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ing it with no further working, save the operation of
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) continued drainage, it will in time become deep and mel
The Apple Tree Borer. low. It does this from three causes: First, the drains
Eps, CULT. AND Co. Gent.--As much has been said and allow the surplus water to filter rapidly away through the done of late years about destroying the borer, which has soil, instead of remaining a long time just below the sur- proved so troublesome and destructive to young apple trees, face, hardening, and in a manner, puddling the soil. I thought I would communicate to you my experience and
Three or Second, if the soil is clayey, drying it by drainage instead successful treatment in relation to the same.
four years since I grafted a thrifty young sprout from an of evaporation, causes it to shrink and crack, thus tending old apple tree stump with fall pippins ; the graft was growto its deeper pulverization. And third, into the cracks ing finely, when one day I noticed the borer was inaking thus formed, surface mold is washed, which not only keeps sad work on the tree, from the ground upwards a foot or the clay from again uniting, but invites the roots of plant more. I had read about applying coal from coal pit botto follow the vegetable food thus supplied, thus increasing the borer and stopping up the holes with gum shellac, &c.
toms around the roots of trees as good, and digging out the pulverization until
, in the course of time, it becomes I accordingly applied coal braize (the fine charcoal from equal to that of the drainage itsell
coal pit bottoms) around the root of the tree, dug out all 2 A more rapid method of deepening the soil is by the the borers I could find, cut away the dead bark, and apuse of the subsoil plow, or by deep culture with any im. plied a thick coat of tar on the tree where the bark had plement adapted to the purpose. After lowering the line been removed, and washed the tree with a strong lye from
wood ashes and lime. The borer has left the tree, and it of standing water, we may break up the hard subsoil at looks well and promising. I applied another coat of tar once; we shall find it to change its character rapidly as it this last spring where the bark had been destroyed. I becomes penetrable to the air-very soon instead of being think tar will prove useful in driving away the borer from shunned by the roots of cultivated plants it will be sought young trees.
John R. BLAIR. Kent, Ct. by them, and they will show by the larger growth above
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) ground that there is a large and healthy growth of roots
Improvement in Feeding-Boxes for Sheep. below. We cannot, we should remember, trave the one without the other.
The old fashioned box for feeding sheep with hay, forın3. The soil may be deepened by a gradual increase in ed with two boards on a side--one a short distance above
the other to admit the sheep's head-is a most useful thing the depth of plowing given in the usual course of prepara- in thawing, muddy times, though at others its use may tion for crops. If we have a field which has never been be considered doubtful. If they could be made so as to cultivated beyond five inches deep, we may very safely be snugly packed away under shelter without much trouble, and profitably plow it six inches for the next crop, and go they would last much longer, and farmers perhaps would
be more likely to bave them. This may be done by makan inch deeper each time for several succeeding crops. ing mortiees in the posts to receive the end pieces
, instead There is no difficulty in turning a furtow nine or ten in of nailing them on. The end pieces can be held in their ches deep with our usual teams and implements, after the places by pins, fitted loosely so as to be taken out easily, soil has been thoroughly broken up to that depth, and there which will hold the box together. The side pieces of few if any farm orops but will fill with roots a fertile soil are
course are nailed to the post. When the box will not be one foot in depth. It may require more manure to enrich used, the end pieces can be taken out, the pins slipped in
their places, and the whole thing packed away where it suek a soil, but in the same proportion it will be more pro- will not be destroyed by being racked about, or exposed ductive than a shallower soil, and will continue much longer to the weather. to give profitable returns without additional manure.
MESSRS. TUCKER-A very long experience in the wine
trade enables me to say to those of your readers who are In our last number we acknowledged the receipt of making wines of any sort, that the whites of eggs are superior samples of this plum from Mr. HexBY HALLENBECK of to any other fining. They should be entirely separated from East Greenbush, N. Y. In the absence of our Horticultu- the yolk--beat only so as to seperate them, and not to the ral Editor, we sent some of them to CHARLES Downing, frothy condition prepared for cake-making. Three or four Esq., who has favored us with the following description: and a tablespoonful of fine salt ; mix these well together in a
whites to a quarter cask, adding the shells pulverized fine, NEWBURGH, Sept. 3, 1860.
gallon or more of the wine, pour this into the cask, and see LUTHER TUCKER & Son-Your favor of 30th, with Hal- that your measure holds back none of the fining; then give it a lenbeck Plums, came safely to hand, for which I am thorough stirring from the bottom with a stout stick put in at the obliged. The stems were wanting, and the bloom mostly bunghole. If you have more shells, it will be beneficial to use rubbed off, so that I had to guess at those portions. I thein, especially if the juice appears to partake of strong bave it growing, but it has not yet fruited. I consider ic rinous acid. The eggs should be fresh, and if the first fining
very good " plum, but not "best." Its value depends fails give it a second one, but do not stir from the bottom, or much aspon its bearing qualities, time of ripening, and let your stirrer go more than half the depth of the cask; the whether much liable to rot on the tree.
bung should be left loose, a faucet put in the head of the DESCRIPTION.—Branches smooth or slightly downy ; tle of the lees drawn off for a few times, and at intervals of
cask, and after a while by a sudden turn of the faucet, a littree vigorous with straight upright shoots.
some days, until it appears bright in a glass. If the process Fruit large, roundish oval, one side often enlarged. Su- of fining is very tardy, a small quantity of brandy poured ture broad and shallow, ending in a depressed apex. Skin gently in at the bung, and stirred on the surface of the juice, deep reddish purple, sprinkled with numerous brown dots sometimes aids the precipitation of lees. and covered with a blue bloom. Stalk (short, less than half an aneh,] in a pretty large cavity. Flesh greenish
Elder for Striped Bugs. yellow, juicy, sugary, with a brisk favor-quality" very good"-adheres closely to the pit, which is roundish oval. the common elder upon vines to keep off the striped bug.
I saw a notice in the COUNTRY GENTLEMAN of placing Ripe last of any.
Chas. DOWNING, We shall be much obliged if Mr. Hallenbeck, on whose made their appearance, the vines were completely covered
Ours were very thrifty, and in two days after the bugs farm this plum originated, will favor us with its history, and eaten. I then placed on some elder, and the next bearing qualities, &c.
day they were all gone.
J. L. B.
G. A. S.
CURING SOWN CORN FODDER. term pippin among apples, the Fall pippin being very Messrs. Editors—wish to beg some information large, the Golden pippin very small; the Newtown pippin through your valuable columns in relation to a piece of is green, the Ribston red, the Downton yellow, &c.; the corn gown broadcast—which is the proper manner of Sugar-loaf is oblong, the Michael Henry conical, the Vancuring it, cutting and bundling the same as field corn, or dervere pippin flat; the Blenheim pippin sweet, the Ribcutting and laying flat in the same manner as hay. Would ston sour, &c., the term, in fact, applying to all apples of it be advisable to put on the same land winter wheat after whatever size, form, color or quality. removing the corn in case it was taken off by the 4th or oth of September? I have been a constant reader of the COUNTRY GENTLEMAN, and had it in our family for the last Fruit in the Shade---Balling Trees. three years, and found it of great interest.
Eds. Co. GENT.--- Are the sun's rays absolutely necesCorn fodder, raised by sowing the seed broadcast at the
sary to ripen fruit? I have a spot of ground so shaded rate of four bushels per acre, or much better if in furrows that at this season not more than four hours of sunshine or drills at the rate of two and a half bushels per acre, gives are upon it. Will you or your readers say whether grapes, a much finer and softer stalk than common fodder. It pears or apples will ripen in such a place ? will be all eaten by cattle, but at the same time it packs
Will you also please explain the process of “balling"
a tree for winter transplanting? H. New-York. more solidly in the stack, and is in greater danger of heat
The sun's rays are not absolutely essential to the ripening and spoiling by fermentation. We have known whole stacks to become completely spoiled, even after the ing of fruit, as is proved by the growth and maturity of fodder had remained some weeks in the shock, and was shaded trees are fully open to the northern sky, so that
specimens on the shaded side of large dense trees. If the apparently quite dry. The stacks must be small, with three rails set upright in the middle so as to leave an open they will receive a full share of light from sky and clouds,
they will probably succeed pretty well. Apples, grapes ing for the escape of heat ; or better, if spread on poles in and pears will do better in such a place than peaches
. As the loft of a shed. It may be stacked better, handled better, and it will dry better, if bound in bundle; but will a general rule, if the leaves, which furnish the food to the do very well if not bound, but raked with a horse rake growing and ripening fruit are fully exposed to light and pitched with a horse fork. If for
and air, the fruit, although itself in the shade, will become
nding, the corn grown in drills may be cut with a common scythe so as to
fully perfected. fall in even swaths; if for the horse-rake, it may be cut
The usual practice in removing a tree with a ball of with a mowing machine.
earth, is to dig a trench about the tree in autumn, fill the It is a good crop to precede wheat, if it has been sown
trench partly with leaves, to protect its bottom from the early enough in spring to be cut by the end of summer; solid, to lift the tree and remove it on a sled to its place
frost, and then, when the earth within the trench is frozen for as it bears no corn, it does not exhaust the soil, but leaves more in the soil in the form of roots, than it car. been cut for it in autumn. If of considerable size, we
of destination, where a hole of corresponding size has also ries off.
should prefer cutting a narrow trench a year previously, MAHALEB STOCKS.
so as to cut off all the long roots, that the tree might send MESSRS. EDITORS— As you are supposed to know every
out a new supply of shorter fibres. In this way it would thing, I wish to ask five questions about the Mahaleb-a sustain less check in transplanting. stock used for budding the cherry upon. Does it make a dwarf tree, or will they grow to be as large as those bud
[For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.] ded upon a Mazzard stock ?(1) Are the stocks obtained
REMEDY FOR BED BUGS. from seed ?(2) Where can the seed be obtained !(3) When to be planted ?(4) Is the fruit as good as when budded "A highly respectable lady who has especial abhorrence" upon the Mazzard ?(6) Please answer through the Culti- of bed-bugs, has our sympathy, and is welcome to our plan, Vator and oblige Jos. E. PHELPS. Mass.
which has not only kept them from the beds, but banished 1. The tree grows rapidly at first, but does not attain them from the house within the last month. the size of those worked on Mazzard stocks. 2. The Ma- Take a cup one-third full of tar-put in candlewick, (say haleb is raised from seed. 3. Some nurserymen have be- about four feet in length to each bed,)—when properly satugun to raise their own seed in this country, but we do not rated, wind two or three times around each foot of the bedknow of any in market. 4. They may be planted in stead in the smallest part, or on the castor just above the roller; autumn or early spring, as other cherry seed, having been tie loosely, so that it will retain the tar. Cleanse the bed gathered and treated in the same way.
thoroughly several times during the first week. Apply the
tar as often as necessary to keep the wick properly saturated, PLUMS AND GAGES.
with a brush or feather, and the bugs will soon disappear.
By putting the bandage where the bedstead will protect it What is the distinguishing difference between a plum from coming in contact with the bed-clothing, the tar will be and gage? is the gage round and plum long? J. W. L. Icss inconvenience than bugs. 1. G. Leavenworth, Kansas. All gages are plums, but there are some plums which
Take five cents' worth of quicksilver, and a piece of lard as are not gages. The term gage, originally from the name large as a hen's egg. Rub them together in a stone mortar or of the man who introduced the Queen Claude into a part earthen bowl until the quicksilver is well mixed with the lard. of England where it was unknown, is generally understood This mixture is similar to blue ointment. Put a small quanto apply to plums of moderate size and rather rich quality, tity in the crevices of your bedstoads. This ointment has the varying, however, in form and color. The Green gage is advantage of liquids, as it does not dry and become useless round, the Imperial gage is oval. The former is green, and will remain for yoars unless it is washed off. the Yellow gage yellow, the Purple gage violet, &c. But the term is never applied to very large, or very coarse cles were patented in this country. Of these, 117 were
o During last year, no less than 629 agricultural artiplums, nor to that peculiar class known as prunes.
seed-planters, 113 harvesters, 58 cultivators, 43 plows, 42 The same or a more obscure meaning attaches to the churns, &c.
a cost of...
8 South Downs
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) tion is going on, some latent valve is opened, by which SHEEP IN TEXAS..
the gas is liberated and escapes.
I have never known any other remedy recommended Eps. Co. Gent. The flocks of Col. C. B. Shepard, near that would not be quite as bad, if not worse than the dis. Long Point, in Washington county, prove that many of order. In a case of pure hoven, so short and sudden are the prairies in Texas are well adapted to sheep. His sheep, its beginning and ending, there would not be time to precomposed of merinos and inixed blood, are now in such pare and adininister gs, if they could avail, before the excellent conditiou, notwithstanding the severe drouth, case would terminate fatally or be relieved by Nuture, that I give the following items, condensed from his books, while stabbing is so revolting and dangerous as not to be for the encouragement of Texas wool growers.
taken into account. The swallowing of a piece of turnir,
potato, apple, or the like, is a different condition from that Col & began wool growing in 1877 by the purchase of 684 sheep, at of hoven, and should be treated differently. The probang In 1838 he bought 302 at..
1,600.0 instead of the straw rope must be used to get rid of sub. 1819 do. 14 bucks and 20 ewes, (Merinos).
stances lodged in the gullet
Every one having cattle should have one or more ropes 4,179.50
ready made for service, so that no time would be lost in 2856. June, wool sold at residence, 2c. per ib.
962.a constructing one-time is all important in the matter of do. 153 sleep sold for mutton do. 64.23 exclai 1854, do. wool sold do. 200. per la
735.2 hoven If there is any tar at hand it would not be amiss steep sold
1,001.00 to besmear that part of the rope with it that is to go into I860, Wool suki at residence, Bc. per Ib....
1,850.40 the mouth of the animal. I can give no reason for the Total
*.211.21 tar accelerating the process, other than it increases, perMany of the prairies are yet unfenced, hence there has haps, the revulsion or repugnance to the rope, and causes beeu uo expeuse for food, except a small amount of hay the saliva to flow more freely. But tar or no tar, let the and snillet, giren during the northers of last winter. The rope be applied as directed. dock had lidtle attendance in 1857, save that given by a
This remedy has been long known to me, and frequentMexican dog of great intelligenoe.' It is said that he keptly adverted to through many years. JAMES GOWEN. constantly with the flock except when hungry, when he
Mount Airy, Philadelphia, Aug. 10, 1800. went to the nearest house, and by barking and gestures asked for food, after receiving which he returned imme
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) diately to his charge. The dog mixed freely with the
GOOD SHEEP IN CANADA. sheep In crossing streams and dangerous places, lie would go ahead and encourage them to follow.
Eps. Co. Gent.-In your issue of the 2d inst., I per
ceived you gave an extract from the “Southern Planter," In 1858 and 's a shepherd was employed at cost
$123 which stated that a gentleman of Virginia had been making Three years shearing, say about.. Salt, say about....
6 importations of stock from England. Among the sheep
imported, was a Cotswold ram of such size that the editor Total.
had the curiosity to measure him. He then gives the diBy in sheep used for mutton la family, #1 each,
$320 mensions which are certainly large, but we are pleased in 30 acres of land manured at $5 per acre.
being able to state that we can produce something still Totale.
8478 larger, and we would at the same time, most respectfully Increase by lambs during 3 years, 1,799.
inform the editor of that paper, as well as any other of No. of sheep June 1860, 2,430, worth at least $6 each, our American cousins who may wish to excel in sheep, $14,580, and Col. S. would not sell at $7 per bead. No that they might possibly be as well accommodated in estimate is made of the interest of money used in buying Canada, and thus save the trouble and expense (not to say flock, enough being already given to show that Col S. has risk,) of going across the Atlantic for the desired object. darge profits. His sheep have always been very healthy. I have a ram of the Improved Leicester breed, which, Col. S says they have increased in size and yield of wool
. after seeing the aforesaid extract, I had the curiosity to The number lost bg death can be found from the preceding measure, and which I found as follows: Length from the items.
top of his eyes to the foot of his tail, (which, by the bye, The location of Col Shepard is amid fine rolling prai- was cut very short,) five feet two inches-girth behind the ries, drarersed by well watered ravines, where cedars and shoulders, five feet ten inches—width across the back other trees grow, giving shelter from the northers in winter. twenty-four inches--weight 12th August, 353 lbs. The There also the sheep have water, and shade in summer. measurement is given irrespective of wool. There is so little dew in Texas that sheep cannot thrive But before I conclude, I would just remark that "size" without plenty of good water.
S. B. BUCKLEY, is not the only desired qualification in sheep, no more than Evergrees, Washington Co., Texas, Aug. 11. other animals. Our great object should be to combine
quality, symmetry, and wool, to correspond with their (For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) weight of carcass. HOVE OR HOVEN IN CATTLE.
Now, gentlemen, since I have taken the liberty to
trouble you thus far, allow me to ask of you a little inforMesses. Enitors-Observing in one of your recent mation as to what encouragement is given to foreign or issues some special remarks on the cause and cure of Canadian exhibitors, at your State Fairs. If your terms * Koren," allow me to recommend a simple remedy for are liberal, I miglit probably show the sheep above noticed, the evil, one in which I ltave so much confidence as to as well as some others of my lock, at your next exhibi. feet perfect freedom in recommending its application. tion at Elmira, should they not be disposed of before that Let a straw or hay rope (made of two strands of thumb time.
Thomas Guy. rope laid or twisted together) be introduced between the Sydenham Farm, Port Oshawa, C. W. jaws of the animal, bridlewise, drawing it back by both The N. Y. State Ag. Society offer prizes of $10 for the ends, and tieing it tightly around the roots of the horns at best ram-$10 for the best pen of five ewes, and $5 for the back of the head, till the jaws are fully opened and gagged. If this is done in the stall and the animal is able the best pen of three lambs, for the different breeds of to stand or walk, it should be turned out at once and kept sheep, from out of the State. We shall hope to see some moving about, when in a few minutes the distention will of our correspondent's sheep at Elmira. subside and all will be well again.
The philosophy of this, simplified, is that the animal Richard S. Fay of Lynn, Mass., one of the best sheepfinding itself gagged, is excited to effort to get rid of the raisers and agriculturists in that State, has recently importobstruction, and for this purpose the tongue is brought into ed two Oxford-Down bucks, one of which is two years old requisition to eject the rope, and while this muscular ac-l and weighs 230 lbs.
THE BEZI MAI PEAR.
small with short stiff open segments; the stalk is brown,
woody, of the length represented in the figure. Towards We present here with an Engraving of this Pear, which the ripening period the skin becomes of a lighter and more is a Seedling originally produced by DE JONGHe of Brus- uniform green, with a yellowish tinge, and softening near sels. He describes it in a late number of the Gardener's the stalk. The fesh is as buttery as that of the Easter Chronicle as possessing some points of excellence, which Beurré, as close as that of the Glout Morceau, and free if it would retain on trial in this country, would render it the filaments forming the axis of the fruit are very slender
from grit; the juice is abundant, sugary, and high flavored; a decided acquisition—a consideration which has lead us to and scarcely apparent; the seeds, 4–6, are large, oral, copy the Engraving for the Country Gentleman from the of a coffee-brown color. The fruit is hard and beavy. It Revue Horticole for June last. Mr. De Jonghe says :
is to be remarked that the fruits gathered from the 23d of In 1856, when it first bore fruit, it was 11 years old. September to the 20th of October, all ripened equally in The fruit, seventeen in number in 1857, were of the and proved of best quality. Another point worthy of no,
May. Those gathered latest were, however, the largest, Chaumontel form. In 1858 the fruit remaining on the stice is, that the fruit blown down by the wind in the end tree after the hurricane of July 25th and at the time, of of September and beginning of October in 1867 and 1858, gathering were only thirty. I carefully tasted the fruits have not suffered from their fall. of 1856, 1857, and 1858, and determined their quality. In conclusion, the Bezi Mai is recommended for the From three seasons' experience the ordinary time of ri- good appearance of the tree, its hardiness, productiveness, pening is in May, bence the name which is added to that the beauty of its fruit, its late and prolonged period of designating its form. At the time of gathering, its skin ripening, its good quality, sound keeping, and adaptation is of a dull green, marked with brown dots. The eye is for bearing carriage.
Pike's Defiance Cucumber.
We present herewith an Engraving representing upon a scale of one-third its natural size, this favorite English cucumber, especially noted for its abundant product and the precocity and rapidity of its growth. The Revue Horticole mentions an instance in which 13 seeds sown by one of the large Paris vegetable gardeners, gave birth to 13 plants which at the end of five weeks had a kilogramme's weight of fruit upon them, about 27 lbs., fit for marketing, while another of the best early varieties under the same treatment, furn: ished nothing at all that could be sold until a fortnight later. This grower reckoned the product of the 13 plants at 25 cucumbers apiece, or a total of 300, and expressed so much satisfaction with it, that it was his determination the present year to occupy no less than a hundred sash with this sort alone.
The Pike's Defiance resembles somewhat the Gladiator and Man of Kent, but is said to excel both in the qualities above remarked-earliness, rapidi. ty of growth, and abundant yield. It is well adapted for forcing, for which purpose some particulars of the French system may be read with interest. The seed is there sown at any time from the beginning of February into May, in pots of about an inch and a half diameter (4 centimetres) plunged in the hot-bed. Re-potted ten days later in a larger size, at the end of a second ten days it is a third time shifted into a pot still larger and at the end of six weeks to its final ocation in the bed, four plants to each frame about 3 feet 3 inches by 4 feet 7 inches. The culture adopted is to pinch successively to three eyes the stalk and the two principal shoots put out after the first pinching. The plant is then left to itself, except as regards di. recting the brunches in a suitable way; the cucumber should be ready for
Pike's DEFIANCE CUCUMBER. picking, if there has been a fair degree of sunshine, him a helping hand in his theory, or practice if you prein six or seven weeks, and it is particularly recommen- fer that word. Some twelve years since I began a new ded, if an abundant crop rather than large size is the flock of sheep by the purchase of twenty head from a object sought for, to remove the cucumbers as fast as large flock that were in rather poor condition. I fitted a they become eatable, so as not to fatigue the plant. A loose stable with boards and floor, in which they were kept successive development of new fruits in very large num- nights and stormy days, having boards hung on hinges at ber is thus secured. Similar pains and similar training the sides, that could be opened and shut at pleasure for are recommended for those grown out of doors, and an the purpose of ventilation. The result was, my sheep equally abundant crop, although not so quick a one, is gained all winter without grain of any kind or roots, and promised-say toward the end of the second month. in the spring not a tick was seen on any of them. Such
has been my practice from that time to the present, and (For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.] some years have wintered eighty-commonly about forty Keep the Sheep in Good Condition. or fifty-have never fed any oil meal, and have never
seen a tick on either sheep or lamb during the whole of Messrs. Tucker & Son-I see there continue to be that time. I think the doctrine of protection from cold inquiries as to the riddance of ticks from sheep, and very wet storms in late fall, winter and spring, with good care frequently Mr. JOHNSTON's theory of good care and feeding and keep, will eradicate all the ticks in America. An is doubted, and by others the credit of his suocess is given experience of twelve years is satisfactory to me at least. to linseed meal, which he feeds liberally. I have long Now is the time for those that raise ticks and wish to get since thought, when I saw him więlding his pen in defence rid of them, to prepare a shelter for their sheep, and see of good care and keeping to rid sheep of that pest, and all that they are taken care of in our cold wet storms, and others making inquiries as to how they should get rid of all will be safe. Such at least is my experience. ticks on their sheep, that I would take my pen and lend Rome, Sept. 5,