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provement is the attached revolving rake, the teeth of ice water. The ice is placed in a hopper-like box or vault, which are protruded on the lower side, and withdrawn on from which the ice water seitles into a small reservoir bethe upper side, by a simple and ingevious contrivance, low, and is drawn off by a stop-cock. the teeth being set on an axle nearer the lower side of the hollow case through wbich they are thrust in opera- DISCUSSIONS AT THE STATE FAIR. tion. Hickok's neat and simple cider press, and Emery's efficient one, were in operation, the latter with its three REPORTED EXPRESSŁY FOR The Co. GENTLEMAN AND CULTIVATOR, screws acting together, operates with great satisfaction.
Culture of Indian Corn. The excellent cider mill of Krauser's invention was ex- At the State Fair at Elmira, meetings for disenssion were libited by C. E. Pease, of Albany, Among horserakes, held in the evenings, at which much interesting informaHouston & King's wire-tooth wheel rake appeared to be tion was elicited. On Tuesday evening the subjeet disone of the best, the workmen riding on a seat, and moving cussed was the culture of Indian corn. a lever for the deposite of each load of hay. A simple The Hon. T. C. PETERS of Genesee county, presided. contrivance of value, was Prindle's patent clevis pin, Speakers were limited to ten minutes. quickly put in a whiffletree, and incapable of dropping out Mr. Brainard of Attica, N. Y., plants corn on an inwhile in use. This little convenience cannot fail to be verted sod. Spreads the manure on the sod and plows it appreciated by plowmen and teamsters.
in. Does not *hill " the corn. Thinks corn fodder val. There was a good display of farm wagons and carts from uable. Cuts up the com at the roots. In a good season different contributors, and also several beautiful specimens this gives most corn. In a poor season there is not so of pleasure carriages from James Goold & Co. of Albany. much gain as compared with topping. Never knew the
Brown's improved wagon brake, of which a model was full value of cornstalks till last winter, when fodder was so exbibited, both as applicable to sleighs and wagons, is so scarce.
He chafted his stalks and straw -- two-thirds made as to operate whenever the weight is sufficient to stalks and one third straw. His horses did well on it. drive the load forward on the horses. However perfect Horses fed on corn leaves never had the beaves. or otherwise this form of construction may be, the princi- T. C. PETERS said chaffed stalks were good for horses. ple of a self-acting brake is an important one, and should He did not believe in deep plowing for corn. He would not be lost sight of. The cast-iron feed trough, manufac like to hear from others on this point. tured by Milton Alden of Auburn, is a neat, simple and S. Walrath, Canton, St. Lawrence county, thought convenient contrivance; one half of the trough being al- corn a more profitable crop than hay, which was the printernately covered with a convex cast-iron lid, so that the cipal crop in his county. Planted his corn on greensward, animals may be excluded until the feed is deliberately 34 feet apart each way. Hen manure excellent for corn. placed in the trough.
Had raised 80 bushels per acre. He planted the small A great number and quite a diversity in construction, eight-rowed and King Philip varieties. Cultivates by uscharacterized the collection of straw-cutters. Those working the borse-boe both ways. Does not hill, ing by horse power must ultimately be resorted to by far- Mr. BROCKLAND of Duchess county, tried an experimers, as a hand-machine is too slow in its work for a large ment two years ago. He drew out 12 loads of manure or even a moderate herd of animals. Those working by per acre on a one year old clover sod. He then threw the a rotary cut must therefore be regarded as most valuable. land up into ridges four feet apart, and, as understood, Among these, we were especially pleased with Mumma's then cross-plowed so as to form bills four feet apart, with patent machine. The four knives cut with the cylindrical the mannre in the centre. He had 71 bushels on an acre, inution, and their exterior is made to form a portion of a and the whole field of ten acres averaged 62 bushels per true cylinder, the interior only being ground off in sharp- acre. He planted the eight-rowed Canada corn. ening, which always leaves the cutting edge at the same handful of plaster and ashes in each bill. Thought this exact line, and hence this cutter is always "in order” | method of culture would give large crops—but it was too until the knives are worn out. It crushes the stalks in the much labor for general adoption. act of passing them through the feeding-rollers. It may John S. PETTIBONE of Manchester, Vt., thought the vabe worked with horse power, and cuts three-eighths of an lue of cornstalks for fodder depended on the number of inch long. The price is thirty dollars. Another good re- "nubbing" the boys left in at husking! Would not top volving cutter was Cumming's patent, the knives of which corn if he had grass enough. If grass was scarce would cut upwards, and thus avoid the accumulation of sand cut up the corn. Corn that is topped makes good fodder. and dirt on the bed, which dulls the cutters. These ma- The stalks, when topped, of a crop of corn that would yield chines have a neat and compact appearance. Two other 40 bushels per acre, are equal in value to a ton and a half kinds, of similar construction, were exhibited by A. Gor- of bay. When corn land is left bare in winter the strong don of Rochester, besides which there were a number of winds blow off the fine soil, and on the side hills much of others, of various degrees of merit, and many operating the richest portion of the soil is washed away. By topthe lever or single knife.
ping the corn and leaving the butts standing on the land, Domestic Hall had about the usual display of the vari- this blowing and leaching is prevented. if he had regard ous kinds of household furniture, and numerous articles simply to the amount of fodder he could get, he would cut of domestic manufacture. Poultry Hall was well filled up the corn at the roots ; if he had regard to the soil, he with a good display of domestic fowls; the VEGETABLE would top the corn. HALL was rather meagre, but had some excellent speci. 8. Walrath thought cutting up gave more fodder, mens; and Dairy Hall was well furnished with butter and thus enabled you to keep more stock, and to make and cheese, and many specimens of grains and grass-seed. more manure, and thus enrich the land. The increase of
It afforded gratification to observe the increased num- manure thus obtained would more than compensate for the ber of contrivances for relieving domestic toils, and among injury done by blowing and washing. them several butter workers, a large number of wasbing Gen. Marshall of Wheeler, Steuben county, thought machines, and a variety of churns. Doubtless among all farmers made a great mistake in being in such a hurry at these, some will prove on trial (the only sure test) to be planting time. They thought every year they would do really valuable. Palmer's extensive silk and thread reels, better next time, but when the time came they were in just inade of stiff wire and neatly constructed, and sold at as great a hurry as ever. It does not pay to let boys do , about 50 cents each, appeared to a good household con- the planting. It would be more profitable to pay a man trivance. Among sewing machines, that of Ladd, Web- that would do the work properly, $5.00 a day. His soil ster & Co. attracted much attention for its handsome stitch was a gravelly loam. He drew out coarse manure on cloand the facility with which it sews thin muslin, and thick ver sod, and then turns it in as deep as he can and do the leather, even the fourth of an inch in thickness.
work well. Then rolls if necessary, and harrows till the Bartlett's Refrigerator is a well arranged and apparently ground is in good condition. Plants four feet apart each an admirable contrivance for keeping fresh mente, fruits, way. Ile smears the seed with soft-soap heated in a ket&c., and affording at the site time it constant supply of tle, and then dries it till planted. The soap softens the
seed and causes it to germinate more readily, while tar ing, he would plow just as deep, and no deeper than the retards germination. He loped farmers would try soft- best soil went. If the land had been plowed deep before, soap—and we hope so too. T'he idea strikes us favorably, and was rich to that depth, he would plow that depth, but Had used heu manure mixed with unleached ashes, half he would not turn up raw, poor soil for corn. In plowing and half, a handful in each bill, with good effect. On the be careful to cover all grass and weeds. The distance of right kind of land corn is the most profitable crop a farmer planting depended on the richness of the soil, and on the can raise. Feeds the stalks to his cows. In reply to a variety. Here the object should be to plant a variety that question, he said he never fed stalks to sheep. Gives his is sure to ripen, even if it is small. Plants such a small, sheep straw, with a little grain.
early variety in drills three feet apart, and 20 inches apart Mr. PLOMB of Onondaga County, prefers a clover lay of in the drills, leaving three plants in a hill. In regard to two years old. Plows under twenty loads of manure per boeing; the soil here is apt to crust over and he liked to acre. Does not plow more than six inches deep. Har break this crust nearer the hill than could be done by the rows and then puts on a two-horse cultivator. Plants horse hoe. At the west the corn shot up rapidly, and three feet apart each way. Uses a horse-hoe freely, but hand boeing was unnecessary. He thought good stalks does not hand-hoe, at least but very little. Uses ashes were better than poor hay, but that there is as much virtue and plaster. Expense of cultivation from $8 to $10 per in an acre of cornstalks as in an acre of hay is ridiculous. acre. Does not like much hill. Will not pay to hand. Hay will fatten cattle, stalks will not. hoe much. Has raised from 180 to 185 bushels of ears per acre. Thinks corn more profitable than any other Second Evening--Sheep Husbandry. crop he raises. Does not top his corn; cuts it up by the
JOHN Wade of C. W., stated that he finds it adranroots. Thinks the fodder very valuable. Last year, on the stalks from ten acres of corn, he kept 150 sheep tageous to feed well, -gives bis sheep "all they want," and twelve cows to the 1st of March. They had access but has never measured the quantity. He prefers the to a straw stack. Raises the large eight rowed yellow long-wooled breeds, and sliears about 8 lbs. of washed corn—ears from eight to twelve inches long. In reply to wool per bead. In order to keep up the vigor and hardia question, he said he had raised the white variety but ness of the Leicesters, he has to cross them with the larger liked the yellow better. Does not like the Dutton.
and stouter Cotswolds. He remarked that Bakewell pro
cured all the best animals he could find around him, and T. C. PETERS spread the manure out on sod-land in the bred from them in-and-in, which injured their stamina, fall, and plowed it under in the spring four inches deep. and rendered necessary a resort to Cotswold blood. He had tried planting three feet apart each way and three
John S. PETTIBONE of Vermont, had long been conand a half one way and three feet the other. The thick vinced that for a farmer who has but 50 or 75 sheep, it is planting gave most fodder, but less in proportion to the best to keep the larger inutton breeds ; but for a flock 300 stalks. He chaffs his fodder. Has tried an experiment to 1,000, the fine-wooled would be the most profitable. to determine the relative value of cornstalks and timothy A common cause of failure is in allowing the animals to hay. Both were chaffed and steamed. The cows having run down in condition in autunn, at a time when the the cornstalks gave the most milk. The great secret of amount of feeders bas increased by the growth of lambs, success in corn culture is to have the ground made very and the feed lessened. He regarded it important to have fine before planting. Never hills his corn. Never hand
plenty of pasture and bay, which will maintain a good hoes, except to kill Canada thistles. In reply to a ques. condition, but remarked * grain will do no hurt." He tion, he said he would not save bis manure from the spring keeps them close and well sheltered during winter, and crops for the sake of applying it in the fall, but would use all he had on hand in the fali. He liked to make all the He said that one great secret of success was to attend to
never lost but two lambs, which were by accidental injury. manure he could during the summer.
their flocks personally, and good care would be the result Solon Robinson, of the New-York Tribune, was called -he never knew a man to look at his pig while it was out, and said he had purchased what was called a "worn. feeding unless it was fine and fat—the man wlo has poor out” farın in Westchester county, because he was tired of animals always gives the food and then runs away. He living on the pavements of New-York. Some of the land never sells his best, but always keeps bis best sheep-he had not been plowed for thirty years. He put in the plow keeps a record, and has them all registered, and no one as deep as he could get it for the stones, and then followed can buy of him any that are marked best."' He does not with a subsoil plow. He drilled in the corn, in drills three like excessively gummy sheep, and has known one to slear feet apart, and dropped the seed ten inches apart in the 22 lbs., but give less wool when washed than a cleandrills. He planted the Improved King Philip variety, wooled one of 13 lbs. ; yet many differ from him, because which was the best he had ever seen in the State of New- every one thinks "my sheep are best.” He said gummy York. The season was very dry, and the corn did not do sheep are less protected from the cold, and are as tender much at first, but he had a splendid crop after all. He as a cabbage-plant, and shiver in winter like a man with cut it up (this year) the middle of September. He would fever and ague. cut up as soon as the best ears are well glazed. The fod
BAKER of Urbana, Steuben Co., has kept fineder from this crop of corn was worth more per acre than wooled sheep-liis management is to give his launbs a very the best crop of hay per acre in his neighborhood. If cut little grain beginning in October, and continuing till winrather green and well cured, and afterwards chaffed, he ter-he then yards them where there is always a supply of thought cornstalks as good as the best timothy hay for water, feeds them in racks twice a day just what they will horses and cattle. A gentleman at Springfield, Mass., bad eat and no more. He has never raised the coarse-wool informed him that he had proved by actual experiment, breeds—liis fleeces are not guminy, and yield 41 to 44 lbs. that nine pounds of cornstalks chaffed and steamed were per head, and sometimes more Ue winters 400 head in equal to twenty-five pounds fed in the usual way.
a barn divided into three parts by a low board fence. The The Hon. A. B. Dickinson of Steuben Co., was loudly proceeds of bis flock vary considerably, but average about called for. He thought climate had as much to do with two dollars per head annually. He is very particular to the culture of corn as soil. The soils of England are as feed them always at the same time of day, with great good as in this country, but they could not grow corn. regularity. He gives straw only a part of the time-if The climate was not hot enough. This very valley in given constantly, he would add grain. He maintained which we are now, is one of the best corn growing regions that there is nothing like a flock of sheep to keep up the in the country. It requires more labor to grow corn here fertility of land; has kept 800 sheep a year on something than in the Sciota or the Miami valleys, but he had never less than 200 acres of land, including the bay and pasture seen as heavy crops there as here and in Western New- for them; and has made the land so fertile as to raise 120 York. He had bought thousands of acres of corn in the bushels of shelled corn on an acre. He feeds potatoes, western States, but never saw a crop of 60 bushels per acre beets, or carrots, to the ewes 20 days before lambing, and that weighed 60 lbs. per bushel. Has seen a crop liere of regards potatoes as the richiest food, and beets the easiest 120 bushels per acre. In regard to deep or shallow plow-| raised on his land.
Gen. Harmon of Monroe Co., commenced sheep hus some have yielded 8 lbs. He thinks they are a cross of baudry with the fine-wooled or Merino. After a few years, Cotswold and Leicester, and says they have a compact he crossed with Leicester,-then gave up the cross, and feece, and not loose and open, as had been previously obreturned to the fine-wools
. He greatly prefers the latter jected to. He would prefer to have the sheep eat of his trop on his fertile wheat lands ; finds their compact fleeces will of clover and yield their manure, to plowing in the green keep the water out, and for this reason are hardier than crop. the long and open-wooled. When he first crossed with L. F. ALLEN thought on heavy soil it would be best to the latter, he gave twenty-five dollars for the use of a long- plow in the clover--that it would render the suit youeerwool ram for 25 ewes, and then bought for $50 another but that on a light soil, the sheep manure might be best, ram of the same kind, but would have made money had Solon Robinson said the South-Down brings the best he given $50 to the man to keep him away. That was the price in New-York city, -and next to these, the long wool amount of his experience with long-wool sheep. lle does sheep of Canada--that generally the largest carcass (such 110t allow ewes to have lambs under three years, and the as had been asserted as “only fit for the tallow chandler") fleeces average about five pounds. From 330 sheep he brought the highest price per pound. Common buteliers sold the last two years $700 worth of: wool yearly-two did not distinguish the difference," their taste was to years ago he bad abont 100 lambs, which he sold for $200, make the most money they could,”—but a class of first. making $900 yearly proceeds. He occupies less than 200 rate retail market butchers pay a higher price for the best. acres, with mixed husbandry, feeds but little hay, but He stated that early lambs, well fattened on grass, from straw, corn, oats, and some bran-feeds in racks made of New-Jersey, brought, first in the season, five dollars per upright sticks set in holes bored in plank, nine inches head, and afterwards three to four dollars—and that a apart, where the animals eat'quietly without molesting each distinguished farmer up the river buys western ewes, other. He washes the fleeces on the sheep till the water breeds with them from his South-Down rams, and sells runs clear from them, and shears five to eight days after- both in autumn for about $7 for each ewe and lamb. wards. Shearers offered to do the work for six cents per
Raising Corn and Onts. head or for $1.75 per day—he accepted the former, but
The Chairman (T. C. PETERS) said in explanation of his so large were the fleeces that they could make but $1.50 remarks on a previous evening, that the field planted in per day. He has fed his flock on 25 acres of reclaimed hills three feet apart was good—but in the field three and swamp, but remarked "there is no tallow in this land,” it and a half feet apart the ears were larger, and there was would merely keep the sheep but would not fatten them. consequently more corn for the number of stalks, not more
Lewis F. Allen of Black Rock, stated that he had kept on the land. He was satisfied that we often greatly oversheep about 25 years, and that he has found it to depend estimate the products of cornfields. He found there were entirely on circumstances whether sheep raising, or coarse 400 grains on an eight-rowed ear, and that it required or fine wooled animals are profitable. He related the an- four such ears, shelled, to make a pound when properly ecdote of the builders of the city wall—the mason advised dry after midwinter. Four such ears, as an average, on a stone, the carpenter wood, while the tanner thought the hill of four stalks, was as much as farmers usually get from wall would be toughest if made of sole leather. So every a good crop-this would give but 56 to 58 bushels per man had his preference with sheep. It is important to acre, and he thought the man did well who obtained 40 look to circumstances-along the line of the railroads and busbels per acre. At three feet apart, there would be near cities the South Down sheep are best, being easily about 1200 more pounds or 20 bushels more per acre, if sent to market as mutton—in more remote regions he the ears were equally large. As a proof that thick seedwould select the Merino. He sells the South Down at $5 ing was not always best, he stated that J. W. Hyde had or $6, and sometimes $8 or $9, per head, and bis lambs sowed only eight busbels of oats on four acres, (two bushfor $2.50—the wool at 40 cents per pound. In answer to els per acre) the land formerly a black ash swamp, bnt not a question whether he could distinguish different breeds drained, and having thrashed all, and measured it beapby the taste of the mutton in thin slices, he said he could ing, there were 107 bushels per acre. Others present -and remarked that fine wooled animals secreted much mentioned very heavy crops obtained by sowing eight grease and thus prevented proper perspiration, and that he bushels, not on four, but on only one acre. could "taste the wool” in the meat. * He does not like the
CROCKER of Broome Co. had planted a piece of larger coarse wool animals, remarking that Canadians, who corn (3 acres) on which 60 large loads of rotted manure raise them so largely, have their foreign predilections—he per acre had been applied, in hills four feet by 18 inches, bad seen ewes of these sorts in Canada weighing 200 lbs. 4 or 5 stalks to a hill, and all was well saved- he had not and rams between 300 and 400 lbs., “and as fat as they yet husked it. On the other hand T. C. Peters said his could roll”—he defied any man to eat a full meal of them corn on the richest land, had grown so rank and thick, as --they were sent to the St. Nicholas and other large hotels to yield the least corn. Some mistake was, however, in New-York, made a great show on the tables, and were supposed to have been made. much admired, but only a pound or two could be eaten off
Grass and Irrigation. of a twenty-five pound piece, and the rest went to the tallow chandier-one might as well try to eat a cake of tal, that he could make a heavier growth of grass with clay
A. B. DICKINSON alluded to his assertion of last erening low. Roots should be fed cautiously to sheep, or they will
than with manure. “One load of the poorest clay that scour, the danger being greater here than in England. H. Bowen, jr., of Orleans Co., has raised both kinds of loads of muck even on clay land."
you can find in Chemung," said he, “is better than two
“Grass is the all-imsheep, and coarse wooled for the past seven or eight years. portant crop of the United States—all countries (with the He lives about 30 miles this side of L. F. Allen's, and also exception of China,) where grass don't grow, become imin a fine wheat region, and finds the coarse wools the most poverished, and the inhabitants leave them; but all coun. profitable for such lands, contrary to the expressed opinions tries where grass grows abundantly, become richer." On of some previous speakers. His animals have averaged grass land, one load of manure placed on the surface is about 150 lbs., and sell for $5 to $10 or $12 per head, worth two plowed in and the clay would be of no benefit if while the Merinos bring only $3. They have averaged six plowed in, (except on sand,) while a load of clay carried pounds of wool, which has sold at 31 cents per pound on by irrigation, is worth two loads of muck. Irrigation, * J. Harris of the Genesee Farmer, stated subsequently at the same five or six years, will give more grass than any manuring,
effected by muddying the water, and continued yearly for meeting, that he had always been an advocate of the same views; but being subsequently at John Johnston's, the latter had a very fine by mulching the roots, and making the grass grow stiffer, saddle of mutton on his table, and called on him to test his theory and solider. He had a rank growth of meadow this year,
What kind of sheep is this mutton from ?" asked the host.“Why," but because it did not stand, it became really half a ton replied he.." it appears to possess all the excellence of the South to a ton less per acre, than some other portions. The runDown, but its size indicates the Leicester. It must be the South ning on of the clay must be done late in autumn, in winis the Saxon Merino ?" remarked John Johnston, to the surprise of all
, ter, or very early in spring. Fresh soil is plowed up, and and to the utter demolition of the beautiful theory.
the water streams being turned on, carry it off, by stirring, to the grass land. He has found that irrigating with always on pleasant eves, see, and often mocked, the nightclear water is greatly inferior to this treatment. He has hawk, who seemed to gasp for breath when he swooped had a little over 44 tons per acre of hay. Solon Robinson down from bis lofty circlings. showed him a bunch of hay selected from the New York But now-a-days we are told it is not “boy's work” to market, consisting of about two-thirds ox-eye daisy and bring home the cows. We were taught then, that they one-third June grase, but Maj. Dickinson cast it from him must not be driven hurriedly home at night, if ease in with contempt, and said he would not cut such grass. In milking and full pails are desired. Not only will they give answer to a question, he said he could easily and effectu- less milk, but it will produce less butter or cheese, quart ally destroy the daisy by deep plowing with the double for quart, than where their quite is carefully guarded. The Michigan plow. Where he cannot irrigate he manures on Homestead says: “A dairyman complains of the season the surface, when the ground is hard in summer, on the as bad for the dairy, but his neighbors say, the training of most sterile spots, and not by any means when the soil is shepherd's dogs is worse than the season;" as much as to wet and soft. He sows of grass seed per acre, one peck say that the cows are " worried to death" by their canine of timothy, one of clover, four quarts of red top, two of drivers. The same paper says that the astonishing yield white clover, and two of blue grass.
occasionally claimed for single dairies, depends on several
causes—not the least among them is careful driving. “InTOAD FLAX OR SNAP DRAGON.
quiring out one of three large reports, we found that the
owners, the man and his wife, not only did all their milk. MESSRS. EDITORS— Enclossd I send you a weed that ing themselves, but they always brought and drove their made its appearance on my farm about three years ago in own cows.” But this cannot always be done. The boys a single small patch, which was taken but little notice of. must very generally “bring home the cows;" but let me Since then it has multiplied its patches at a fearful rate. admonish them to take plenty of time for it, and let the It spreads very rapidly, and entirely runs out the grass. cows take their time, and due order of precedence. I Last fall I put some old fish brine on a patch of it, which shall not blame them, however, if they throw sticks when seemed to kill it for the time, but this year it is the most the “master cow” takes her stand in the gap, and refuses luxuriant patch on the farm. If you can inform me to let any other pass save at her own queenly will and through your columns its name, and the best way to ex. pleasure. tirpate it, you will greatly oblige one subscriber, and per
Not many years passed by before I had not only to hups many. B. P. Bobbins, Springfield, Mass. drive the cows, but to milk—had a pail of my own, and
This plant is the notorious Snap Dragon or toad-fax, my favorites of the herd. And let me say that inilking one of the worst weeds that can obtain a foot-hold in land. though it is one on which much of the profit of the dairy
a good deal of an art; one which few boys do well, As we have very frequent inquiries
depends. From observation and experience, I offer the in relation to it, we copy from the
following hints as important. There must be good temarticle on WEEDS in the Illustrated
per, and a good stock of patience to begin with. In dealAnnual Register for 1861, the follow
ing with a cow, as with a human learner, be kind and firm; ing description and cut:
show them what you wish, that they can do it readily, and Toad Flax or Snap Dragon, some
that it must be done. I always like a one-legged stool to times called "Butter and Eggs” from
sit upon when milking. With such, one can move readi
ly, and inequalities of the ground make no difference. the color, (Linaria vulgaris.)—An
Have a little clean water to wash the teats off in the mornexceedingly troublesome and perni
ing, if they lie in the dirt, and if you need any thing to cious weed, extending now through
moisten them, use water, not milk, for that purpose. Milk the Northern and Middle States. The
gently and evenly, but as rapidly as possible, and be sure root is perennial and creeping; the
to milk clean—draining the last drop, which is always the whole plant very smooth; the flowers
richest in cream, from the teats. Failure in this respect somewhat in the form of lips, the
rapidily diminishes the quantity of milk furnished by the outer part pale yellow, the palate
cow; indeed, the method usually practiced in drying off a tinged with orange, and each flower furnished with a horn or spur half an
cow, is to but half milk her. Let the milking time be as inch long. It grows one or two feet
regularly as possible at the same hour in the day, morn
ing and evening, and each cow have the same milker, as high and quite erect. It is common
far as convenient. The quiet of the yard should be carein many places along roadsides, fences,
fully preserved. and in pastures. Cattle will not eat it, nor the grass it grows with. -
But (if you will allow me) another reminiscent paraSpreading in dense patches, it soon
graph. What pleasanter rural scene can greet the ese prevents the growth of other plants.
than that of the cows returning from their pastures, so It is difficult to eradicate—the best
calmly and leisurely, full-fed and well supplied with milkmode is repeated plowing and harrow
receiving the milker's attentions with quiet satisfaction, ing.
“chewing the end of sweet” and tender herbage. Many TOAD Flax,
a bright memory comes back, as I think of “milking
time" and its associations. I can see the stars come out, Bringing Home the Cows---Milking.
one by one, in the twilight sky; I can hear the cheep of Among my memories of boy-lífe on the farm, how fresh- the tree-toad upon some mossy rail; the bats are whirring ly still comes up one of twilight time—the “bringing above us in many a circling flight, and my mother's song home the cows” from their woodland pasture. The "only comes to my ear from across the yard. Longfellow bas boy” for years, many a score of autumn eves have I ex- woven such a scene into one of his poems, and looking plored the “big marsh" and the “ sugar bush,” both bor- back upon it, through the haze of years, it does seem dered and islanded, here and there, with grass for the poetical. But your paper has to do with the practical, wandering kine; and time and again "the sun was low" yet I hope its readers will excuse thus much of a flight. on our horizon, whatever it may have been “on Linden's MAPLE HILL, N. Y., Sept. 12. hills,” ere I found them. How I hurried to get back through the strip of woods, stumbling along in the fast BUCKWHEAT Straw.–J. A. Hubbard, writing to the N. deepening shadows, half-afraid of the loneliness and the E. Farmer from a locality in Maine, where this grain is hooting owls, and conscience-smitten for my tardiness in very extensively grown, says that buckwheat straw “is starting. How often, too, was the evening air filled with injurious to young pigs, and if they lay in it, it will set the songs and shouts with which I strove "to keep my them crazy, and they will finally die. It is hurtful to hogs courage up," until "out of the woods," and in sight of the and young stock to run through it when green, making barn on the bill. Coming through the open fields, I could their head and ears sore and itch very much.”
Practical Farming in Onondaga County.
mure should be put on an acre. The land being in high
condition, this amount of manure will be consumed by a We propose by permission of Mr. Secretary Jonsson to crop. The plants should be set abont the first of June, make some extracts from the Agricultural Survey of On. three feet four inches, by two feet to two feet sis inches
apart. To raise the plants, the fall before pulverize the ondaga County, which appears in the Transactions of our bed fine, and mix with the soil hog or some other manure State Society for 1859, from the pen of Hon. Geo. GEDDES. that has no foul seeds in it. Sow seeds on the well rakFrom the chapter entitled “Practical Agriculture," ofed bed, as soon as the ground can be properly prepared in which we are favored with advance sheets we select the the spring, about one ounce to a square rod, equally dis
tributed all over the bed. Roll hard with a hand roller, following on
but do not cover Culture of Tobacco,
the seed. Glass The cultivation of tobacco, as a crop, was commenced
should be kept in this county in 1845, by Chester Moses and Nahum
over the bed unGrimes, both of the town of Marcellus. They joined in
til the plants aphiring a man from Connecticut, who was skilled in the culture. In 1846, Col. Mars Nearing, then of the town of pear, which will
be in two or three Salina, raised ten acres; and very soon others engaged in
weeks; after they a small way, in raising this crop. By the census of 1855,
are up and startit appears that in the preceding year there was raised, in the whole county, 4714 acres, yielding 564,987 pounds ; be required only
ed, the glass will which gives as the average yield, 1,178 pounds to the acre.
at night and in It is thought that this crop pays a better profit, on suita.
cold days. The
about fifteen leaves, taking off about seven leaves.
-2what the effects may be on the profits of other crops, there has not been sufficient time to determine since the introduction of what is now a staple. Mr. Benjamin Clark of Marcellus, who is perhaps better acquainted with the facts in regard to the culture of tobacco than any other man here, estimates the production of 1859, as of the value of $150,000: of which he estimates marcellus as producing $25,000 worth ; Skaneateles $10,000; Van Buren $20,000; Lysander $10,000 ; Manlius $8,000 ; Camillus $5,000 ; Geddes $4,000; Salina $8,000 : Elbridge $6,000; Onondaga $8,000, and the residue divided anıcng the other towns.
From Mr. Clark, the following facts and estimates in re- A plant ready to top, place for topping indicated by b. gard to this crop are derived :
After topping, break off all the suckers. In about A warm, rich, well drained and mellow soil should be another week, go over again, breaking off suckers and bad, and then twenty-five loads of rotten barn-yard na I killing worms. In another week repeat the operation.