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ing it with no further working, save the operation of
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) continued drainage, it will in time become deep and mel
The Apple Tree Borer.. low. It does this from three causes : First, the drains Eps. CULT. AND Co. GenT.--As much has been said and allow the surplus water to filter rapidly away through the done of late years about destroying the borer, which has soil, instead of remaining a long time just below the sur-proved so troublesome and destructive to young apple trees, face, hardening, and in a manner, puddling the soil. I thought I would communicate to you my experience and
Three or Second, if the soil is clayey, drying it by drainage instead successful treatment in relation to the same.
four years since I grafted a thrifty young sprout from an of evaporation, causes it to shrink and crack, thus tending
lening old apple tree stump with fall pippins; the graft was growto its deeper pulverization. And third, into the cracks ing finely, when one day I noticed the borer was making thus formed, surface mold is washed, which not only keeps sad work on the tree, from the ground upwards a foot or the clay from again uniting, but invites the roots of plant more. I had read about applying coal from coal pit botto follow the vegetable food thus supplied, thus increasing toms around the roots of trees as good, and digging out
I the borer and stopping up the holes with gum shellac, &c. the pulverization until, in the course of time, it becomes
I accordingly applied coal braize (the fine charcoal from
a equal to that of the drainage itself
coal pit bottoms) around the root of the tree, dug out all 2 A more rapid method of deepening the soil is by the the borers I could find, cut away the dead bark, and ap. use of the subsoil plow, or by deep culture with any im. plied a thick coat of tar on the tree where the bark bad plement adapted to the purpose. After lowering the line
been removed, and washed the tree with a strong lye from
wood ashes and lime. The borer has left the tree, and it of standing water, we may break up the hard subsoil at lloc
at looks well and promising. I applied another coat of tar once; we shall find it to change its character rapidly as it this last spring where the bark had been destroyed. I becomes penetrable to the air-very soon instead of being think tar will prove useful in driving away the borer from shunned by the roots of cultivated plants it will be sought young trees. John R. Blair. Kent, Čt. by them, and they will show by the larger growth above
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) ground that there is a large and healthy growth of roots
Improvement in Feeding-Boxes for Sheep. below. We cannot, we should remember, Irave the one without the other,
The old fashioned box for feeding sbeep with hay, forin3. The soil may be deepened by a gradual increase in
m ined with two boards on a side-one a short distance above
" the other to admit the sheep's bead-is a most useful thing the depth of plowing given in the usual course of prepara- in thawing, muddy times; though at others its use may tion for crops. If we have a field which has never been be considered doubtful. If they could be made so as to cultivated beyond five inches deep, we may very safely be snugly packed away under shelter without much trouble, and profitably plow it six inches for the next crop, and go they would last much longer, and farmers perhaps would an inch deeper each time for several succeeding crops.
be more likely to bave them. This may be done by makThere is no difficulty in turning a furrow nine or ten in- of nailing them on.
s ing mortiees in the posts to receive the end pieces, instead
The end pieces can be held in their ches deep with our usual teams and implements, after the places by pins, fitted loosely so as to be taken out easily, soil has been thoroughly broken up to that depth, and there which will hold the box together. The side pieces of few if any farm crops but will fill with roots a fertile soil are course are nailed to the post. When the box will not be one foot in depth. It may require more manure to enrich
used, the end pieces can be taken out, the pins slipped in
their places, and the whole thing packed away where it ouek a soil, but in the same proportion it will be more pro- will not be destroyed by being racked about, or exposed ductive than a shallower soil, and will continue much longer to the weather.
J. L. B. to give profitable returns without additional manure.
MESSRS. TUCKER-A very long experience in the wine
trade enables me to say to those of your readers who are In our last ninnber we acknowledged the receipt of
rt, that the whites samples of this plum from Mr. HENRY HALLENBECK of to any other fining. They should be entirely separated from East Greenbush, N. Y. In the absence of our Horticultu- the yolk-beat only so as to seperate them, and not to the ral Editor, we sent some of them to CHARLES DOWNING, frothy condition prepared for cake-making. Three or four Esq., who has favored us with the following description: whites to a quarter cask, adding the shellş pulverized fine,
NEWBUNGH, Sept. 3, 1860
and a tablespoonful of fine salt; mix theso well together in a LUTHER TUCKER & Son-Your favor of 30th, with Hal. That's
gallon or more of the wine, pour this into the cask, and see
" that your measure holds back done of the fining; then give it al lenbeck Plums, came safely to hand, for which I am thorough stirring from the bottom with a stout stick put in at the obliged. The stems were wanting, and the bloom mostly bunghole. If you have more shells, it will be beneficial to use rubbed off, so that I had to guess at those portions. I then, especially if the juice appears to partake of strong bave it growing, but it has not yet fruited. I consider icl vinous acid. The eggs should be fresh, and if the first fining a“ very good" plum, but not “best.” Its value depends fails give it a second one, but do not stir from the bottom, or
a hearing malities time of ripening and let your stirrer go more than half the depth of the cask : the whether much liable to rot on the tree.
bung sbould be left loose, a faucet put in the head of the DESCRIPTION.-Branches smooth or slightly downy;
cask, and after a while by a sudden turn of the faucet, a littree vigorous with straight upright shoots.
tle of the lees drawn off for a few times, and at intervals of Fruit large, roundish oval, one side often enlarged. Su
some days, until it appears bright in a glass. If the process oval, one side orten enlarged. Su of fining is very tardy, a small quantity of brandy poured ture broad and shallow, ending in a depressed apex. Skin gently in at the bung, and stirred on the surface of the juice, deep reddish purple, sprinkled with numerous brown dots sometimes aids the precipitation of lees. and covered with a blue bloom. Stalk (short, less than half an ineh,) in a pretty large cavity. Flesh greenish
Elder for Striped Bugs. yellow, juicy, sugary, with a brisk favor-quality “ very good"-adheres closely to the pit, which is roundish oval.
I saw a notice in the COUNTRY GENTLEMAN of placing Ripe last of any.
the common elder upon vines to keep off the striped bug. We shall be much obliged if Mr. Hallenbeck, on whose
Ours were very thrifty, and in two days after the bugs farm this plum originated, will favor us with its history, and eaten.
se made their appearance, the vines were completely covered
I then placed on some elder, and the next bearing qualities, &c.
I day they were all gone.
CURING SOWN CORN FODDER. term pippin among apples, the Fall pippin being very MESSRS. EDITORS-I wish to beg some information
motion large, the Golden pippin very small; the Newtown pippin through your valuable columns in relation to a piece of is green, the Ribston red, the Downton yellow, &c.; the corn gown broadcast which is the proper manner of Sugar-loaf is oblong, the Michael Henry conical, the Vancuring it, cutting and bundling the same as field corn, or dervere pippin flat; the Blenheim pippin sweet, the Ribcutting and laying flat in the same manner as hay. Would ston sour, &c., the term, in fact, applying to all apples of it be advisable to put on thie same land winter wheat after removing the corn in case it was taken off by the 4th or
dih or whatever size, form, color or quality. 5th of September ! I have been a constant reader of the COUNTRY GENTLEMAN, and had it in our family for the last Fruit in the Shade---Balling Trees. three years, and found it of great interest. G. A. S.
Eps. Co. Gent,-- Are the sun's rays absolutely necesCorn fodder, raised by sowing the seed broadcast at the
sary to ripen fruit? I have a spot of ground so shaded rate of four bushels per acre, or much better if in furrows that at this season not more than four hours of sunshine or drills at the rate of two and a half bushels per acre, gives are upon it. Will you or your readers say whether grapes, a much finer and softer stalk than common fodder. It pears or apples will ripen in such a place ? will be all eaten by cattle, but at the same time it packs
Will you also please explain the process of “balling"
a tree for winter transplanting? 1. New York. more solidly in the stack, and is in greater danger of heat
The sun's rays are not absolutely essential to the ripening and spoiling by fermentation. We have known whole
ing of fruit, as is proved by the growth and maturity of stacks to become completely spoiled, even after the fodder had remained some weeks in the shock, and was
specimens on the shaded side of large dense trees. If the apparently quite dry. The stacks must be small, with
shaded trees are fully open to the northern sky, so that
they will receive a full share of light from sky and clouds, three rails set upright in the middle so as to leave an opening for the escape of heat; or better, if spread on poles in
they will probably succeed pretty well. Apples, grapes
and pears will do better in such a place than peaches. As the loft of a shed. It may be stacked better, handled
a general rule, if the leaves, which furnish the food to the better, and it will dry better, if bound in bundle; but will
growing and ripening fruit are fully exposed to light do very well if not bound, but raked with a horse rake and pitched with a horse fork.
and air, the fruit, although itself in the shade, will become
If for binding, the corn grown in drills may be cut with a common scythe so as to
fully perfected. fall in even swaths; if for the horse-rake, it may be cut
The usual practice in removing a tree with a ball of
earth, is to dig a trench about the tree in autumn, fill the with a mowing machine.
trench partly with leaves, to protect its bottom from the It is a good crop to precede wheat, if it has been sown
frost, and then, when the earth within the trench is frozen early enough in spring to be cut by the end of summer;
solid, to lift the tree and remove it on a sled to its place for as it bears no corn, it does not exhaust the soil, but
of destination, where a hole of corresponding size has also leaves more in the soil in the form of roots, than it car. ries off.
been cut for it in autumn. If of considerable size, we
should prefer cutting a narrow trench a year previously, MAHALEB STOCKS.
so as to cut off all the long roots, that the tree might send
out a new supply of shorter fibres. In this way it would MESSRS. EDITORS- As you are supposed to know everything, I wish to ask five questions about the Mahaleba
sustain less check in transplanting. stock used for budding the cherry upon. Does it make a dwarf tree, or will they grow to be as large as those bud.
[For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.] ded upon a Mazzard stock ?(1) Are the stocks obtained
REMEDY FOR BED BUGS. from seed ?(2) Where can the seed be obtained !(3) When to be planted ?(4) Is the fruit as good as when budded “A highly respectable lady who has especial abhorrence" upon the Mazzard ?(5) Please answer through the Culti. of bed-bugs, has our sympathy, and is welcome to our plan, Vator and oblige Jos. E. PHELPS. Mass.
which has not only kept them from the beds, but banished 1. The tree grows rapidly at first, but does not attain them from the house within the last inonth. the size of those worked on Mazzard stocks. 2. The Ma- ! Take a cup one-third full of tar-put in candlewick, (say haleb is raised from seed. 3. Some nurserymen have be- about four feet in length to each bed,)-when properly satugun to raise their own seed in this country, but we do not rated, wind two or three times around each foot of the bedknow of any in market. 4. They may be planted in
stead in the smallest part, or on the castor just above the roller; autumn or early spring, as other cherry seed, baving been
tie loosely, so that it will retain the tar. Cleanse the bed gathered and treated in the same way.
thoroughly several times during the first week. Apply the
tar as often as necessary to keep the wick properly saturated, PLUMS AND GAGES.
with a brush or feather, and the bugs will soon disappear.
By putting the bandage where the bedstead will protect it What is the distinguishing difference between a plum from coming in contact with the bed-clothing, the tar will be and gage? is the gage round and plum long? J. W. L. Tlcss inconvenience than bugs. 2. G. Leavenworth, Kansas.
All gages are plums, but there are some plums which Take five cents' worth of quicksilver, and a piece of lard as are not gages. The term gage, originally from the name large as a hen's egg. Rub them together in a stone mortar or of the man who introduced the Queen Claude into a part earthen bowl until tho quicksilver is well mixed with the lard. of England where it was unknown, is generally understood This mixture is similar to blue ointment. Put a small quanto apply to plums of moderate size and rather rich quality, tity in the crevices of your bedsteads. This ointment has the varying, however, in form and color. The Green gage is advantage of liquids, as it does not dry and become useless round, the Imperial gage is oval. The former is green, and will remain for yoars unless it is washed off. the Yellow gage yellow, the Purple gage violet, &c. But the term is never applied to very large, or very coarse
1 er During last year, no less than 629 agricultural arti
cles were patented in this country. Of these, 117 were plums, nor to that peculiar class known as prunes.
seed-planters, 113 harvesters, 58 cultivators, 43 plows, 42 The same or a more obscure meaning attaches to the churns, &c.
[For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) tion is going on some latent valve is opened SHEEP IN TEXAS..
the gas is liberated and escapes,
I have never known any other remedy recommended Eps. Co. Gent. -The Rocks of Col. C. B. Shepard, near that would not be quite as bad, if not worse than the dis. Long Point, in Washington county, prove that many of order. In a case of pure hoven, so short and sudden are the prairies in Texas are well adapted to sheep. His sheep, its beginning and ending, there would not be time to precomposed of merinos and mixed blood, are now in such pare and adipinister drugs, if they could avail, before the excellent condition, notwithstanding the severe drouth, case would terminate fatally or be relieved by Nature, that I give the following items, condensed froin his books, while stabbing is so revolting and dangerous as not to be for the encouragement of Texas wool growers
taken into account. The swallowing of a piece of turnir, De
potato, apple, or the like, is a different condition from that Cel. S. began wool growing in 1803 by the purchase of G81 sheep, at of hoven, and should be treated differently. The probang ma cost of .... ......................
1,600.0 instead of the straw rope must be used to get rid of sub. 14 bucks and
910.00 do do 8 Soutk Downs..
stances lodged in the gullet.
Every one having cattle should have one or more ropes $6,179.50
ready made for service, so that no time would be lost in 2856. Jure, wool sold at residence, Ztc. per fb..
constructing one-time is all important in the matter of do. 153 sleep sold for mutton do. 44.25 eaclı, ...
735.25 hoven If there is any tar at hand it would not be amiss 1859, do, wool sodd do. 23c. per ib.
1.682.15 desbeep sold.
1,081.00 to besmear that part of the rope with it that is to go into 1860, wool sol me residence, soc. per Ibo
1,890.40 the mouth of the animal. I can give no reason for the Totah ..................
.. *5,241.21 tar accelerating the process, other than it increases, perMany of the prairies are yet unfenced, hence there has haps, the revulsion or repugnance to the rope, and causes been no expeuse for food, except a small amount of hay
the saliva to flow more freely. But tar or no tar, let the and anillet, given during the northers of last winter. The rope be applied as directed Dock had little attendance in 1857, save that given by al This remedy has been long known to me, and frequentMexican dog of great intelligenceIt is said that be kept Ily adverted to through many years. JAMES GOWEN. constantly with the flock except when hungry, when he Mount Airy, Philadelphia, Aug. 10, 1860. went to the nearest house, and by barking and gestures asked for food, after receiving which he returned imme
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) diately to his charge. The dog mixed freely with the
GOOD SHEEP IN CANADA. sheep In crossing streams and dangerous places, lie would go ahead and encourage them to follow.
Eos. Co. Gent.-In your issue of the 2d inst., I perDe
ceived you gave an extract from the “Southern Planter." En 1858 and 39a shepherd was employed at cost,............ | which stated that a gentleman of Virginia had been inaking Three years shearing, say about...... Salt, say about.....
importations of stock from England. Among the sheep
imported, was a Cotswold ram of such size that the editor Total,................. ....
had the curiosity to measure him. He then gives the diBy so sheep used for mutton la family, 44 each,
mensions which are certainly large, but we are pleased in 30 acres of land manured at $5 per acre...
being able to state that we can produce something still Total......
larger, and we would at the same time, most respectfully Increase by lambs during 3 years, 1,799.
| inform the editor of that paper, as well as any other of No. of sheep June 1860, 2,430, worth at least $6 each, our American cousins who may wish to excel in sheep, $14,580, and Col. S. would not sell at $7 per bead. No that they might possibly be as well accommodated in estimate is made of the interest of money used in buying Canada, and thus save the trouble and expense (not to say flock, enough being already given to show that Col S. has risk,) of going across the Atlantic for the desired object. large profite. His sheep have always been very healthy. I have a ram of the Improved Leicester breed, which, Col. s says they have increased in size and yield of wool. after seeing the aforesaid extract, I had the curiosity to The number lost bg death can be found from the preceding measure, and which I found as follows: Length from the items.
top of his eyes to the foot of his tail, (which, by the bye, The location of Col Shepard is amid sine rolling prai- was cut very short,) five feet two inches-girth bebind the ries, orarersed by well watered ravines, where cedars and shoulders, five feet ten inches—width across the back other trees grow, giving shelter from the northers in winter. twenty-four inches--weight 12th August, 353 lbs. The There also the sheep have water, and shade in summer. measurement is given irrespective of wool. There is so little dew in Texas that sheep cannot thrive. But before I conclude, I would just remark that “size" without plenty of good water. S. B. BUCKLEY. is not the only desired qualification in sheep, no more than Evergreen, Washington Co., Texas, Aug. 11. other animals. Our great object should be to combine
quality, symmetry, and wool, to correspond with their (For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) weight of carcass. HOVE OR HOVEN IN CATTLE.
Now, gentlemen, since I have taken the liberty to
trouble you thus far, allow me to ask of you a little inforMESSRS. EDITORS-Observing in one of your recent mation as to what encouragement is given to foreign or issues some special remarks on the cause and cure of Canadian exhibitors, at your State Fairs. If your terms - Hoven," allow me to recommend a simple remedy for are liberal, I might probably show the sheep above noticed, the evil, one in which I have so much confidence as to as well as some others of my fock, at your next exhibi. feed perfect freedom in recommending its application. tion at Elmira, should they not be disposed of before that Let a straw or hay rope (made of two strands of thumb time.
Tuomas Guy. rope laid or twisted together) be introduced between the Sydenham Farm, Port Oshawa, C. W. and jaws of the animal, bridlewise, drawing it back by both The N. Y. State Ag. Society offer prizes of $10 for the ends, and tieing it tightly around the roots of the horns at he
sal best ram-$10 for the best pen of five ewes, and $5 for the back of the head, till the jaws are fully opened and gagged. If this is done in the stall and the animal is able
to the best pen of three lambs, for the different breeds of to stand or walk, it should be turned out at once and kept sheep, from out of the State. We shall hope to see some moving about, when in a few minutes the distention will of our correspondent's sheep at Elmira. subside and all will be well again.
The philosophy of this, simplified, is that the animal Richard S. Fay of Lynn, Mass., one of the best sheepfinding itself gagged, is excited to effort to get rid of the raisers and agriculturists in that State, has recently importobstruction, and for this purpose the tongue is brought into ed two Oxford-Down bucks, one of wbich is two years old requisition to eject the rope, and while this muscular ac- and weighs 230 lbs.