in the Royal Ag. Society's Journal, is thus thrown off, creating a loss not previously taken into and from their partial republication in our State Society's the account. While this does not affect materially the Transactions. There is one point in these Experiments to results of the previous experiments, it should be placed on which I wish to refer more particularly, as it came up for record and borne in mind in consulting them. casual discussion not many months ago in the columns. of With one farther remark I shall conclude. Mr. Mechi, this paper (Mar. 22—vol. xv, p. 192.)
who had found straw as he cooked it with other materials, Mr. Horsfall justly considered it of great importance to apparently of unexpected service, for its price, for feeding the practical farmer and dairyman that he should know purposes,—immediately seized upon Mr. Horsfall's reasonmore accurately the relative values of the different mate ing as both explaining his own experience and sustaining rials he feeds, in the vital economy of the animal consu- his advocacy of the more economical employment of their ming them. For the purpose of conducting investigations straw by English farmers. He mentioned in a paper pubthat should throw any real light upon the subject, hc licly read, that he was getting 18 lbs. of oil out of every thought, moreover, that the investigation should go becwt. of straw that he fed, or something to that effect—a yond his laboratory and analyses, to try the animal and its statement which, when put into this form by him, was at food upon the scales, and carefully reduce the results of once discussed and disputed. Finally, in December last, the facts thus obtained and of the reasoning by which they Mr. Nesbit the chemist, came out with a total devial of the were connected, into intelligible form for application to correctness of any such assumption as that on which Mr. practical objects. To take the article of wheat straw for M.'s statement was based, with regard to the equivalent in instance, he finds that chemistry can obtain out of a hun oil of “the carbon, oxygen and hydrogen in straw." This dred pounds of it only half a pound of oil, while in the denial, although unsupported by any argument, and appanutritive processes that go on in the stomach of the ani- rently founded on no experimental acquaintance with the mal, the far larger quantity (32 lbs.) of sugar and starch it subject in its practical bearings, nevertheless furnished contains, seem to be also made available in the production several writers in Great Britain and in this conntry, with a of fat. In what degree they possess an efficacy of this new opportunity of decrying Mr. Mechi's pretensions to kind had long been a matter of controversy, and its very practical experience," and of sneering at those who liad truth he considered no more than " barely settled.” He been so gullible as to receive anything coming from him therefore applied himself to its farther elucidation by ex. as “reliable.” If the pains liad been taken to go behind perimenting upon it himself and studying the experiments Mr. Mechi, and examine his authorities, the error, if error of others. By a course of careful experiment which I there was, would have been elsewliere located, or, very