Imágenes de páginas
PDF
EPUB

possibly, a negative assertion, without farther explanation

(For the Cultivator and Country Gentleman.) or reasoning, would not have been so readily pounced MOUNTAIN SEEDLING GOOSEBERRY. upon and brought into notice, without any reference to

I enclose an outline of the Mountain Seedling, a variety the laborious, careful, and I think I shall be fully justi. which I received from a Shaker settlement in eastern New. fied in adding, the very reliable investigations which were York. This is quite distinct from the American Seedling thus abruptly contravened, and for which we have to thank of the Cincinnati gardens. I hare had it bearing three Mr. Horsfall-of whose “practice" as well as "preaching," I much regret that I cannot present a still more complete and satisfactory account.

n

[graphic]

PERGUSON

[ocr errors]

W.M.

LIVING ROOM

12 X17

[ocr errors]

DED ROOM
7 X9

DESIGN FOR A LABORER'S COTTAGE.

This is a small but complete cottage of its kind. It has a front entry as a protection from cold winius, and for proper seclusion ; a small closet on the left of this entry; a bed-room and living-room, the latter with two closets; and a wood-house in the rear, which may be built with the house or added afterwards. A portion of this wood-house may be fitted up as a sort of summer kitchen, to which the cooking stove may be removed dur.

MOUNTAIN SERDLING GOOSEBERRY. ing dog-days. The cellar beneath is reached by a flight of stairs from the

years, and am highly pleased with it. The plant is of a

robust habit, often growing five to six feet high : branches living-room, under the entry stairs.

upright and strong ; leaves deep glossy green, and very The bed-room on the principal floor

large ; the berries grow in clusters of three or four, and may open into the entry, if desired;

will average nearly as large as the outline under ordinary but it will be more comfortable in

treatment; color of berry, dull red ; quality equal to cold weather if immediately connec

Houghton. The plant is very productive, and never mil

dews. It is undoubtedly a native, of the same typé as ted with the living room and receiv

Houghton, and more valuable than that fine sort, on acing of its warmth. The stairs to the chainber, land under count of its fine size and the more vigorous and upriglit the highest part of the roof, consequently there is no dan character of the plant. E. Y. Tras. Richmond, Ind. ger of striking one's head against the rafters. There are two rooms and a spacious closet above.

THE HARVEST RETURNS ABROAD. There being no windows on the side of the entrance, it is intended that this side be mostly covered with prairie

The Agricultural Gazette (London) of the 18th of Aug. roses or other running plants, kept several inches or a foot contains its annual Harvest Report. As to the Wheat from the outside boards, by means of a frame or lattice crop, out “ of 140 reporte received from as many correswork trellis, made for their support.

pondents in England and Scotland, no fewer than 93 deThis cottage is nearly square, or 18 by 20 feet outside, clared the crop to be below an average ; and if the chief affording an economical enclosure of space; and the roof, the proportion of unfavorable returns is quite as large.”

wheat-growing districts be selected it will be found that having considerable ascent, furnishes plenty of chamber

The ceiling is 71 feet high, and the eaves about The same journal of the 25th contains a supplementary re3 feet above it. It may be built with a cellar under the port, upon which the following editorial comments are whole, and with a rough bourd wood-house for about three given:

The additional harvest returns in another page corroborate hundred dollars.

those which were published last week. Of 30 reports of the It should be observed that the window-hoods should not wheat crop in Scotland and England, 19 estimate it as under be made of inch boards as is sometimes done, which gives average of 33 reports of the barley crop, 23 declare it to be them a flimsy appearance, but of plank at least two inches 32 reports of oats, four are under average, 22 are evernge,

average, and seven put it as very good or over average. Of thick, and better if three inches.

and six are over average. Both peas and beans in these supThe foregoing is one of several Original Design: plementary returns are generally reported as being superior prepared for the coming Number of the ILLUSTRATED AN

сгора.

The weather which has befallen us since the date of these NUAL REGISTER OF RURAL AFFAIRS for 1861.

returns must, however, be remembered by any one who would

derive from theun his opinion of the present harvest. In ser. Good SHEEP.—Mr. WM. VERNON of Scaghticoke, bas 18 eral instances, as from Suffolk, Essex, Cambridgeshire, and pure superior wooled Cotswold ewes, which have pro- and though a few only of our correspondents have sent to cor

elsewhere, we have had intimation of the serious injury done ; duced this season 27 lambs. They were dropped late in rect their reports, both of the probable barvest time and of the March, and now average 105 pounds each.

probable yield, yet everywhere we know the ripening of the

room,

grain being delayed, and both its quality and its quantity spreading them smoothly around, so that the whole preare being injured by the constant cold and wet.

sents the appearance shown in the engraving, which we This weather, too, is general; the Times reports it to be as mischievous in France, in Holland, in Holstein, and in Ger-copy from Le Bon Fermier—where it is stated that grain many as it is in England. In districts earlier than our own may stand thus, to ripen, for from two to three weeks bethe question is--how is the harvest to be got in if we are to fore carrying it in. have a continual alteration of rain and sunshine.

“ The wheat in the districts to the south-east of Paris, where “This method of moyettes or villottes," M. Barral goes the crop has been gathered in, is more or less injured by the on to say, in the article from which we are quoting, damp, and the new wheat offered for sale in those markets is unfit for millers' use. The wheat in the northern and western

“recommended first by de Vaux in 1822, then by de departments of France, where the harvest is being commenced, Dombasle, de Gasparin, and many other agriculturists, is will be more or less injured should the weather not change for gaining ground every day—especially in these seasons of the better. Even

in the south of France it bas been found bad weather. Thanks to the good counsels of science now difficult to thresh out the corn. The rain penetrated the stacks, which were not made for such unseasonable weather, and the more widely received, we have no longer to dread such new wheat brought to market is unfit for storing. It will be disasters as history has sometimes recorded. Many old long before the wheat now being reaped will be sufficiently cultivators who compare the present season with the worst dry. The accounts from Germany are not more satisfactory. It rains in Holland, it rains in Holstein, and the wheat har- they have ever gone through before, are speaking of the vest is retarded. Rye and barley have suffered. Accounts rains of 1816, when everything was totally lost, and the from Berlin state that the potato crop is

sed, and that the rye and barley on the ground are in danger of perishing." grain rotted on the ground. Nothing like this, fortunately,

| is now to be apprehended.” In addition to the foregoing we have the Journal d'Agriculture Pratique (Paris, August 20) from which

(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) we translate for the COUNTRY GENTLEMAN M. BARRAL'S

Dry Yeast---Bread and Biscuit. leading paragraph:—“The agricultural fortnight,” he reremarks in effect, “may be announced in a general la- rections for making dry yeast, and on page 79 are a few

in page 31 of the current vol. Co. Gent. are very plain dimentation, making itself heard from North to South. amendments to them. These directions meet the approval of Here they fear for the Vintage, there for the Harvest. my wife, who is an excellent bread baker; they are the same Grapes threaten to remain green—at least those that are these cakes to soak

in a half pint of warm water in the even

as those by which she makes her dry yeast. She puts a few of not eaten up with the oidium—in either case producing ing, letting them soak until the next evening. She then sets only a wine of pitiable quality. As to the grain, no one her rising by boiling and mashing fine two quarts of potatoes; ventures to cut it. In Beauce," a fertile district forming to these she adds water sufficient for the rising, about milk parts of the departments of Loir-et-Cher and Eure-et- warm, and a tablespoonful of salt; then stirs in her flour

and

yeast until a proper consistency; she then sets away to rise unLoir, “three-quarters and a half are still standing as we til morning ; then she adds flour to the rising, kneads it well write, and the abundant rains prevent their going rashly and sets it away to rise ; after rising, she moulds it into loaves to work. Besides the crop has not come to maturity summer she, instead of boiling potatoes, boils thick sour milk;

and sets it to rise a short time again, then bakes. During the throughout the whole north, and they can only proceed to she takes the whey which separates and sets her rising as the harvest on condition of hurrying to put the sheaves above. When her yeast cakes are new she puts them to soak in stooks protected by cap-sheaves to shed the rain” (en making light cake or biscuit is as follows: When her brend

in the morning previous to setting her rising. Her mode of moyettes recouvertes de chaperons.]

is ready to mould up she takes a large bowl full of the dough, a teacupful each of sugar and butter, grates in half a nutmeg, kneads them together, makes them into balls or loaves about nn inch and a half in diameter, puts them in a tin, lets them rigo, and bakes. It is surprising how little attention many fariner's wives pay to making light sweet bread, one of the most important parts of the meal, always having hard, heavy, sour bread, with butter to match, requiring a sharp appetite to make them go down.

J. W. L.

(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) Reci e for Elderberr-- Wine,

THE FRENCH

To l gallon of berries put 1 gallon of water-boil it until the berries burst-strain them, and to every gallon of this juice add 3 pounds of moist sugar, 1 ounce of ginger, “cloves and cinnamon," of these two last enough to suit the taste. Let it stay in the cask until March.

RUSTICUS. Messrs. LUTAER TUCKER & Son-In your last CULTIVATOR a request was made for a recipe to make good elderberry wine, and having one that has been tried for years, I will give

it to you for the benefit of your readers. "MOYETTE.”

Gather the elderberries when perfectly ripe, pick them off

the stems and put them in an earthen vessel ; to every quart This is a way of putting up the grain worth a passing of berries add one quart of cold water, and let them description. While a workman holds a small sheaf on stand until they crack open. Then squeeze them through end, which he compresscs closely at the top with his two nel cloth, and boil it in a clean brass or copper kettle from cne

a flannel cloth. Then strain the wine through another flanhands, others bring more small ones, in quantity equiva- to two hours, and to every gallon and a half

, add one tablelent to six or seven of the ordinary size, and put them spoonful each of ginger, cloves and allspice, put in a bag and around the central one, so as to form a smooth cone with put in the wine while boiling. Then empty it in an earthen

vessel, and add to every gallon and a half 4 pounds of brown a large base, which is then bound with straw about two- sugar. Then add to every gallon and a half from 2 to 3 tablethirds the way up, so that the wind may not derange it. spoonfuls of good hop yeast, and let it stand until it ferments Then a cap-sheaf of the ordinary size, bound near the and settles. Then bottle it up and set it away from six to

eight months, and it will be ready for use, and you will probottom, is inverted, so to say, over the apex of the cone, nounce it the best you evor tasted. It is excellent for medi. by opening the beads of the straw for its admission and I cal use.

D. M. FOULKS.

[For the Conntry Gentleman and Cultivator.)

pipe burning, place the little end in the hair, and continue HOW TO DESTROY VERMIN ON STOCK. to smoke and move the pipe mwil the whole anmal has MESSRS. EDITORS—The inquiry of one of your corres

been smoked over. The smoke will not kill the eggs of pondents in the COUNTRY GENTLEMAN, of how he shall rid lice, therefore the animal should be apoked two of three liis calves of lice, is one of considerable importance to both times, at intervals of several days between the operation. parties concerned—first to the animals in point of com. and one pipe full of tobacco will snoke four calves.

Any cheap kind of tobacco will answer for this purpose, fort, and also to the owner of them in the economy of it. 'All animals infested with lice, are in a state of continual bedsteads, and blow the smoke into all the joints, eracks,

To smoke bed bugs, remove a}} the clothing from the irritation and discomfort, and as a general thing, do not holes where the cords go, or any other place where a bug thrive and grow as they otherwise would, and this subtracts so much of the profits from the pockets of the owner. and bag has not been seen or feli in my house for

can get. In this way I have rid my premises of them, The motives of humanity to the animal, and economy to

years. the owner, ought to induce every owner of domestic anižals to keep them free from all species of vermin. It is hair on the back, neck, brisket, and the inside of the

In using snuff for lice, 1 bave it dry, and rab it into the well known that the vegetable and animal kingdoms are both infested with various kinds of parasites, which draw thighs of the aniinal, these being the parts on wbieh the their nourishment from the object on which they are found, they first get on the animal, one good gmuffing will gene:

lice are first and mostly found. If this is applied when and also that these animals and vegetables are injured in

rally finish them. But whether use smoke or snuff, I proportion to the number of vermin found on them, or make it a practice to examine my stock often, and on the the amount of nutriment drawn from them. Whether this argument is sufficieut to establish the theory that it first appearance of lice on them, ibe reinedly is applied, is natural for calves to have lice," or not, I shall not at until a cure is effected. This rule ought to be invariably tempt to decide; but my belief is, that it is just as natu- adopted by every one who has the care of domestie stock; ral for children to have lice as it is for calves, and that for the reason that the longer it is neglected, the nore there is no more need of having them in the one case than suffering is experienced by the animal and loss to the the other; and further, that no person can be justified in owner. Many farmers in this vicinity have lately adopted

the practice of feeding swipkur to their stock during the allowing any living being in their possession, to be in fested with vermin any longer than they can effectually ticks on sheep, that are fed with it, and the sulphur is

winter, as it is said that liee will not live on cattle, or re:nove them. It would seem that at the present day no one need be the manner of feeding it is to mis it with the salt that is

recommended as being beneficial to the health of stock. ignorant of remedies for killing lice, but from the numeroos inquiries which are made from time to time, I think given to them. Some persons are in the habit of sprinkthat the publishers of every agricultural paper would con- in which the cattle are tied; others put ashes on the cattle ;

ling dry ashes, or slacked lime, on the floors of the stables fer a great benefit on the farmers of the country, if they but this is an unsafe way,' for if the cattle get wet after would annually at the commencement of winter, deliver an address to their readers on "vermin which infest do- the ashes are pat on them, the lye will take the hair off, mestic animals, and the effectual destruction of them."

and in some cases the hide too. The first time that I In my intercourse with farmers for the past thirty years, four calves. I put a small quantity on ther backs, and

beard ashes recommended for killing liee, I tried it on I bave heard of a multitude of ways to kill lice on cattle, rubbed it well into the hair. This was in the winter. and have tried a large number on my own cattle, but for Before spring the hair on which the ashes had been put some years past I have confined myself exclusively to one would pull out by handfuls

, as easy and as clean as though article for that purpose, and that article is tobacco, either it had been scalded; and on the backs of three of them in the form of smoke or suff. My reasons for preferring it is, that it is easily applied, is safe in its application, and the hide came with the hair, in spots. On these places sure in its execution. From long experience, I know that scars were formed, on which the hair never grew after

wards. . Sir.ce then I have seen scars on the backs of tobacco smoke will kill any live louse, tiek, or bed-bug other cattle, formed in the same way. There are many that comes in contact with it, and it can be applied in all other remedies which are applied for the destruction of places with little trouble, either to man or beast.

To apply the smoke, I use what is called a bloro pipe, lice, which have the desired effect, if they are judiciously made of copper, about 3} inches long and 2 in diameter.

applied. One end of the pipe is made tight, the other is made in

I am aware that the opinion is somewhat prevalent, that the form of a lid or cover, to take off. In the top of the fat animals will not be infested with lice. This as a genelid a tube is inserted ; this tube should be two inches long, killed a veal calf that was fat, that had more lice on it

ral rule may be the case; but it is not always 80. I once made a little faring from the lid, and large enough to receive ttbe nose of a hand bellows. In the bottom of the than any other calf that I ever owned; and I bave frepipe another hole should be made, and a tube two inches quently seen other fat cattle, both young and old, that

heard a farmer say long inserted. This tube should be balf an inch in diame had quite too many lice on them. ter at its junction with the pipe, and taper to a point of the other day, that the best thing that he ever tried to not more than one-eighth of an inch at the other end.

keep lice off of his cattle, was to give them plenty of thin piece of copper full of sınall holes is fitted to the ind Indian meal to eat, and when he gave it to them they side of the pipe; this should be a little less in diameter were never troubled with lice. than the pipe. This strainer is placed in the inside of the

I bave also heard the remark made, that cattle fed with pipe at the bottom to prevent the tube being stopped with oil meal would not have lice on them, and that sheep ted the tobacco, and should be loose, so that it can be taken with it would not have ticks. Those who have had expeout and cleaned occasionally. The lower end of the pipe rience in feeding oil meal, will know whether this is the and the strainer should be made a little oval, and when

fact or not.

C. T. ALFORD. they are used should be placed with their concave sides

Wilmington, Vt. together. When I wish to use the pipe, I put into it as much to

[For the Country Gentleman and Cultirator.) bacco as I wish to use, then put in a few coals of fire, put

Remedy for Garget or Bloody Milk. on the lid and insert the nose of the bellows in the lid and commence blowing moderately; as soon as the tobac

Saltpetre (nitrate of potash,) given in doses of half an co begins to burn the smoke will issue at the opposite end ounce every evening, or every other evening, according as the of the pipe in a rapid stream.

effect is visible on the apital. The nose of the bellows

If it causes profuse staling, should be wound with tow, or a rag, so that it will fit tight have usually given it in a bran-mush, or any similar kind of

every other evening will be often enough to administer it. I in the tube of the pipe. When I wish to smoke cattle or food that the animal would take. Thrice I have completely horses, I take them when their hair is dry, and put them cured the coinplaint in the course of ton days or a week. in a stable, or some place out of the wind, and having the

RUSTIC.

a

A. R. A.

(Fer the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.] ting of it with liquid and partially fermenting it, half or SUPERPHOSPHATE OF LIME

nearly half way completed before the acid is added ; 90 In Co. Gent. of July 26th, E. E. W., of Concord, n. much so at least, that soine who use bone mauure la gely 1., having, as he states, like a good many others, discov: carry the process of preparation no farther. ered that certain articles sold as superpuosphates are very of fermentation only, as just noticed, or that of making a

Whether the process of preparing bone-dust, &c., is that werthless affairg-a discovery which he night have made, superphosphate, it should be commenced several weeks without being at the expense of buying and trying certain before the prepared article is wanted. That much time is " trashy mixtures," by the help of tre complete exposure necessary to carry the process to maturity, and to allow of thein made by Prof. S. W. Johnson, as reported iu Co. the mass to become dry enough for usc, especially in the Gent. of Nov. 3, 1859,—and having resolved to be no

cases where acid has been used. longer humbugged, but to prepare a genuine article for

If a ton of bones were treated with the quantities of water himself, asks for information about the process of making and of acid above named, there would be as the result a a superphosphate. As no one has as yet volunteered to give any such information, I am induced to submit the more than $45 or $50, or at the rate of $30 per ton for a

ton and a half of superphosphate, which need not cost following directions, which, being obtained from a colla

genuine article. tion of several of the same kind given at different times

Lastly, those who wish to experiment for themselves in a journal of high character—The North British Agri: should use much care and caution in handling the acid, 118 culturist may be accepted as entirely trustworthy and it is sure to cat holes in the clothing if any drops of it sufficient

should come in contact therewith, Superphosphate of lime then, may be prepared from several substances, such as ground bones, bone-ash, ground coprolites, phosphatic guano, &c., or from a mixture of

A HINT FOR DAIRYMEN. any of these. The first requisite for obtaining a good superpliosphate is to obtain good materials, whichever of

We often meet with notices of good cows, and a large dairy the above you may employ. Having obtained good ma- composed of such would prove highly profitable, but too often terials, place them in a heap on a hard floor, or still better, a few poor animals throw the balance on the wrong side. For in a wooden or stone vessel. A cask, barrel, or hogshead instance, a farmer in Massachusetts, keeping ten cows, found sawed into two halves, will furnish something generally they averaged 1600 quarts to the cow, but the five best avesuitable. To a given weight of bone aslı, ground bones, raged 2000 quarts, leaving 1200 quarts to each of the fivo or whatever material you use, add about one-fourth of its weight of hot water, or, still better, of urine or of soak. poorer ones. The best cows gave a profit of $18 each— ings from a manure heap, and mix thoroughly until the the poorer ones were kept at a loss of $14 each, thus destroywhole mass becomes wet or damp. Use more water or ing nearly the whole profit of the dairy. No man oan afford to liquid manure if the materials will absorb it. Shovel the keep a poor cow at the expense of the better ones-he should whole mass into a conical heap, if on a floor, and if in a rather fatten for boer, or give away, even, than to pursue such tub or wooden vessel, put it in some similar form, and a course of dairying. Let every cow's value be tested, and cover up with old bags, sods, or anything that will make those that do not come up to the point of profit should go to a close covering. In a few days the temperature of the the shambles. heap will be so high that the naked hand cannot be in. serted in it. When the heat has cooled down somewhat,

AN EXCELLENT CAKE. turn the mass over, add more water, urine, or barn liquid, and cover up as before. When the mass again becomes A housekeeper, very successful in delicate dishes, lias furhot, add from one-fourth to one-third of the weight of the nished for the COUNTRY GENTLEMAN the following mode of bone dust, or other material used, of sulphuric acid, taking making an excellent cake : Take one cup of butter and three pains, by shovelling or stirring with a wooden shovel or of sugar, well rubbed together ; then take five eggs which pole, to bring the acid into contact with every portion of have been beaten very light, and stir them by successive the mass. Stir the whole well together, after adding the portions into the above mixture, adding also four cups of flour last of the acid, which it is well to pour into or upon the and a cup of sweet milk. Add nutmeg and a wine glass of mass in several portions rather than all at once. Finally, form the mass into a heap, and cover with a coating of rose-water; and also add a teaspoon of solution of cream of sawdust, charcoal dust, dry muck, or any similar inaterial. tartar, and balf a teaspoon of solution of soda. Baking about After the heap has laid undisturbed for several weeks in fifteen minutes in a moderately hot oven will be sufficient. a dry place, it will have become mellow and dry enough for application, or if not quite dry can be made so by

CHICKEN PIE. adding a little of any of the materials above recommended for covering the heap.

From the same source, we have been furnished the followAs the directions now given are probably more com- ing :-Take a pair of good young chickens, cut them in small plete and einbrace more minute details than any other pieces, adding a proper quantity of pepper and salt and small which have ever been put upon record on the pages of strips of salt pork, and put the whole into a saucepan and the Co. Gent., and as they differ also from some which cover with water. Boil for half an hour, add flour and butter have been given to inquirers in other agricultural journals, to thicken the gravy. Provide a large dish for baking it, it may be well to accompany them with a few explanatory served with paste ; put the whole into the dish and cover remarks as to a few of the series of steps in the process again with a good rich paste, and bake the pie half an hour.

First, then, it may be remarked that the wetting of the It is best while fresh from the fire. materials--bone dust, bone ash, or whatever they may be --with water or manurial liquid, is thought to be much preferable to the method usually recommended and fol.

{For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.). lowed, namely, diluting the acid with the water or liquid

Recipe for Making Elderberry Wine. and uding both at once to the mass. Being sostened by the liquid and by the heat of the fermentation which is berry wine, of seven years experience. Gather the berries

At the request of A. B. R., I give my plan of making Elderset up, the materials are more readily acted upon by the when fully’ripe, bruise them fine, then strain them through a acid when it is added. Then, too, the acid is more sure

Το of being distributed pretty equally throughout the whole cloth; to one gallon of juice add two gallons of water. mase, and of acting upon the materials, as sulphuric acid cach gallon add three pounds of maplo or other brown sugar; bas suel a strong allinity for water that it rushes, as it add about one gill of good yeast to a gallon. Let it stand

mix well together. Then scald and skim. When nearly cold were, into the pores of the bones in search of the liquid two or three weeks in an open vessel – in stone jars, if conwith which they have been saturated. The process of pre- venient-till fermentation censes. Then bung it up, or bottle parivg bone dust for plant food is, indeed, by this satura- it, as you please; age improves it. Gko. CARGILL.

THE CROPS IN GREAT BRITAIN. tal will thus be rendered wholly unproductive-who will That there is something above and beyond Human to whom the Rent Day will come at the appointed time,

have expended just as liberally for costly fertilizers, and Skill, in the ordering of those events which are constantly just as relentlessly, wliether the crop be large or smal!! going on around us—whatever our occupation or purposes, Since 1817 the prospects of the country, in relation to the harvest, and however well, as Human foresight goes, may be plan- a wet autumn. From England and the north of France, from Ger.

have not been gloomier. The snnless summer is being succeeded by ned their development and results—is a truth of which the with heavy rains, so that spring corn is being houses in bad condition,

many, Denmark, and Sweden, reports come in of inclement weather, Farmer seldom needs to be reminded. He is already too whilst the other crops are suffering and kept backward very touch.

Last night the rain descended in torrents, not only here but for many apt, by far, to throw the responsibility of his mistakes up. miles round the city. A considerable business in wheat to day has

been the result of this flood of waters from the onsettled elements, but on the short comings of Nature-mindless of that general some holders decline meantime

to offer. We call the advance to das

over Tuesday's rates from 1s. to 2s. per barrel on foreign wheat. From rule to which she furnishes so seldom an exception, that intelligence by the wires from London, we learn that a large busi

ness is being transacted in rice at extreme rates, which have not Providence is sure to help those who help themselves.

transpired. This is a sure sin that there is much alarm in the me. Such an exception is occasionally seen, however, as we tropolis as to the grain crops in England. The accounts from North

Britain are more favorable ; no complaints of oats, barley or beans, began by remarking. Let the Farmer provide for all and very slight and partial as regards wheat. Turnips and potatoes

are sound and abundant, and one intelligent correspondent expects contingencies as carefully, and husband his resources as the stack yards in Scotland to be nearly twice the size of last year's

With such prospects and the immense supplies of wheat and tour im. judiciously as he may—there will now and then come a sea ported by the New York and Montreal firuns into the Clyde at present

we need not be surprised to learn our Glasgow friends are stripping to son in which the hand of the most diligent maketh not England and Ireland this week. Amidst the gloom and darkness of

tbese days, it is cheering to be inforined that the crops of the United rich, just as there will also come others when even the states and Canada are unusually abandant, as also in the south of sluggard's granary is more than filled. If the latter ap- port of the latter, we may expect a good deal of four direct into

France and north of Spain. From Santander, the principal shipping pears to be nearly the case in many parts of this country, Dublin, and that ere long. the present year, the gloom of the former threatens our -Since the above was written, we have the Mark Lane brethren in Great Britain more and more seriously as the Express of the 20th ult., the Crop Reports in which do not days and weeks go by ; each arrival of new intelligence differ materially from the foregoing. from across the Ocean, brings with it less of hope, and increases the probability that our harvests, far too large as

DEEPENING THE SOIL. they are for our own consumption, will not be unwelcome there, or unimportant to the welfare, and it may be to the Our meditations this morning have had for their subject continued existence, of the thousands who crowd the cities the oft-beard exhortation to the farmer, to “ Deepen the both in England and upon the Continent. It was the just Soil.” Taking this for our text, we will give the reader remark of Arthur Young half a century ago, that Engo "a homily” thereon—considering only the one side of lish farmers have learned “bow to turn their climate to the best account;” but no drainage could carry off the the matter-the soils which are benefitted by cultivation waters that have been falling there through the present of this character. summer, no fertilizer stiffen the growing grain against its 1. The Benefits of Deepening the Soil. A modern pelting storms, no artificial appliances pierce upward writer remarks, and well remarks, that "a deep soil is through the clouds and open a channel for those rays of better than a shallow one, because it furnishes a more exlight and heat, without the genial influence of which man cau only sow the seed, and the seed can only germinate in tensive feeding ground for the roots of cultivated crops. vain.

The elements of patrition, which the plant finds in the The Summer of 1859, and in many of the English Coun- soil, are not all upon the surface. Many of them are ties, the two also which preceded it, were unusually dry. washed down by the rains into the subsoil, and some are Streams and springs, represented as never before known found in the decomposing rocks themselves. These, the to fail, were running low, or already exhausted, and still a fair return had been made to reward the exertions of the plants, by a sort of instinct, search out and find, as well British Farmer. Now it seems almost as if the sky had in the depth of the earth as at its surface, if no obstacle only been accumulating its stores of moisture to shed them opposes.” in 1860 in one continuous series of overwhelming Rains ; II. The Preliminaries to Deepening the Soil. “in place of the ready bountiful crop," says the Mark 1. It is useless to deepen the soil by culture farther than Lane Expre::s, there lies

we first lower “the line of standing water "—the line a dank, tangled mass of what might be coarse, uncared for, reedy her. buge.- laid everywhere so tlat, so hopelessly beaten down by the wind where water ceases to drain or filtrate away but passes off, and the rain, thiat if it he corn in ear. it must surely motor medewras if it pass off at all, by the slow process of evaporation. It

to rise again the too tardy smile of the long tarrying sun! And still the rain comes mercilessly down, only to flat. ten te ret

more closely into the much sodden earth; while your neizt: matters little what the soil is below this line, because, as bor bids you mark the hay that he knows has been out for three weeks the same writer's remark will illustrate, “no root, except or more, and that can now never be worth carting at all, save it be into the dung yard. The short horns turn their backs moodily to the those of aquatic plants, will grow in stagnant water. Every driving rain; and the farmer on his shivering pong, with his coat collar turned up. holds an umbrella over his head with one hand, as he one who has attempted to grow deep-rooted vegetables opens the gate with the other, for a score or two of hapless looking lainbs. What a thorough air of despondency there is about the whole upon half-drained swamp land, bas observed the utter imgroup, and how plainlaittee pictures in all its recherche portar a solation, possibility of inducing them to extend downward their

of that "hope deferred" which "maketh sick!" Although some of the Crop Reports in that Journal, from usual length. Parsnips and carrots, on such land, frecorrespondents in various Counties, are of a little more quently grow large at the top, but divide into numerous cheerful cast, the editors remark that it is “hoping against small fibres just below the surface and spread in all direchope” for them to draw conclusions on the whole different tions." from their own impressions and experience, of which the 2. We need deepen the soil no lower than it is furnished above extract forms a sample. The Irish Ag. Review

- with food for vegetable growth, either naturally or by apfour days later, (Aug. 17,) the latest of our Foreign Journals now at hand-has the following paragraph which plication of fertilizing matters from other sources. Most we copy at length, and which must cunclude our Notes soils only need loosening and deepening by culture so as at this time, only preceding it by the remark that if the to allow aerating influences to act, to become able to fur. prospect of a market for our superabundant products can-nish nutriment to the roots of plants. But we cannot not but promise “ easier times" here, and through the dwell on this question here. Great West where several seasons past have been anything but remunerative, we cannot but bear in mind with sym

III. The Methods of Deepening the Soil.

Hos can patlıy the blow that is falling elsewhere-a blow that must the work be accomplished? be felt all the more seriously by those whose heavier capi. 1. We may deepen the soil by thoroughly underdrain

« AnteriorContinuar »