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it any better, but I hope I have learned something since that time.
There are too many farmers who think it too much trouble to give calves any extra attention, but let them "take their chance” with the other stock through the winter. This proves a very poor chance, to my notion, for farmers who will treat calves so negligently will take very little care for the comfort of any tenant of their barn-yard. Calves, I have thought, which "take their
chances," are of the same breed with those which furnish BEDDING FOR FARM STOCK.
crows with bait and tanners with kip-skins in spring-time.
If they survive the winter, it takes them all snmmer to get No farmer undertakes to winter his horses without some ready to grow again-then, if tough enough, they will sort of bedding for them, either the usually abundant and stand another winter and take their place with the raw
boned, poor-milker cows, or lank, unruly steers, which are inexpensive material of straw, or the more valuable refuse the pests of our highways and the disgrace of our stock hay from the manger. The “hard boards” would leave husbandry. too evident marks of discomfort, the labor of cleaning A trifling amount of attention will produce a very difwould be much enhanced, and some horses would help ferent result. There is no need that calves stop growing themselves without stint from the hay rack, if allowed to in winter, nor need they be fed expensively to keep them
in good thrift. do so. Hence we need not urge particularly the impor
My calves have, as their winter quarters, a stable or tance of giving an easy resting place to this portion of the room in the barn, about twelve feet square, with a manger farm stock, but there is need, we think, that something be along one side of it, next the barn-floor. This manger said on paying the same attention to the other tenants of holds all I put into it, until the calves have eaten it, or I the barns and yards, and also upon the best materials for take it out-hence there is no waste. The front has y the same.
shaped openings for them to put their heads through, of a
size appropriate to calves. The bottom of the manger is This year the usual material for bedding is, in many about six inches above the floor-a board slants to the places, demanded for more important uses. Straw and all back of the manger from about one foot from the front, so coarse fodder will be husbanded with care, and dealt out that the feed will slide forward within their reach. The with economy, as, indeed, they should be every winter.- front openings come within six inches of the manger botBut we need not therefore give no bedding to our cattle inches wide at the top.
tom and extend up nearly three feet, and are about twenty -our oxen, cows and calves-nor should our sheep be left
Nothing in the fodder line that I ever put before a calf, without a dry, soft spot to lie upon-or our pigs be refused seems to "take" better than good, early cut, and well
, a nest into which they can crowd for warmth and comfort. but not over-cured clover hay. They will do well on it
The woods, with their abundant crop of leaves, will sup- without anything else, but will do better with an occasional ply a most excellent material for these purposes. It feeding of apples, pumpkins or roots, cut fine and well gathered while dry, and stored under shelter, they will salted, “just for a change"—they then return to hay with
a renewed appetite, and evince by their playfulness that furnish soft bedding for any animal, and add also largely they “feel first-rate," and by their looks, that they are to the value of manure. Leaves absorb a considerable thriving and growing. I like to have my calves and other amount of liquid and decay quickly from exposure, and stock with coats as sleek and shiny in winter as in sumthe quality of the fertilizing matters they supply is superior mer, and with comfortable shelter and care, it is not difti
cult to secure this satisfactory appearance. to most other materials used for bedding.
This year hay is rather scarce with me, but my calves Anything which promotes the comfort and quiet of our shall not be starved down if there is any virtue in corn farm stock, promotes also its thrift and productiveness.- meal and cut straw to prevent it. So far they take hold A horse or ox is in better condition for labor the next day of barley straw with good relish; pumpkins do not seem after passing an undisturbed night's rest upon an easy bed, to come amiss, and a "nubbin" of soft corn occasionally than if forced to stand or lie in discomfort—a cow will nightly meal of straw, with a few ears of corn to give
seems a sweet morsel. Why cannot they make their give more milk, a fattening animal will take on more flesh; "heart” to their evening's rumination? I have seen it and all upon less food than would otherwise be required. somewhere stated that corn fed to cattle at night would be
Leaves in the country are abundant and easily secured. as well digested as though ground into meal, being fully In towns, dry sawdust, chips and shavings from laths and chewed in “ the cud” before morning. planing mills, spent tau-bark, dry muck, and the like
may and if they can have it close at hand, and whenever they
To thrive, calves must have water at least twice a day, often be obtained more economically than straw or coarse like, all the better. The best I can do, is to water them hay. And to any one near a sawmill or tanyard, the saw-night and morning, letting them take a little excursion of dust and tan-bark furnish valuable material both for bed- some six or eight rods to get their drink. It seems ding and manure. We hope these or leaves, or all of tough” to them, no doubt, to leave their warm stables them, will be gathered and stored by every farmer who has on a blustering day for a drink of cold water, and I should not an abundance of straw to give every animal in his sta- like to be able to build a great cistern to hold the water bles or sheds a warm, dry bed through winter. He will them and all my stock, three or four times a day at least.
from the barn-roof, so that I could pump it up right before be doubly paid, first in the comfort and thrift of his stock, Calves may be stabled and fed and watered, and yet and again in increased crops from the additional supply of suffer from want of cleanliness, and a good bed of litter manure.
to lie upon. I have always given the latter, and cleaned
the stable three or four times a week, but this winter I WINTERING CALVES.
shall clean out every day, and give all the bedding I can
spare for them. No, I don't doubt but some will do better Eps. CULTIVATOR—Every year I have four or five calves for their calves, but many will do worse—so it may do to winter, and every year I have to make “a talk” about some good to give my reminder for those who need its it in some one of my agricultural papers. You once told promptings
. Perhaps some brother farmer can give me my story for me (Co. Gent., Jan. 14, '68 ;) this time I some valuable hints on the subject, if they would only shall try to tell it for myself, though I don't expect to do take up the pen and do it. Farmer B.
ECONOMY IN FEEDING STOCK IN WINTER. winter in good condition, (which is very essential,) and
were fed on corn-stalks and straw. Towards spring a few Of late years, much has been said and written (and for ears of corn, not to exceed three each per day, were given. the main part justly too, perhaps,), upon the economy of The cows, about calving time, were messed with a few outting or steaming food for cattle in the winter ; a course potatoes and a little barley meal, and shorts mixed in which is doubtless under certain circumstances and in some equal quantities. My stuck'all came through in first rate localities, highly to be recommended. But that it should
condition. be universally followed I cannot bring myself yet to conclude. One objection to this course is the great amount a mess of carrots each day.
This winter I am feeding the same, with the addition of of labor reqired to cut the food for a large stock of eattle, through a winter of from four and a-half to five and a half tered on straw alone, with perhaps a few potatoes and a
A great many cattle in Western New York will be winmonths. And for one I cannot see what advantage it pos- little mill feed. sibly can be, if my stock both consume the food I give
What Mr. PETTEE says about the economy of feeding them without wasting, and well digest it, as they probably meal as compared with hay at the present high prices, is would if kept wholly on good bright hay.
undoubtedly true. I certainly would prefer straw and meal, I am aware, in advancing this theory, I am conflicting to hay alone. But add to these, carrots, turnips, or potasomewhat with our modern teachers in agriculture, who toen, and you have a combination that will keep your stock advise us to feed nothing without being prepared by the in a thriving, and if you please, a fattening condition. knife or otherwise.
If a man has a power straw and stalk-cutter, I think it And while upon this subject of stock-feeding, and as the would pay to cut his fodder. But it is a great mistake to present is the proper season for rehearsing such matters, suppose that cattle will not eat straw without cutting. If allow me just to say that the common opinion that a stock stock are tied up and fed in mangers, they will eat any of cattle cannot be carried through the winter 'without a kind of forage cleaner than if fed on the ground. The large stock of hay-equal usually to two tons per cow, reason, I suppose, is mainly that it is not trodden under and about double that quantity for a bullock—is in my foot, and the animal being confined in one place, he is not view likewise preposterous. Or in other words that hay, ranging about seeking for something more palatable. and hay only, is what we must have for stock-feeding in It is very common here to keep sheep through the win. the winter nionths.
ter on straw, with a small allowance of corn, beans, or Suppose we just look into this matter, and “calculate," roots. But be the feed what it may, shelter from the cold Yankee-like, as you perceive I am from a Yankee State. winds and storms froin early autumn to late spring, is all Farmer A. has a stock of ten cows to winter. For this important. If animals can have that, they will thrive on purpose he must have twenty tons of good hay, taken from pretty short allowance. B. Batavia. as many acres probably—as one ton per acre is likely a full average for our hay crop.
HOW SHALL WE SAVE FODDER. Now there is Farmer B. his neighbor, who believes and practices a different doctrine. He has a like number of
The question has been asked more frequently and more cows, and “ calculates” to carry them through on his 800 earnestly during the present extraordinary scarcity, than bushels of roots, taken from a single acre, (either carrots, bagas, or mangolds,) and his ten tons of choice corn fod for many past years. We hope to answer it in a way that der, raised from two acres—and I will venture the asser- may afford some valuable suggestions. tion that Farmer B.'s cows will give more milk and look First-It is important that no fodder be wasted. It smoother in the spring than his neighbor's, which have often happens with many that hay is scattered about feedbeen fed solely on dry hay.
Now, Messrs. Editors, what say you? Is there really ing-yards, and trodden under foot by animals. It is not, anything in tkis theory, or is it all theory and moonshine? perhaps, wholly lost, for it becomes converted to manure, If I did not dislike to be personal, I would just give you but at the present time it is a rather prodigal mode of some statistics in support of my method. And I think it manufacture, and it would be decidedly more economical becomes some of the farmers of Western New-York to to pass this material first through the animal. To prevent look into this matter the present season, when hay is this waste, suitable racks and boxes should be amply proalready selling in some localities for twenty dollars ton, and just see if there is not really some way to keep vided, and they will, in a very short time, pay their cost. stock cheaper than feeding them wholly on hay. Probably Several good modes of constructing them will be found in it would be economy to feed even a proportion of meal when past numbers of the Illustrated Annual Register. hay commands a price approaching one cent per pound,
Secondly-Use for food all the straw that can be spared. and meal can be had for one and a half or two cents.
All I ask is for intelligent thinking men to look into If well stacked and preserved, as nearly the whole straw and examine the matter, and not think that there is only crop has been the present season, it will be eaten freely, just one way to do here, i. e., the very thing they have especially if a slight sprinkling of brine be added, or if always done, and their ancestors before them, but to recol- cut short and mixed with meal. “But we want straw for lect that the present is truly an age of progression, and he littering our stables!" True—it is important that animals who fails from lack of confidence, either in his own ener should be comfortably bedded; and it often happens where gies or in the new methods constantly being brought forward, from venturing into some of the new-fangled theo- this is omitted, that more is lost by cold and discomfort, ries, as he may in derision call them, must just be content than is gained by feeding the straw. There is, however, to be a laggard in his age.
W. J. PETTEE. a substitute which many farmers may still procure in the Salisbury, Conn.
form of forest leaves. These constitute an admirable maWINTERING STOCK ON STRAW AND CORN-STALKS. terial for bedding animals, being softer as well as warmer
than straw. During the open weather which frequently In a very sensible article on stock feeding, Wu. J. PETTee suggests that there are other ways of keeping cattle prevails in the early part of winter, they may be secured through the winter, besides feeding them on hay. It may, in large quantities. Select those places in the woods perhaps, be news to him and other New-England stock where the winds have swept masses together, as in hollows growers, to learn that many “Farmers of Western New- or along the side of fences. They may be thrown into a York” have been for years in the habit of wintering their cattle with little or no hay at all. Last winter, í kept wagon provided with a large box, by means of a two
bushel basket, and many loads drawn in a single day. through fourteen bead of cattle and two horses, without a mouthful of hay, except a little to my cows about the time
Thirdly—Make the most of cornstalks. As commonly of their dropping their calves in spring. They went into fed, more than half their value is wastod. The leaves are
stripped off by cattle, and the solid stalks, which consti- There is a singular diversity of opinion on the subject tute the greatest portion, are trodden under foot. Every of cooking corn meal for hogs. A careful and very sucpart should be eaten ; and by doing so, one acre's product cessful farmer once assured us that his corn yielded about will go farther than two acres with the common wasteful two and a half to three times as much pork with the meal mode. They must be cut fine by means of hore power.- ground and cooked, as fed in the ear. : What relative part Hay cutters, which chop in pieces an inch long, will not was due to the grinding and cooking respectively, he had
The fourth of an inch is quite long enough.— not determined. Other farmers have placed the result far One farmer of our acquaintance, who kept a four-horse lower, and assert that it does not nearly double the value power at his barn, has made a large saving by cutting all of the grain. We want something more careful and more his cattle fodder in this way. The machine was set so as frequently repeated under varying influences to settle the to cut very short, and the hardest stalks were reduced to question a state like fine chaff; and all was eaten. Two or three In preparing ground food by cooking or otherwise, much hours with the machine would cut enough to last his head dilution with water is very undesirable. Large, compact, of thirty cattle a week. This mode of treating stalks we excellent pork can be made only by feeding the animals have found absolutely necessary in feeding the Chinese on concentrated food. One of the most successful pork sugar cane in winter, when it becomes so hard that cattle raisers on a small scale, feeds his spring pigs on sour milk cannot grind it. We have found great advantage in pred through the season, and frequently by winter has animals paring it by the use of Hickok's cutter and crusher, which weighing between three and four hundred pounds; but he cuts at first half an inch long, and afterwards crushes or is especially careful not to allow any slop to be thrown into grinds the cut material, It would be better if cut shorter. the sour milk, or in any other way to dilute it. Hogs fed Two-horse power will drive it with great rapidity.
on dry ground meal, are observed to be of compact handFourthlyA great saving may be effected by shelter some form; while such as get abundant slops with a small and warmth. Cattle exposed to winds and storms must portion of meal mixed through it, have large bellies and either eat large quantities to maintain animal heat alone, slenderer flesh. We believe this consideration has been or else inevitably waste in flesh. Comfortable sheds, (if too much overlooked in feeding, and hope these desultory only temporary,) well littered, and warm stables, will save hints will call attention to it. tons of fodder in a winter on every large farm, and hun. dreds of dollars such a season for high prices as the pre- FEEDING SHEEP-LOSS OF WOOL IN SPRING.
We recently remarked at some length on the manageCOOKING FOOD FOR HOGS.
ment of sheep in fall and early winter, but have since
come across an additional hint in the following statement A correspondent who signs himself “Massachusetts," credited to the Michigan Farmer, which, if true, is worth and "farms in a small way,” wishes some information rela- placing before our readers. Will some of our sheep-men tive to the best method of cooking grain for fattening give us their views upon the question. We have noticed hogs. He keeps but four at the present time, the food of that starved sheep were apt to lose their wool in spring,
but have had no experience with such in our own flock: which he cooks in a 60 gallon kettle, well set in briek, a
“There is no season of the year when sheep are more cast iron top being placed on the brick work in which the liable to lose nearly all they have gained, than November kettle sets. But he still finds that for the four hogs, he and December, and if they do, there is an end to the hopes has to cook food at least three times a week, requiring two of a crop of wool; for the want of food has the effect of stop
ping the growth of the wool, and the inoment the growth is to three hours each time, and quite a quantity of wood, stopped, the end of the fibre is completed, a change takes which is four to six dollars per cord. He is not satisfied place, it becomes dead, in a manner analogous to the stem of with this arrangement, and proposes an upright tubular ripe fruit, and a renewal of good feed after these months, and
after the growth of the wool has been once stopped only presteam boiler, the size of half a barrel, with the necessary pares the skin to send forth a new growth, that pushes off the pipes, cocks, &c., to convey steam to a vat for cooking the old fleece, and causes it to be lost before shearing time.” meal. He remarks that such is "the vast difference in the grain when his hogs are fed with boiled, over unboiled
STORING CABBAGE FOR WINTER USE. food," that he shall keep on with his present arrangement
"Cabbages are variously stored; some prefer setting the until he finds something better. Can any of our corres- head downward and the root up, and covering partially pondents speak from experience in this matter ?* with dry soil. Others keep in the cellar, which must be
We take it for granted that the meal must be first made well aired.” So says a writer in Co. Gent. of Oct. 6th. wet before the steam can act upon it usefully. We would In the autumn of 1857, I. packed a barrel and a llavana like to know the amount of saving effected by a well made placed them in a warm cellar. The cabbages kept sound
sugar-box full of cabbage heads and white moss, and then steamer over the best arranged kettle for boiling, with a and good into March, when some of them began to decay; cover to retain as much as possible the heat of the steam. however, a portion of thein kept well into late in April
. A great waste of fuel results from simply placing a kettle
Last autumn I again packed my cabbages in moss, such over a fire, the flame striking over the surface in a loose as is used by nurserymen in packing trees, &c. These irregular manner. If, on the contrary, the brick work is box and barrels were covered with straw, and kept in a
were kept in my barn until partially frozen, and then the 80 built that the flame from the small fire below is spread slightly frozen state till into April. Any time when wanted out thinly over the whole broad surface of the kettle, by for use they were come-at-able, and by immersing the leaving a space between the kettle and the brick, over the heads in a bucket of water, the frost would be entirely whole surface, only an inch or an inch and a half thick, so removed in course of an hour or two, and the cabbage that the heat shall be economized as in Matt's Agricultural preferable way of keeping cabbages to that of setting them
were fresh and crisp as when packed. I find this a far Furnace, a very little fuel will heat or boil a large measure out in my warm, damp cellar, where they are liable to of water.
decay, and give off a very offensive odor. If buried head Our correspondent will find a cheap steamer described in the downwe.jds out-doors, they cannot be conveniently got at Illustrated Register for 1855, p. 115.
till spring. L. B.
The Loulterer's Companion.
eighty fowls of various breeds, embracing Brahmas, Shang-
The Dairy Department. CHEAP POULTRY HOUSE. The above rough sketch is intended to represent the FLINT'S “MILCH COWS & DAIRY FARMING.” front elevation of a Poultry House I have just erected for
Winter Feed of Cows, the accommodation of one hundred fowls. The dimen- MESSRs. Eds.—In a former letter on "Butter-Making sions are as follows, to wit: Twenty-four feet long by in Winter,” I proposed to remark further on various intertwelve wide-94 high in front, and 6: in rear, to afford esting points brought out in the work named above, and sufficient slope of roof to easily shed water, Architects will now proceed to do so. I have no misgivings as to would call it a lean-to, if attached to a dwelling or other the value of my text, but must confess to some fears in building. The material is pine, inch stuff, batoned all regard to my comments thereon. around, the boards being put perpendicularly, and fastened The chapter on “Feeding and Management," contains to a plate and sill of 2 by 3 scantling, which rnns across many valuable suggestions. The anecdote of the German front, rear and both ends. The roof is made of inch farmer shows clearly the importance of feeding well, in boards a foot wide, the cracks being covered with thin order to make dairying profitable. A Swiss dairyman sheathing 6 inches in width, and is supported in the center bought the milk of his cows at a fixed price my measure, by a 2 by 3 scantling, the entire length of the house. In the German furnishing ample feed, but leaving their entire the front are two windows hung on moveable butts, and care to the dairyman. He soon had to sell one-half his open in-door in the center, and a hole for fowls at the cows, he says, " because the Swiss required nearly double right hand corner, with slide inside to shut at night. the quantity of fodder which the cows had previously had”
The house is divided into three apartments of 8 feet-more in fact than the farm was able to supply. He had each—the center being the feeding room, into which you formerly fed them better than usual; but the increased enter as you open the door. This room has a floor, and amount now consumed astonished him-as also did the contains a box 24 by 18 inches, and 5 inches deep, filled result. He says, “The quantity of milk kept increasing, with slacked lime-another filled with sand-another filled and it reached the highest point when the cows attained with pounded oyster shells—also a feeding hopper for the condition of the fat kine of Pharaoh's dream. The grain, 8 feet long, two feet wide, and two feet high, with quantity of milk became double, triple, and even quadrutwo fronts, so that fowls may eat from both sides at the ple, what it had been before-a hundred pounds of hay same time-capacity about three bushels. Both faces or produced three times more milk than it had produced with sides are covered with slats three inches apart, so as to my old mode of feeding." prevent fowls from getting in with their feet. This hop- The dairyman's motto, "keep the cows constantly in per is filled as often as consumed, so that the fowls can good condition," is truly “the great secret of success."have access to food at all times. Another box, covered Owing to the better quality of fodder, and greater care in with lath, (an old starch box I use,) is used for cooked feeding this winter, our cows have kept in as good condivegetables and meat. Last comes the old-fashioned barrel tion as during the summer, and the falling off in the profountain, which furnishes constant supply of water, clean, duct of butter has been much less than usual with the adbecause the basin under the barrel, into which the tube vance of winter. Butter-making at this season has not extends is too small to allow the fowls to put in their feet. been a special object with me, but I have wintered cows, This list embraces nearly all the furniture of the feeding and experimented a little on the subject, and I find that room.
cows fed fully and regularly with frequent changes of food, The right end of the house of 8 feet, is devoted to the and comfortably sheltered, will give milk as long as is desleeping or roosting apartment. My roosts are now of oak sirable, taking the spring's calf and next summer's milk poles, (shall be sassafras soon as I can get them from St. product into consideration. Louis,) and are placed about six feet from the ground, at “In winter," says our author, “the best food for cows right angles to each other, about 16 inches apart, and in milk, will be good sweet meadow hay, a part of which nailed together-giving more roosting room in the same should be cut and moistened with water, as all inferior hay space than roosts placed across a room but one way. The or straw should be, with an addition of root-crops—such fowls gain the roosts by wide ladders. This room has a as turnips, carrots, parsnips, potatoes, mangold wurtzel, ventilator in the roof and in the end of the building.
with shorts, oil-cake, Indian meal or bean meal. * * Hay The left end of the house of 8 feet, is separated from cut and thoroughly moistəned, becomes more succulent the rest of the building by a partition and door, and con- and nutritious, and partakes more of the nature of green tains three tiers of nests, fixed around the sides of the grass." room. Some are 18 inches square, while those upon the Good hay, early cut and well cured, is no doubt “the floor tier are 20 inches square. A board six inches wide, best food for cows in milk," and roots “cannot be too runs in front of all the nests, and on a level with this highly recommended, especially to those who desire to board, a 6 inch ledge runs around likewise, so that biddy obtain the largest quantity;" but for quality, give me may make a choice of nests. In the front of the nests I the hay and shorts, and roots enough for three feedings a have nailed up a few cornstalks for concealment the more week, and I ask nothing better, nor will I promise to use easily. The upper tier of nests is covered with a slanting the hay cutter. As to "thoroughly moistened” hay, why roof, which will prevent fowls from stealing a quiet roost- is it that hay thoroughly moistened by a shower, is refused ing place. This room has a ventilator in roof and rear. - by stock until it again becomes dry, or they are starved I put up permanent nests, because it was the easiest and into eating it? A slight wetting, when one mixes meal cheapest way, and scalding water and lime-wash will keep with cut hay or straw, is beneficial, and indeed requisite them perfectly free from insects of all kinds.
to their consuming the whole. I intend another year, to adopt the pure breed system, The concluding directions are worth copying: "Feed and cultivate one kind of breed exclusively. I have now sweet and nutritious food therefore, regularly, frequently,
upon the "
and in small quantities, and change it often, and the best The treatment of weak swarms, whether from old results may be confidently expected. If the cows are not dwarfed or young stocks, has often been given in the Co. in milk, but are to come in in the spring, the difference in Gent. and Cultivator, and it is an important question in feeding should be rather in the quantity than in the bee culture. A weak colony made strong by proper manquality, if the highest yield is to be expected from them agement, is just as good as a colony originally strong. E. P. the coming season. The main point is to keep the animal in a healthy, thriving condition, and not to suffer
Inquiries and Answers. her to fail in flesh; and with this object, some change and variety in food is highly important." Prof. Flint says nothing of corn-stalks as a winter food
DRAIN TILE.--I wish to say something to you on the for cows, but those who have fed them in connection with subject of draining by round" tile, &c. The agricultural hay and roots, know how to estimate their value. In com- works have much to say about tile draining, round tile, mon with many others, I have observed that cows give and all this thing, but never have enlightened us at all as more milk, and the butter retains its yellow color much to how lateral surface drainage gets into the broad side of later, when corn-fodder is fed, and comes sooner in churn- a tubular pipe of 2 inches or any other diameter. I can ing, and is of a better quality. No doubt this arises from easily see how a tubular pipe could drain a pond, or send the sweetness of the corn-stalk. Roots, if fed freely, water froin a higher to a lower level; but how surface make the milk watery and thin, and hay not of the best drainage or water can get laterally into a tubular pipe of kind, causes a decrease in quantity and quality. With one-quarter to one-half a mile long, sufficiently to drain good hay, corn-stalks well cured and saved, roots, apples, the land on each side of the pipe, is more than we and wheat-shorts, one can give that “change and variety" ers" are able at present to see. I hope you will be good so essential to keep the cow in a healthy, thriving condi- enough to enlighten us on this subject through the Co. tion. A neighbor, keeping but one cow, and feeding corn Gentleman. Your contributors and correspondents in stalks and shorts, is now making ten pounds of butter general are not explicit enough, often leaving us in the per week-more than some make from five cows under dark on the most essential points. A SUBSCRIBER. — common treatment, at this season.
Alton, Illinois. [The water finds its way into the creviIf this proves printworthy, I shall offer some remarks ces between the separate tiles, and this far more rapidly on other matters contained in the work before us—as yet, and completely than can be conceived before trial. In • I have touched but a single chapter. A Young FARNER order to prevent the earth also from washing in, it is often
necessary to place straw, sods, &c., over the ends of the
tile; and hence it has been sometimes remarked that the The Bee-Keeper's Department. more you try to keep the water out, the surer it will be to
come in freely, and your drain to work well and permaDegeneration of Bees.
nently. ] Articles oceasionally appear in the agricultural journals
, fruit business. Will you please inform me of a few of the
FRUITS FOR MARKET.-I am somewhat engaged in the Degeneration of Bees.” Some writers attri- best sorts of apples, pears, and grapes for market use, and bute this want of continued success to breeding in-and-in, best adapted to our locality, between the Seneca and and advise changing stocks with neighbors. Others state Cayuga lakes in Ovid? As we have the State Ag. College that swarms from old stocks have become so dwarfed that located in this town, and the State premium farm of 1856, they lack strength, energy, and numbers to secure suffi- we ought to be improving some. G. D. Sheldrake, N. cient store to maintain themselves, and consequently must Y. [We can best answer the inquiry in relation to APPLES perish, and also affirm that this degeneration goes on with by quoting the vote taken on this subject at the Fruit almost mathematical regularity from generation to gene- Growers' meeting at Rochester last winter. The following ration. An examination of the natural history of the bee makes largest vote: Baldwin, Rhode Island Greening, Roxbury
is the list, those being placed first, which received the one receive the foregoing with much doubt. First-As to breeding in-and-in. In most thinly settled Ounce, Tallman Sweeting, Fall Pippin, Esopus Spitzen
Russet, Tompkins County King, Northern Spy, Twenty parts of the country, and where few bees are kept, there berg, Lowell, Golden Russet, Red Astrachan, &c. The are generally wild bees enough to prevent, with consider- Baldwin received double the vote of the Greening; the able certainty, in-and-in breeding. Where many bees are Greening double the Roxbury Russet; the Roxbury Ruskept there can be no danger of degeneration from this set double the Northern Spy; the Northern Spy double
Those persons who take enough interest in their the Fall Pippin, &c. The best pears for market are bees to change stocks with ncighbors to improve the Angouleme, Louise Bonne of Jersey, Beurre d'Anjou, breed, will undoubtedly give their bees all the attention Winkfield and Easter Beurre, on quince; and Bartlett, necessary to success, and they would, I think, succed just Flemish Beauty, Sheldon, Seckel and Lawrence, on pear. as well without troubling themselves about ill effects of in- The Virgalieu would stand first, but for its liability to and-in breeding.
crack. The Isabella, so far is the best market GRAPE.— Secondly—Dwarfed bees can only be produced from old Time only will prove the value of the Concord, Delaware brood comb, the cells being smaller from the number of and Diana-grapes of high promise.] cocoons contained. However much dwarfed a new swarm from an old stock may be, unless they, in building new
RaisiNS AND GRAPES.—Can raisins be made from any comb, build it of reduced dimensions, the offspring of their of our native grapes, and if so, of what variety? Also queen will be full size. I have never seen it mentioned please state exactly how it is to be done in detail. Where that any one ever saw new comb of reduced sized cells, can I procure a two-year-old vine (not forced) of the Anna, or a dwarfed queen. Dwarfed queens are not produced. Clara and Powell? AN AMATEUR. Philadelphia. [AtIt is almost positively certain that only one queen is ever tempts have been made to manufacture raisins of American produced from a cell. After the queen is hatched the cell grapes, but have not as yet been very successful. The is almost entirely destroyed. After the swarming season, Clara and Anna grapes may be had of S. Miller of Lebaonly a trace of queen's cells can be found, so that we can non, Lebanon Co., Pa., but we are unable to say where the reasonably conclude that the young qu ens, hatched the Powell can be obtained—perhaps of C. P. Bissell & Co. following season, emerge from newly formed cells. The of Rochester, or of Dr. Grant of Fishkill, N. Y.] queen is impregnated out of the hive, so that dwarfed Drilling Rocks.—Wanted, a labor-saving machine for drones from her hive are not likely to injure the race. boring or drilling rocks for blasting. Any inventor or Superior strength probably rules with bees as much as dealer having such for sale, that has been well tried and with animals. We may conclude that dwarfage comes en-approved, may find a purchaser by furnishing his address tirely from very old hives, and that with the death of the to this paper. bees that have swarmed from an old stock, ends the dwarfs Farm Mill. I would make the following inquiry rein the new hive.
specting a farm mill for grinding corn in the ear, and