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some sections of our country. Where large numbers of I have strong faith in the top-dressing, as it feeds and horses and cattle are kept in the same stable or hovel, nourishes the young plants until the roots take up the mathere may be some danger of having the hovels too close nure from below. and warm for the health of the stock; but if a proper sys- horse hoe or weeder, passing it as near the plants as pos
The weeding is done by first going through with the tem of ventilation is attended to, governed somewhat by sible without interfering with them. I then take a hoe the temperature of the weather-whether very cold or with good sharp corners, and go first on one side of the moderate, or quite warm-little fear need there be of hav. row and then on the other, drawing the hoe in an obliqueing the hovels too warı: In very cold weather but little ly direction from the plants, taking away part of them, fresh air is needed, in addition to that which will force its of thinning by hand. In thinning I leave the plants four
with all the weeds, which greatly facilitates the operation way into the hovel through the “cracks and crevices;” in inches apart, best as a rule, but vary the distance either milder weather more air should be admitted; in warm in or over, if by so doing I can leave a stronger plant. It weather the doors and windows should be kept open. To is quite an object to leave the strongest and healthiest manage these matters aright, requires attention and judg- plants. ment on the part of those having charge of the farm to keep the soil well stirred and free from weeds, except in
All we have to do now with regard to the cultivation, is work during winter. Farmers differ somewhat in their a very dry time, when it may be necessary to water them. views as to the winter management of sheep and young I use liquid manure freely; but when land is well subsoilcattle. Some prefer keeping their sheep mostly in the ed, and kept loose and mellow, it takes a severe drouth to barn, where they have suitable feeding racks; others give effect them much. G. FAIRBAIRN.' Erie Co., N. Y. their locks the choice of sleeping in the barn or out-doors.
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) For the best health of the sheep, whether they lodge outdoors or under cover, they should be well littered with
A GOOD COW straw, refuse hay, or dry leaves. Some farmers of late L. TUCKER & Son.-Having read the account of the. years “tie up" all their cattle, old and young, giving them | Ayrshire prize milkers, and also of L. SWEETser's Ayrthe range of the barn-yard for an hour or two each day I will give you an account of a cow owued by me, as L.
shire cow, which gave 300 pounds of milk in seven days, through the winter, if not too cold or stormy. It is SWEETSER says by way of comparison. I would like to thought by such farmers that their cattle do better and re- know the number of pounds of butter she made in the quire less hay than if allowed their liberty to range far seven days. I did not weigh the milk every milking, not and near.
Others think that young cattle do better to expecting to publish it, but weighed at different times have their liberty in the yard, or under sheds, or the barn through the week. I will give the average weight when cellar, and fed from suitable boxes or racks. These are her in seven days. She dropped her calf the 5th of 5th
weighed, and likewise the amount of butter churued from matters about which farmers will decide for themselves. month, (May,) and at one week old it was taken off for In the meantime we will suggest that from this to first of raising. She was then fed with eight quarts of coru meal December, will be a good time to make all needful ar-chopped with the cob, adding one-third oats before choprangements for the most economical method of keeping milk' when weighied per day, 48} lbs., which would amount
ping, with plenty of good hay. Her average weight of them through the winter in a thrifty, growing condition. to 3394 lbs. in seven days.' Churned from it 15 lbs. of There is no profit in stinting farm stock in their rations, excellent butter. or the laws of animal life cannot be violated with impunity. When turned out to pasture she increased one quart
per day, which was the 20th of 6th month. She milked (For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.)
very extraordinarily through the summer, and now, after CULTURE OF THE CARROT.
milking twenty-two weeks, in the last seven days we have
churned froın her milk alone 12 lbs. 134 Oz. of beautiful Messrs. TUCKER & Son—I notice in number 14, Oct. 4, yellow butter. of Co. Gent., an inquiry in regard to the cultivation of
She is of the red Durham stock, three-quarter blood, carrots, and an invitation to growers to give their mode of and weighed before calving, 1,370 lbs. management, &c. As I have raised them to some extent I send this account as true, at the same time knowing the past few years with tolerably good success, I will give there are many that will not credit such accounts because you my views and mode of operation; but I do not ex
sucli cows are scarce. I have kept a dairy for many years, pect to throw much light on the subject, being compara- and have now some good milkers, but never owned such tively a “young farmer.”
a cow as the above. The butter was weighed in the pre
John C. LESTER. In the first place, I prefer a clay loam for carrots, al- sence of several neighbors. though some prefer sandy loam. It is absolutely necessa
Quakertown, Pa., 10th mo. 15, 1860. ry that the land be plowed deep, say 12 inches, or what is better, subsoiled, and well manured in the fall. In the
Bed Bugs and Cockroaches. following spring take the two-horse cultivator and run it
In one of the late numbers of your valuable paper, I noboth ways. This, after having laid all winter to the action of frost, rains, &c., will render the soil perfectly loose and ticed an appeal from a neat housekeeper, for aid in her war mellow, and incorporate the manure with the soil more against bed-bugs. I sympathize too sincerely with her sufthoroughly than when applied in the spring. I then give ferings not to hope that the remedy, a very simple one, which a light top-dressing of fine well decomposed manure, and has been entirely successful in many cases within any knowdrag it in with a small fine toothed harrow, or in the ab- ledge, may be of use to her. sence of that implement take a garden or hand hay rake, Procure froin an apothecary, balf a pound of drieu calamus as it is essentially uecessary to have a fine tilth and smooth root, boil it in two quarts of vinegar, and leave it to steep all surface to sow the seed on, if we would expect to have it night. With this decoction thoroughly wash the bedsteads. germinate well. I then take a marker made to mark the I have never known this remedy to fail in cleansing the bedrows 20 inches apart, so as to admit of cultivation by horse stends, but if there is any reason to fear that the insects have power.
I have always used the “ Albany Sced Planter or Drill made their way behind the papers of the rooins, as is someBarrow.” It is easily adjusted to sowing and planting all times the case where they exist in great nambers in an old kinds of seeds. I sow from two to four pounds of seed to house, I believe they can only be exterminated by tearing
I find it best to use plenty of seed to ensure a down the papers, and either white-washing or painting the good " catch."
walls, according to choice.
D. C. R.
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) season and last. In all this I am saying nothing in depre Characteristics of “ Fife" Spring Wheat. ciation of the good old Club, where this bas shown in
symptoms of decline. But in Wisconsin, Club has extenThis variety of wheat has been grown extensively the sively exhibited a declining tendency in a variety of parJast three seasons in the west and northwest, and proves ticulars, wbich, as they may not have befallen it elsewhere, to be so valuable, that I think every wheat cultivator in I need not detail. the United States is, or may be, interested in knowing Om the whole, Fife wheat-in consistency with its recent something more about its habits and qualities, than has origin from a fall variety-comes so near in hardiness, yet come under the public notice; at least, so far as I am productiveness, and other economical qualities to winter aware, from considerable agricultural reading. Though wheat, that in localities where the latter is precarious or to some, its name miglit so imply, this wheat is not of uncertain, in any considerable degree, I should prefer to Scotch origin--does not get its name from the county of replace it with spring Fife ; the difference in the value of l'ife, but from the name of its originator, Mr. David Fise produce being much less, in such circumstances, than the of Ontonabee, C. W., who saved a few roots of a winter anxieties and losses incident to a precarious crop. Last variety that he obtained from Dantzic, via Scotland, I be year the Fife with me yielded 26 bushels per acre; this lieve, and subsequently cultivated the produce as a spring year thirty-six. This year is not a criterion, however, the wheat.*. I will say-after thirty years experience in wheat season having been so unusually good for wheat. But I culture—that I have seen no variety of spring wheat that bave no doubt I can make the File yield twenty-four or contained so many useful qualities, and therefore so widely five bushels per acre one year with another, and I need adaptable, as the Canada File in Wisconsin. It is very therefore say no more in recommendation of a sort so hardy, and therefore less liable to rust or mildew and evidently nearly right.
J. W. CLARKE. other diseases than other known varieties. It is later than
Marquette, Wis., Oct. 16. Canada Club, and does not ripen off so rapidly; it therefore is more conveniently and economically harvested,
[For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) particularly as it has the great advantage of shelling or
Use of Machinery---Cows for Draft. beating out with difficulty ; the crop, even when dead ripe, being comparativelg free from loss, therefore, in cradling, Editors or Co. Gent.--I bave recently noticed an inreaping, or other harvesting routine. It grows a few quiry of Mr. Carver, as to stearn power for thiraslıing, saw. inches taller than Club; about as stiff, which is quite ing wood, and cutting feed, asking those who use machistrong in the straw, and consequently stands up well, not nery to state through the COUNTRY GENTLEMAN whether it lodging except in very rich situations.
will pay. I will say to him that for the last ten years I This Fife wheat threshes easy enough, and is much less have used my cows for sawing all my fire-wood, cutting cut or broken by the borse machines than Club and Rio bay, straw and stalks, and considerable thrashing, and beGrande. Indeed, my Fife was not broken in threshing, lieve it altogether the cheapest and most convenient powwhile the Club was, to a considerable extent; and the Rio or in the reach of most farmers. Grande, in my vicinity, more so it seems. This shows the
For the past three years I have used Whitman's Straw berry of the File to be comparatively and literally com- Cutter, Emery's Sawing Machine, and Emery's two horse puct and very firm, or when dry, even hard, which I infer Railway power. I have not paid the first cent to keep the must give it better keeping or storing qualities than those whole in perfect running order since I purchased thein. of more tender varieties.
Such machinery I think will pay. A year or two ago, before it was generally known, and For the past fisteen years I have had two or three pairs when, therefore, its merits were not well understood, its of cow's broke to the yoke, which are always ready to help broad and hardy qualities led the millers to look well to along when we want more team. They haul ont most of their grinding apparatis, as they found it required edge my manure, and do most of the carting. With some adand grit, and more than common power to Hour it well. ditional feed when at work, I believe they give as much Hence they gave it a gritty repuintion. But Club failed | milk as if not worked. This I think does very well. so fast the last few years on the Wisconsin prairies (which
I should very inch like to see in the Co. GENTLEMAN, by thie by, are to within two miles of my house, as fine as the opivion of some practical and experienced feeder as to any in the U. S.) that Fife rapidly superceded it; so that the comparative expense and utility of steaming feednow there are probabily three acres ol' File to one of Club what kind of apparatiis nsed, the cost, &c. I have steamraised. Now, therefore, the Fife variety is well known, ed cut bay, straw and stalks with meal-used a large corparticularly in this State and adjacent wheat districts. Its ered box.”' I have concluded it would not pay, and abanquality, though not changed, is now much better appre doned it. LEWIS Bailey. Fairfax Co. Va., Oct. 16. ciated. Instead of there being more grit in it than in the long known Club, it now turns out that its flour is equally
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.] good as the flour of Club itselt, in which it approaches therefore, to within twenty-five or thirty per cent. per bar.
Woodpeckers in the Cornfield. rel, in quality and value to the four of winter wl:eat. Our
My cornfields were much infested during the past sumbetter informed producers, now, therefore, seli Fife and mer by the corn-worm, (Heliothes,) and I had begun to Club at the same prices, and these usually rate only five fear that great dainage would be done by it, when succor or six cents per bustiel less than winter wheat commands, appeared in an unexpected form. Large numbers of or rather formerly sold for; I say formerly, for I have not Woodpeckers came down upon the fields, and commencseen a field of winter wheat this year.
ed a war of extermination upou the worms. Where the I know of many instances, too, in which Fife has rielded insect bad penetrated so far that it could not be reached three to five busbels per acre more than Club, both this from the opening itself had made at the summit of the This account of the origin of the Fire wheat does not agree with
a ear, the Woodpecker quickly drilled a hole farther down statement published in the Co. Gent., vol. 13, p. 237, by Mr. George and pulled it out. Bushels of corn, I doubt not, were E-SON, it neiglıbor of Mr. Fife's at Otonabee. Mr. Esson says:
rabot the year 18. Mr. Davi) Fire, sp Otonabee. c. w.. pro- saved by these birds in my fields alone. “Honor to whom cured through a friend in Glasgow, Scotland. a quantity of wheat honor is due.” which has been obtained from a cargo direct froni Dantzic. As it
l'inely, S. C. came to hand just before spring seed time, and not knowing whether it was it fall or spring variety. Mr. Fife concluded to sov a part of it that spring, and wait for the result. It proved to be fall wheat, as it
WINTERING lIoRSES.- A Connecticut farmer winters bis lever ripeverd, except three ears, which rewapparently from a sin horses on cut lay and carrots. wlto grain: these were preservedl. and although soleil the next year
In the morning each horse der very unfavorable circunstances being quite late, and in a sha: gilimlieat in the neigtiborhond was badly rusted. The product of of cut hay; at night he has the same quantity of hay mix.
bancs it proved it barvexito be entirely free fronterast and receives six or eight quarts of carrots, with half a bushel this was carefully preservedl, and from it sprung the variety of wheat borut over Canut and the Northern states, ts the different names ed with three quarts of provender, consisting of oats and of Fife. Scotch and Glitsgow. As the facts occured in my imesiiate traducer, but with the circumstances. I can rouch for the correctness | health and good working order. preizh, vorbind, and being intimately acquainted not only with the incorn in the ear ground together. This keeps them in five of the statements, and if necessary produce incontestible prous."
D, 11. J.
and another of the buds, and that the larvæ, which is a
small white grub which hatches from the egg, gnaws its (For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) way from thence inward to the pith, on which it afterNo. 24.---THE PEAR BLIGHT BEETLE. wards feeds until it matures and changes into the beetle, A gentleman
which continues to occupy the same cell until it is ready Southampton Co., Va., sends to the Co. Gent. some wood of an apple tree containing several
to come abroad and select its mate and deposit another
crop of eggs. beetles, which he says bave destroyed some of the trees in his orchard, which were growing thriftily previous to their
But in addition to its working in this manner in the invasion by this insect. He desires some information wigs at the ends of the limbs, it also infests the trunks of
the trees. respecting this insect, and how to avoid its ravages.
Four years since, I received from L. Smith, The insect is the Pear blight beetle, which is known to
Esq., of Middlefield, Mass., some apple wood with insects work in the apple, plum and apricot, as well as in the pear. in his grounds. These insects proved to be the Pear
therein, which bad destroyed several thrifty young trees It is very important that every fruit grower should be able blight beetle and a kindred species much smaller than this, to recognize this insect, and I therefore present such a des- which I described in my Third Report on the Noxious Incription of it as will serve to distinguish it from other in
sccts of New-York. And as it was in the spring of the sects found in the same situations. It is so small that a magnifying glass will be required to clearly perceive some inferred there were two generations of this species annual
year that Mr. Smith met with these insects in his trees, I of the particulars stated in this description. The Pear blight beetle is of a short cylindrical form,
ly, the first one in spring, cradled in the trunks of the twice as long as broad, and bluntly rounded at each end. trees, and the second in midsummer, attacking the tender On placing one and another of them upon a graduated from these Virginian specimens, that this beetle is found
twigs which have then put forth. But it now appears, scale they are found to be slightly over the tenth of an in the trunks of the trees at the close of summer, as well inch in length, and the smallest ones exactly of that size. A little forward of the middle they are cut asunder by a this subject
, since the full history and habits of this insect,
as in the spring. It is not worth while to speculate tipon transverse suture, conspicuously dividing the body into and the circumstances which cause it to locate sometimes two parts, the fore-body or thorax and the hind-body or in the twigs and sometimes in the body of the tree, can abdomen, over which last the wing covers are closely laid. The head is small and sunk into a round opening on the made where it is at work in its natural haunts.
be authentically ascertained only by actual observations under side of the fore-body. The forward end is very rough and rasp-like from little projecting points, and the
When this depredator makes its appearance in the twigs wing covers are glossy, and have numerous small punctures of the trees it is an casy matter to subdue it. The blightarranged in rows. The body is bearded at each end and ed twigs are readily detected by their withered leaves apalong the sides, with short, silvery, yellowish hairs. The pearing as they do when all the rest of the tree is clothed color of these beetles is black or very dark chestnut brown, in its summer verdure. And such twigs should be imme. the wing covers being often of the latter color, with the diately cut off and consigned to the fire to destroy the enefore-body pure black. The antennæ and legs are paler, of my that is lurking within them. But where any of these a testaceous color, (the bue of a tortoise shell comb,) with Bark beetles make their lodgment in the trunk of the tree the thiglis much darker or almost black.
we as yet are unacquainted with any remedy for arresting This insect belongs to the group of Bark beetles, (Sco- their career. In Europe extensive forests have somelytidæ,) which are often noticed under the bark of pine times been destroyed by some of the insects of this and other trees, where they excavate long slender bur- group, there being no kuown means for withstanding them. rows, which are often so regular as to resemble marks After a tree is dead they continue to breed and multiply drawn with a pencil. And to come out from the tree, in it until the wood is so far decayed that it ceases to be they bore through the bark, forming numerous holes there. palatable and nutritious to them. Hence it is advisable to in like the perforations of a pin. The species now under cut down and burn all dead trees, and also all that are de. consideration was first brought to notice by Prof. Peck, clining and unable to survive-lest from the successive who gave it the scientific name Scolytus Pyri. Dr. Har- broods that will be nurtured in such trees, some individual ris subsequently referred it to the genus Tomicus, but as may wander abroad and found new colonies in any trees the little round knob at the end of its antennæ is solid, and that may yet remain uninfested. not cut asunder into four joints, it certainly pertains to the Whether by washing the trunks of uninfested trees with genus Scolytus, in which Prof. Peck originally placed it. alkaline solutions, tobacco water, or any other substance,
This insect has never occurred in my own neighborhood the bark may be rendered so unpalatable to these insects to afford me an opportunity to examine its operations. I as to protect them against their invasion, can only be asconsequently am only acquainted with it from information certained by experiments which are yet to be made. and specimens received from correspondents, and from
East Greenwich, Washington Co., N. Y. published accounts. These latter speak of it only as in- NOTE.-A few weeks since, we received froin “P.” of festing the young twigs In the middle of summer, when Franklin Depot, Va., specimens of a caterpillar which was the tree is in full leaf, a twig here and there is seen to be there preying upou the foliage of the Silver-leaved maples. svithered and its leaves faded and dead. On inspecting As no leaves were placed in the box for them to feed mpthese twigs a small perforation like a pin hole is seen at on during their journey hitler, they came to hand dead several of the buds which project at different points along and very gaunt and shriveled. They, however, appeared the bark. And from each of these holes a burrow may be to be a species unlike anything we have ever met with traced, on splitting the twig, extending up a short distance upon the maples here, and which we are, consequently, in the central pith, with one of these beetles therein. I unable to name withoát seeing the same insect in its perpresume that the female places an egg in the axil of one I fect state, when it will be a miller or moth.
CULTIVATING AND PRUNING HEDGES.
During a recent journey in several directions, through some of the western states, as well as of our own State, we had some opportunity of witnessing the results of attempts at hedging. They have mostly proved failures. In this state, perhaps not one attempt in a hundred has given a good reliable barrier—in the west success has been more frequent—the soil being perhaps more fertile there, and the longer or warmer summers favoring a larger growth. We speak solely of the Osage Orange for this
Fig. 4 Hedge a Saccess. purpose.
and vigorous, they are cut down nearly even with the So far as we have witnessed, the failures have arisen ground, and again a few inebes higher, and so on, so as to from the entire neglect of the two absolutely esssential make a wide thick basc, like fig. 4. Some such hedges as requisites, namely, cultivation and pruning. To omit this, of five years growth, and seven feet high, were speeither is fatal. The speculator who offered for sale an ex-cial objects of admiration, and among them we may name cellent mill-seat, with only one defect, namely, entire ab- the beautiful hedge surrounding a part of the vursery sence of water to drive the stones, made a less mistake of M. B. BATEHAM & Co., of Columbus, Ohio. than the hedgers, for be left out but one requisite, while To preserve the hedge in the best condition, it should they omit two.
not be sheared very frequently. By doing so, the interior The privet and buckthorn, which have much natural becomes a smooth, impenetrable sheet or stratum of folihedyiness about them, will form some semblance of a wall age, shutting out the light from the interior, which conseof verdure, with neglect; but the Osage plant, which is quently becomes destitute of leaves, or only naked and better than either, although having naturally none of the partly dead stems and branches, fig. 6. If less evenly peculiar dense growth required, can be nothing at all without cutting, and will not grow without culture.
We have examined a great many intended bedges seyeral years old, the appearance of which is so nearly alike in every case, that the annexed cut, (fig. 1,) is a tolerably
Fig. 6. sheared, the light enters the exterior, and the foliage and healthy shoots are nearly uniform thronghout, fig. 6.
Ordinary shearing will produce an effect between the two Fig. 1. Hedges a "humbag."
if not too often repeated, or like fig. 4. accurate representation of all. Most of the plants were either partly dead when set out, were badly transplanted,
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) or else were destroyed by the dense growth of weeds and
THE PUMPKIN-SEED QUESTION. grass. Many hedges, (so called,) are much thinner than MESSRS. EDITORS—A few years ago this question was the cut indicates, eight or ten feet in length often occur- discussed, experiments tried, and I think their results were ring entirely destitute of plants.
given in the Country GENTLEMAN; at any rate the seeds In a few instances the hedge has been partly cultivated, kins to milch cows in the usual way, and was disappointed
were condemned. About that time I was feeding pump. or rather the owner claims that it has been ; and the cut- in the quantity of milk produced. "My milk is drawn into ting back bas been done at the top only, and not at the seven-quart bottles, morning and night, and a minute bottom. Such a hedge appears better than the preceding, made of the amount every day. If there is an increase, or like fig. 2, the end view of which is something like or the reverse, it is seen at once, and the reasons are fig. 3.
known. But being "no doctor," an explanation of the reasons cannot always be given, as in the case of the Pumpkin Seeds.
At the time referred to, I had a box placed near the manger to receive the seeds, that I might know that they were taken ont. My experiments at that time satisfied me, first, that the seeds were injurious, inasmuch as they diminished the flow of milk; and second, that pumpkins fed, either with or without the seed, to milch cows, did not lay on their equivalent in fat, but when fed to fatten.
ing animals, are a valuable article of food. Since that
time I have seldom fed pumpkins to milch cows. aged. In the first place the soil has been well prepared, and squashes to the oxen, but the man having charge of
This year, as usual, I gave directions to feed pumpkins (and thoroughly underdrained-nearly under the line of the cows failed to understand the direction, and fed "seeds the lieilge before setting, unless there is good natural and all.” A few mornings ago he came in, saying that drainage,) the plants carefully selected, after the buds are two or three of the cows appeared sick, their hair standswollen, so that all bad ones may be rejected; a broad, ing on end, and there was a filling off of their milk, not(not a narrow,) strip of land kept well cultivated on ench cause, and applied the remedy-by cutting off the pump
withstanding he had been feeding better. I suspected the side for several of the first years; and in a year or two, kins-and now all is well, and my "judgment not reor after the plants have become thoroughly established versed.” 1. C. W. Lincoln, Mass.
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) was cut up for fodder, there not being even a nubbin on Experiments with Superphosphate of Lime
the greater portion of it. and other Manures for Corn.
lu rating the difference, we put the proportions thus : MESSRS. Ens.-In September, 1859, while rambling over
superphosphate 4, hen mauure compost 2, guano l. That the intervale farm of Jos. B. Walker, Esq., of Concord, is, the superphosphate produced twice as mueli corn as N. H., be called my attention to a few rows of corn on
the compost, and four times as much as the guano. the south end of a field of two or three acres.
Reasoning from chemical principles, we should at once nuring the field he lacked about one load of manure to say, without experimenting, that superphosphate of lime finish out the piece. On this unmanured portion, he plant that had been pastured by milch cows for over 120 years
was the “one thing needful” for the improvement of land ed two rows of corn without any manure; two rows with
in succession. Peruvian guano in the hill; two rows with plaster of Paris
The application of superposphate of lime, in the hill, and two rows with Coe's superphosphate of or fine bone dust, to the long grazed pastures in Cheshire lime. The six first named rows were very poor indeed, and other districts in England, has been attended with the
most successful results. The reason why, is so self evident, while the rows having the superphosphate would average
“that a child might understand.” nearly as good as the corn on the portion of the field that was heavily manured in the spring. We were of the
Mr. Walker kindly furnished me with his written views opinion that the two phosphated rows would yield as much upon the results of his use of superphosphate upon the corn as would the other six. I suggested to him the pro
corn crops on his farm, which I here copy : priety of accurately ascertaining the result when he har. its tender state, before its roots expand sufficiently and
“ First. It affords immediate support to the plant in vested the corn. This he did, and found the corn on the reach the other manure, and keeps it growing vigorously two phosphated rows equal to that of the other six. How during the first period of its growth, (say the first month,) ever, this experiment was on too small a scale to be of until fairly started; it then begins to appropriate the other much practical value; but it induced him to experiment
manure-or in common farmer parlance “it gives it a more largely and carefully the past season.
good start," and that too when it needs it most, and there
is a greater evenness in the size of the plants. I was at his place during the last week of September, “ Second.—The "start" thus given is kept up through and carefully noted the results of his experiments on his the season, and the corn ripens from ten to fourteen days corn crops with different manures. The first piece, some earlier than it otherwise would. two or three acres of inverted sod intervale land, was well
“Third.-It increases the length and fairness of the manured with a compost of muck and cattle manure. ears, and there are fewer nubbins and soft ears."
From a careful examination of the several fields of com About one half of the field was manured in the hill with Coe's superphosphate of lime, at the rate of 128 lbs. per
above described, I think Mr. W.'s views are perfectly cor
his acre. Stakes were put down to mark the row where the rect as to the action of superphosphate of lime
long cultivated soil, and the corn crop. But it would be superphosphate ended; but as the result proved, this was
unreasonable to suppose the same marked results would folunnecessary, as the superior size and more early matur
every body's ing of the corn made its own mark—it being very much low the increase of the corn crop upon
else” cornfields. There are so many contingencies conthe best, ripening in 120 days from the time of planting ; nected with the action of concentrated manures upon difwhile the corn on the same field, manured as above except ferent soils and crops, that the "profit or loss” of pur. the superphosphate, was ten days later, and much smaller chasing them can only be ascertained by carefully conducall through the season.
ted experiments—and those at first should be upon a small
scale. It may be profitable for the New Hampshire farmer, Field No. 2, well manured with stable and hovel ma- as in Mr. Walker's case, to purchase or manufacture sunure, superphosphate applied to part of the field, as in perphosphate to apply upon his long cultivated and grazed No. 1-attended with similar results, except in the ripen- alluvial and other soils. But it might prove the very reing of the corn, which was later by two weeks, it being a
verse of “profitable” for the Wisconsin or lowa farmer larger and later variety of corn.
to purchase either guano or superphosphate. His new
soils already contain every constituent of fertility requiField No. 3, just one acre. This land having been an- site to the production of maximum crops of corn. But if nually pastured (although intervale) for over 120 years, they did not, and it was ascertained that superphosphate and never manured except by the droppings of the cows would exhibit the same good results as in Mr. Walker's and the sedimentary matters left by freshets. The land experiment, then it might not prove a profitable invest
ment of money to purchase superphosphate, as the price being free from obstructions, was well plowed in October, of corn there would not cover the cost of the superphos1889, well barrowed in the spring, and divided into three phate. In the purchase and experimenting with purchasequal portions of one-third of an acre each, and manured ed manures, whether domestic or foreign, all these things as follows:
should be taken into consideration by the farmer-and 1.-One-third acre-Superphosphate, at the rate of 225 when he finds he is right "let him go ahead.”
Warner, N. H., Oct. 23, 1860.
LEVI BARTLETT. lbs. per acre, at a cost of $5.40 per acre. At the second hoeing, a handful of unleached ashes was applied to each
Remedy for Smut in Wheat. hill on the three plots alike. 2.-One-third acre—Guano, large tablespoonful to a
MESSRS. L. TUCKER & Son—I see an inquiry in the
Sept. CULTIVATOR, concerning smut in wheat. Below I hill; cost at the rate of $60 per ton.
give you a receipt for cleaning seed wheat of that pest, 3.-One-third acre-Pigeon and hen manure mixed with which has proved successful in this county, soil-two parts soil to one of bird dung; half pint in each RECEIPT.-To the first bushel of seed take three tablehill.
spoonfuls of blue vitriol, and soak three hours; then Where the superphosphate was applied there was much pour off the brine, and dry the seed with lime. Keep the good corn. The portion manured with the compost of vitriol, and wash and skim as before, except the three
brine, and to overy bushel of seed add one spoonful of the bird manure was very much poorer, and that part guanoed hours soaking, and I thiuk Tyro will soon be clear of smut was miserable in the extreme; a very large portion of it in his wheat. L. ODELL. Randolph county, N. C.