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(123.) Calved March, 1836; Color Dark Red; weight. 1,500 lbs. AND PLANTS of every description. Particular attention given to He is in good condition, and in every respect a first class animal. the growing of Grapes, Raspberries, Currants, Blackberries, and will Price $100.

son's Albany Strawberry.

Jan. 1, 1860. Jan. 1--In3t.

Freetown, Cortland Co., N. Y.



MAXCFACTURER OF will furnish the most popular Agricultural. Literary, and News Cider Mills, Corn-Stalk Cutters and Grinders, and Book. Periodicals, at low rates, with premiuniy to each subscriber-POSITIVE,

Binders' Machinery.

Jan. 1, 1860. and no Curace GANTE, Premiums consist of new and rare vegetable and Flower Seeds, splendid Engravings, among which is that beautiful Parlor Ornament, THE WASHINGTON FAMILY, worth Five Dol.

MERY BROTHERS, Proprietors of the kars-and all those DIME BOOKS which are flying through the mails ALBANY AGRICULTURAL WORKS, Albany, N. Y., Manu. like a whirlwind, from the Atlantie to the Pacific. Cireuiars sent on facturers of their Patent Railroad Horse Powers, and of the largest application to


and best variety of Agricultural Machinery in the country. All artiDec. witmit. West Macedon, Wayne Co., N. Y. cles warranted.

Jan, 1, 1860.

BERKSHIRE PIGS of pure breeds, and at a low now




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Cents---Oxe DOZEN Comes, post-paid, for Two Dollars. Agents WM,

Wauted. Oct. 6-w&mtr.

Lakeville, Conn.


Or Rural Affairs for 1860. TORY, (in New-York and Pennsylvania,) for sale by J. L. The Sixth Number of this work is now ready, and presents features ALBERGER, Buffalo, N. Y. Send for Pamphlet. Nov. 3-wtr. of no legs attractiveness and value than its predecessors. The

following abstract of its contents, together with the fact that they ORSE POWERS, THRESHERS, &c., Escravings, will afford better evidence of this than anything the


Publishers can say.

At the Schenectady Agricultural Works, 1. Requisites for a llome.

2. Various Modes of Grouping. SCHEXECTADY, N. Y.

3. Plans of Garden and Omamental Grounds.

4. Various Details -Lawns Walks--- Rustic Objects, Ꮋ Ꭼ Ꮋ Ꭼ Ꭱ Ꭰ Ꮪ Ꭺ Ꭺ Ꮮ Ꭰ Ᏼ Ꭰ Ꭱ Ꮐ 5. Trees-in Saving Expense, SHIRE, DEVON and SUORT HORN Calves, Yearlings, Tiro Year 1. General Considerations, Old Bulls, Heifers, &c., also ESSEX, SUFFOLK and BERKSHIRE 2. Working Men's Cottages--Three Original Designs by GEORGE D. PIGS, (in pairs if desired,) and a few SOLTH DOWN BUCKS for

RAND. sale, Address

T. HOWARD PATTERSON, 3. Farm Tlouses-Five Original Designs with Ground Plans, &c., by March 24-wtf. Herdsman, &c., Haverstraw, N. Y.

the same Author.

This is a Chapter which will prove serviceable especially to those THE NEW YORK TRIBU N E. who wish suggestions as to peat and inexpensive structures for practi

cal purposes, which, with some taste and consirierable extent of

accommodations, combine great convenience of interior arrangement. Prepare for the Great Political Campaign of 1860 !

III, HEDGES-THIRTEEN ENGRAVINGS. INDUCEM ENTS Τ Ο CLUBS. 1. Different Plants for Fencing Purposes.

2. Training and Pruning for first Four Years. NOW IS THE TIME TO SUBSCRIBE.


1. Post Fences, Modes of Construction and Setting. THE TRIBUNE--now more than eighteen years old, and having over

2. Hurdles and Cheap Fences. a quarter of a million subsctibers, or constant purchasers, ditused through every State and Territory of our Union-will continue in V. FARM GATES FIFTEEN FUGRAVINGS. essence what it has been-the earnest champion of Liberty, Progress, 1. Difficulties to Contend with. and whatever will conduce to our national growth in Virtue, Industry, 2. Hanging the Gate. knowledge, and Prosperity.

3. Constructing and Hinging it. THE NEW YORK DAILY TRIBUNE

VI, BARNS AND STABLES-TWENTY-FIVE ENGRAVINGS, Is printed on a large imperial sheet, and published every morning and

1. A Horse Barn built of Brick.

2. A Barn for a Small Farm. evening (Sundays excepted). It contains Editorials on the topics of the times, employing a large corps of the best newspaper writers of

3. Plan of Stables for llorses and Cattle. the day; Domestic and Foreign Correspondence; Proceedings of Con.

4. Stalls for Horses--Four different forms. gress: Reports of Lectures; City News; Cattle, Horse, and Produce 5. Stalls for Cattle-Means of Tying. Markets; Reviews of Books; Literary Intelligence; Papers on Je. 6. (attle and Sheep Racks. chanics and the Arts, Cookery, &c., &c. We strive to make THE VII, IMPLEMENTS OF TILLAGE-TWENTY ONE ENGRAVINGS, TRIBUNE a newspaper to meet the wants of the public-its Tele

1. Improvements in Plows and Ilarrows. graphic news alone costing over $15,000 per annuni.

2. Plowing and Subsoiling. TERMS:

3. Ditching Plows. TIIE DAILY TRIBUNE is mailed to Subscribers at $6 per annum, 4. Implements for Surface Tillage. in advance; $3 for six months.


1. Gadding's Ilay Fork. Is published every Tuesday and Friday, and contains all the Edito. 2. Willard's Root Slicer. rials of the Daily, with the Cattle, Horse, and General Markets,

3. Joice's Star Mill. reliably reported expressly for THE TRIBUNE; Notices of New In- 4. Ilickok's Stalk Cutter. ventions, Foreign and Domestic Correspondence. Articles on Cookery;

5. Allen's Potato Direer. and during the Sessions of Congress it contains a summary of Con. 6. Labor by Horse Power, gressional doings, with the more important speeches. We shall, as IX, FRUITS AND FRUIT CULTURE-SEVEN ENGRAVINGS. heretofore, make THE SEMI-WEEKLY TRIBUNE a literary, as well

1. Plant Apple Orchards as a political newspaper, and we are determined that it shall remain

2. Transplanting Sniall Trees, in the front rank of family papers,

3. Apples for Machet. TERMS:

4. Select Fruits for Virginia, New England, Wisconsin-Failures in One Copy, one year,......83 00 | Five Copies, on year,.... 811 25

the West. Two Copies, one year..... 5 00 | Ten do, to one address, . 20 00 5. Ripening lears-Sorts for Market-Hardy varieties.

6. Select List of the Newer Pears-Dwarfs. Any person sending us a club of twenty, or over, will be entitled to an extra copy. For a club of forty, we will send The Daily Tribune

7. Plums-The Blackberry-Strawberries--Grapes-Insects on the

Apple. one year.

8. Sending Grafts by Mail--Root Grafting. THE NEW-YORK WEEKLY TRIBUNE,

X, SUPPLEMENTARY LIST OF NURSERIES. A large eight page paper for the country, is publisbed erery Saturday, and contains Editorials on the important topics of the times, the news

XI. RURAL MISCELLANY-TWELVE ESCRAVINGS. of the week, interesting correspondence from all parts of the world,

1. General Economy--Razor Strops--Marking Bags-Bad Waterthe New York Catile, Horse, and I'roduce Markets, interesting and

Fuel-Painting Tools-Cracks in Stoves, &c. reliable Political, Mechanical, and Agricultural articles, Papers on 2. Dairy Economy - Winter Butter--Damp Stables-Wintering and Cookery, &c., &c.

stabling-Födder, &c. We shall, during this year, as hitherto, constantly labor to improve

8. Rules for Business, with Numerous Hints. the quality of the instructive entertainment afforded by TUE WEEK

4. Grafting Knives. LY TRIBUNE, which, we intend, shall continue to be the best Family 6. Transplanting in Antumn and Spring. Weekly Newspaper published in the World. We consider the Cattle

6. Early Melong and Squashes. Market Reports alone richly worth to cattle raisers a year's subscrip

7. Wool Table. tion price.

8. Cleaning Seed Wheat.

9. To Make Farining Profitable. TERMS:

10. Packing Trees for Transportation. One Copy, one year, ... 22 Five Copies, one year,


Three Copies, one year,
Twenty t'opie, to one address,

This, preceded by the usual Calendar pages and Astronomical Cal. Twenty Copies, to address of each subscriber,


culations, forms a bonk which is certainly cheap at its retail price,

wh le the Publishers, in order to promote its extensive Circulation, are Any person sending us a club of Twenty, or more, will be entitled to prepared to offer the most liberal Terins for its introduction in quanti. an extra copy; For a club of Forty, we will send THE SEMI-WEEK ties, either to Agents, Agricultural Societies, Nurserymen, Dealers in LY TRIBUTE; and for a clul, of Que Hundred THE DAILY TRI. Implements and seeds, or any others who like an interest in the disBUNE will be sent gratis.

sernination of useful reading, and in the promotion of Rural Improve. Subscriptions may commence at any time. Terms always cash in ment. advance. All letters to be addressed to

Address all orders or inquiries to the publishers,

Jan. 1-12th
Tribune Buildings,, New-York. Jan, 1, 1810.


Special Business Notices. TIE CULTIVATOR for 1860.

... $900

9 10 10 11 15 11 12

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13 14 14 15 18 19

THE COUNTRY GENTLEMAN. Terms to Clubs for 1860each Subscriber receiving a Copy,

postpaid, of the Illustrated Annual Register of Rural

Five Copies Country GENTLEMAN and REGISTER, ......

16 50 A Premium Copy of both Tax COUNTRY

GENTLEMAN and REGIRlub THE CHEAPEST AND THE BEST." TER will be sent free to any one making up a Club of Ten, and for any

addition to this number, the rate will be $1.65 for each subscriber, and

a free copy for each additional Ten. Now is the time to Subscribe.

The Country Gentleman Alone.
Single Copy, one year...

$2 00 NHE First Number of the Twenty-seventh Volume Three Copies.. THE

5 00 Five Copies,

8 00 of Tae Cultivator is offered with some pride to its old

Ten Copies,..

15 00 and new patrons. It will more than sustain our promise to No subscriptions received on club terms unless paid strictly in furnish, this year, the

advance. Fifty cents additional is in all cases charged for each sub

scriber when payment is not made in advance. Cheapest and Best Monthly Journal. The improvements we have made, and the very low price O" Every Person who receives this Paper to which our terms are now reduced, can hardly fail to enlarge is requested to act as Agent for our Public its subscription list very greatly, if our friends will exert a cations. @

LUTHER TUCKER & Son. very little effort in its behak. Premium to Subscribers!

Contents of this Number. By reference to the Advertisement upon page 39, the

THE FARM. reader will at once learn the character and scope of THE EDITORIAL NOTES IN ENGLAND,. ILLUSTRATED ANNUAL REGISTER OF RURAL AFFAIRS for

Alderman Mechi's Farming,..

About Feeding Cattle,.. 1860-a Twenty-five Cent Book-which contains no less than

Economy in Saving the Litter, One Hundred and Eighty Engravings, and which is The L'se and Manufacture of Burnt Clay.. presented to every Club Subscriber to The CULTIVATOR. Draining Swamps and Muck for Manure,

Liguid Manuring, as Practiced at Tiptree Hall,. Our Terms are as follow :

Winter Management of Manure,... ONE COPY CULTIVATOR, ONE YEAR,

Large Crops vs. Large Farms,

13 The Crops of Ohio in 1858,


75 Growing Clover for Hay Seed, and Pasture, by B.. TEN COPIES CULTIVATOR & REGISTER,

$5 00 Hints on Deep Plowing, S3* To the above Terms, Subscribers in the British Pro- larvesting Indian Corn, &c., by J. B. B.,....

Potatoes -New Varieties, by B. J. HARVEY,
vinces must invariably add Six Cents per copy for the postage Fowler's Steam Plow in England,
prepaid upon their papers.

Importance of the Clover Crop, by F.,
Top-Dressing Meadow Lands, by J. D. M. KEATOR,
Improvement in Cow Stables,

Thoughts Suggested on Liebig's Letters on Modern Agriculture,

Nutrition of Plants-Liebig vs. Lawes,....

Effects of Nitrogenous Manures, ...
1. For Ten Subscribers and 85.

Liebig on Stable Manures and American Farming..
To the Agent sending us Five Dollars for Ten Copies Nature's Supplies of Mineral Food,
COLTivator and Ten of the ANNUAL REGISTER, we will Lighty Bushels Wheat per Acre,
present an eleventh copy of both as a Premium.

Smut in Wheat-an Experiment,

Oats and Grass in Rotation,
II. For Twenty Subscribers and $10.

Experiments with Hedge Plants,
To the Agent sending Tex DOLLARS for Twenty Copies of How to Make Barn-Yards, by L. F. Scott,

New York State Agricultural College, The CULTIVATOR and Twenty of the ANNUAL Register, Inquiries and Replies to Correspondents, we will present either of the following premiums :

Notes for the Month,

American farmers and Agricultural Reading, 1. The COUNTRY GENTLEMAN (weekly) free for Six Months; or Course of Agricultural Lectu es at New Haven, 2. A Complete Set of the ANNUAL REGISTER, postpaid, 'six Ohio State Board of Agriculture,..

years; 8. Volumes of the CULTIVATOR, postpaid, for any Two Years since


The Suffolk Horse-"Chester Emperor,"
4. Two Extra Copies of the CULTIVATOR and REGISTER for Bedding for Farm Stock,

On Wintering Calves, by FARMER B.,..
III. For Thirty Subscribers and $15.

Economy in Feeding Stock in Winter, by W. J. PETTEE,

Wintering Stock on Hay and Corn-Stalks, by B., To the Agent sending FIFTEEN DOLLARS for Thirty Copies How Shall we Save Fodder, of THE CULTivator and Thirty of the Annual Register, we Feeding sheep-Loss of Wool in Spring,

Cooking Food for Swine,. will present either of the following Premiums :

HORTICULTURAL DEPARTMENT. 2. Ten Premium Copies of the ANNUAL REGISTER for any desired How to obtain Fruit in New Places, 1. The COUNTRY GENTLEMAN free for One Year: or

A Basket of Plums- Description of Seven New Varieties, ; 3. Volunes of TILE CULTIVATOR, postpaid, for any three years Descriptive List of Apples from Maine,..

Grafting Currants-Paint for Wounds, &c.,. since 1852; or

Grape Culture in Central New York, by A. D. G. 4. Three Extra copies CULTIVATOR and REGISTER for 1860.

How to Start Blackberry Cuttings, by MARKET GARDENER,
IV. For Fifty Subscribers and 823.

Rapidity of Increase of Strawberry Plants,

Seeding Down Young Orchards,..
To the Agent sending TWENTY-FIVE Dollars for Fifty Treatment of House Plants, by G. B. H..
Oupies of The Cultivator and Fifty of the ANNUAL REGIS- The Hubbard Squash and Feejee Tomato.

The Cassabar and Honey Cantaloupe Melons, by F. H. FLEMING, ter, we will present either of the following premiums :

The Apple-Pie Melon, by F. A. lloyt, REBECCA W. PEABODY, and 1. The COUNTRY GENTLEMAN free one year, and Twelve Pre- IRENE COLE,.. mium Copies of ANNUAL REGISTER, being two complete

RURAL ARCHITECTURE, sets, or otherwise, as may be desired; or 2. The COUNTRY GENTLEMAN, free, one year, and Volumes of Designs for Three Working Men's Cottages, by G. D. RÂND,. 16 CULTIVATOR for any four years since 1852; or

On Building with Balloon Frames, by G. L. WOODWARD, 3. The COUNTRY GENTLEMAN for one year, and Four extra

Copies CULTIVATOK and REGISTER for 1860.

Flint's Milch Cows and Dairy Farming-Winter Feed of Cows, by

32 7 Larger Premiums for Larger Lists,

Prizes Awarded for Best Cheese, at Conn. State Fair ::

11 MEMBERS OF CLUBS may receive their papers at different


Description of a Cheap Poultry House, by W. A.,


Degeneration of Bees, by E. P.,

33 In obtaining the Premiums above offered, a subscription to

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. the Country Gentleman, at $2 per year, will count the same How to Store Cabbage for Winter C'se, by L. BARTLETT.... 31 as Four subscribers to the Cultivator, and the subscriber to Recipe for Buckwheat Bread, by F. K. PHOENIX,

How to Make Johnny Cake, by M... the Co. Gent. will receive one copy of the REGISTER.

Recipe for a Valuable Cough Mixture, by Mrs. J. P... SPECIMEN COPIES of both Journals sent on application, Ice Cream and Frosting for Cake, by L. with Showbills and Prospectuseg-aalso, if desired, a copy of


10 the Annual Register for use in canvassing for Subscribers. Portrait of Alderman Mechi,

Designs for Working Men's Cottages, Eleven Engravings, . The Register Postage FREE.-We shall prepay the Fowler's Steam Plow-Three Engravings, postnge on all copies of the Annual Register, without Portrait of Suffolk Horse, Chester Eraperor,

Six charge to the subscriber.

View of a Cheap Poultry-House,

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UBLISHED BY LUTHER TUCKER & SON, 1-8-9 he traveled extensively in France with the view of

studying the cultivation, wealth, resources, and national J. J. THOMAS, ASSOCIATE EDITOR, UNION SPRINGS, N. Y. prosperity of that kingdom—the results of which were pub

lished in 2 quarto vols. in 1792. A Board of Agriculture C. M. Saxton, Barker & Co. Ag. Book Publishers, 25 Park Row. having been established, he was appointed its Secretary, Series was commenced in 1803, and the seven volumes for 1833; 4, 5, 6, Agricultural Survey of the counties of Suffolk, Lincoln,

THE CULTIVATOR has been published twenty-six years. A New and under the auspices of this body prepared a general 7, 8 and 9, can be furnished, bound and post-paid, at $1.00 each. Ten of the ANNUAL

REGISTER OF RURAL AFFAIRS, with one of each last treatise was on the “ Husbandry of those celebrated TERMS--FIFTY CENTS A YEAR.–Ten copies of the Cultivator and Hertfordshire, Norfolk, Essex, Oxfordshire and Sussex. His free to the Agent, Fire Dollars.

" THE COUNTRY GENTLEMAN," a weekly Agricultural Journal British Farmers, Bakewell, Arbuthnot and Ducket.”
of 16 quarto pages, making two vols. yearly of 416 pages, at $2.00 per
year, is issued by the same publishers.

With us, so many of whom have seen more or less of

the different parts of our extensive country, by travel for Editorial Notes Abroad.

one object or another, and all of whom are tolerably con

versant, through the newspapers, with what is elsewhere No. XXVII-A Visit in Suffolk last July.

going on—it appears strange in visiting a little island

(comparatively) like England, to find that a vast proporThe Native County of ARTHUR YOUNG_His Works and their populare; tion of the people have seen but a very limited part of it,

of the English-, and the Drive to Butley Abbey.The Rectory.THOMAS Ceisp. Eshit that they have always been in the habit of confining their his Farm and Stock--the Short-Horns-Fattening Animals for Exhibition--Disposition of the Farin-the Open Sheep Walks and Furze, attention to their own local events and ways, and that they Mining for Coprolites-Sheep Boarding out-Rotation Employed, with a Stolen Crop," and the Operations of Four Years.

differ perceptibly in dialect in districts by no means exA prophet, it may be said, is not without honor, save in ceedingly remote from each other. If such continues to his own countyand according to Mr. Caird, this version be the case in this age of cheap travel and cheap reading, of the proverb applies to Suffolk and her famous son AR- it can readily be imagined how much more it was so nineTHUR Young. Not a successful farmer himself, like many ty years ago, and what an effect—what " a stimulus to imanother who can write better agriculture than he can prac- proved practice,” in Mr. Caird's words, must have been the tice—his neighbors were by no means inclined to follow means which were supplied by these Surveys of Young, his precepts, and while in other counties proprietors were for comparing the practices of various soils and localities. prompted by them to inaugurate great improvements, dur- It has been the great object of Agricultural Societies and ing his life they seem never to have met with much favor writers, there as here, to get the farmers of different parts in his native district. It is perhaps no more than due to of the country well into communication with one another, the efforts put forth by this eminent man, that we should and the confessed benefit conferred by Young's exertions, notice very briefly what they were, and we could take no is an instructive tribute to the importance of this end. better time to do so, than when, having crossed the river I have been unable to turn to any general review of Stour in coming from Essex, we stand upon the threshold these books of Young's. The monument to his memory is of the county that gave him birth, and which is now farm- of that kind, however, which proves most enduring, for it ed largely according to the principles he inculcated, and consists in his careful collection of such a mass of valuaready to acknowledge its indebtedness to them "for much ble facts. Thus we meet with constant references to him of the progress that has been made in the cultivation of incidentally as an authority, and it is uniformly with a passthe soil and the economical application of labor." ing word of praise. Loudon remarks of his Tour in Ire

Having succeeded to an estate, and, as Loudon expresses land, that "it probably did more good than even the Dublin it, "impoverished himself by experiments," at the age of 26 Society," and Cuthbert W. Johnson says that he was "perYoung's first volume, “ The Farmer's Letters to the People haps the most popular author on Rural Affairs that England of England," appeared, and four years later another series to or any other country ever produced.” the Landlords. In the interval he published the narrative At Ipswich, the capital town of Suffolk, and the native of “A Six Weeks Tour" in the Southern Counties and in place of Cardinal Wolsey, we come upon the river Orwell, Wales, another of six months in the North, and a third in the estuary of which joins that of the Stour at Harwich. the East of England, besides several books upon practical Here the Orwell is navigable for vessels of some 200 tons, and experimental Agriculture, making during this period furnishing water communication for the benefit of several a total of eight works in octavo, one of 2 vols., and two large foundries and machine establishments, at one of which, of 4 vols, each, and one of two quarto vols. His Tour in that of Messrs. RANSOMES & Sims, we shall make a call as Ireland, Annals of Agriculture, &c., followed, and in 1787 soon as time will allow. At present our destination is


Woodbridge, a thriving market town and port seven or - I do not, it is very likely, do justice to Mr. Crisp's eight miles to the north-east, where as we leave the rail. reasoning in thus roughly mentioning the impression I way, we shall nreet a kind greeting from a gentleman gained from what he told me of his views; but I cousidurwhose stock we have already seen and admired at the Suf- ed it worthy of record, as coming from a man of much folk Agricultural Show, but whose farming will by no practical experience, that he spoke boldly in favor of the means prove the less interesting on that account. Seating custom which there are more ready to combat in words thau ourselves in one of those handy two-wheeled carts so much in practice--of only exhibiting such animcls as harc been more common in England, as the traveler at once notices, really prepared to "look their best." The question has than they are with us, we are off at a pleasant pace--pass- been much discussed in the past, although it seems at preing near the Melton station, where we see newly comple- sent to be nearly set at rest by the almost uniform congent ted and convenient arrangements for auction sales.I think of breeders. it was stated once a month--for the marketing and inter- Butley Abbey is a farın of abont a thousand acres, of change of stock of different kinds, and thence away six or which I understood that 280 perhaps were in wheat, 150 eight miles between fields of grain, now, the 2d of July, to 180 in turnips, 150 in barley, 150 in " layer" or clovers rapidly approaching " the full corn in the ear; of man- and grass, together with beans, peas, &e., while of the regolds in well-marked rows, and Swedey just proving with mainder a part is pernianent marsh pasture, and the rest a sprinkling of green, that the sower has not sowed in lies in open sheep walks. The latter are generally blowing vain; of land yet under the plow and harrow and roller, sands, with not much herbage except the furze (gorse or and probably soon destined to be drilled with turnips; of whins it is also called) which serves probably to lessen or the stubbles freshly growing green again after the labor obviate the action of the wind. The bushes of this furze of the hay-makers, and of hedges or "fences" as the are caten off by the sheep, English call these walls of living green, just beginning which nibble away at the to be trimmed back from the wilder growth of the past outer shoots until those in

- Sonia twelve-month, to the regularity of well ordered farm en- the center grow up beyond closures.

their reach, perhaps four or By and by our road carries us near a building of solid five feet high; it is nutriand antique appearance and considerable size, now occu- tious, and other animals are pied, we are told, as the Rectory, but supposed to have said also to be fond of it. once formed the gateway only of the massive pile which But the spines of the foliin former days covered the grounds and bore the name of age are sliarp, and require "Butley Abbey.” A little farther, adding a feature to the bruising before they can be

14 farm-yard scene not often to be found in that sort of land- eaten by cattle with any scape, a sturdy old arch still marks one point in its exten- comfort, and the sheep sive outline, and jolly round-sided Suffolk pigs are rooting must have become well about, where the Suffolk monks—perhaps with equal title toughened to them, one to either epithet—used to receive the rents of the goodly would think, to enjoy itlands over whose tithings they probably knew well how to the plant in fact seeming Common Furze-(Ulex Europoeus.)

Jour bus preside, before the troubled times came when their strong- scarcely less terrible in reality than it does when we read holds were toppled over and their dominion passed into other in the botanies that "it bears innumerable densc, roughish, hands. Entering a gateway, a few fragmentary remnants green, furrowed or ribbed branches

, spinous at the ends, of old columns and sculptured walls, which the plow-share and beset with large, compound, striated, permanent thorns, yet meets as it turns the soil near by, shrink back under leaves few, scattered, small

, awl-shaped, deciduous"the drooping shrubbery as if ashamed of their fallen state, description which I am sure it is fortunate the sheep cans and we stroll away from the path, upon the turf here and not read, or they would be less likely than before to relthere cut out for a circle of flowers, a little absent-mind- ish their forage. The engraving above shows the points edly, until the presence of others not habited in the garb of the herbage, as well as the flowers with which, earlier of the holy fathers, recalls the unmistakable fact that the in the season than the time of my visit, it is profusely days of their glory are no more, and that entire taciturnity, covered-presenting, I was told, a beautiful appearance, however appropriate for the cloister, and occasionally be and giving the whole moor a golden hue. Indeed somo coming to the American countenance, may sometimes, too, one has writtenbe quite misplaced.

"And what more noble than the vernal furze “You have some fine Short-Horns yonder,” we there

With golden baskets hung? Approach it not,

For every blossom has a troop of swords fore remark, raising our eyes to the pasture beyond the lawn. “How large a herd are you keeping ?”

Of these moors the furze is a natural product, but I believe Perhaps twenty or thirty the answer runs, and subse- it is sometimes grown for fodder, while machines for bruisquently we go among them and mark the " Bates blood" ing it are catalogued by the dealers. During the day the that flows in their veins, and find in “Wild Eyes" and sheep stray about these unenclosed tracts, and with the aid others of the family, just that hearty thriftiness which bears of his dogs the shepherd collects them at evening to be witness to the capacity of the breed for flesh-taking when folded. We went out at dusk for a walk over the farm, no extra care or forcing processes are employed.

and saw a flock, unless my memory is at fault, numbering We venture the inquiry it may be, "whether some herds sixteen hundred, or thereabouts, and I was told that it is have not been injured by feeding up the best for Shows, rarely the case in collecting even so many as this, that the. to the detriment of their further usefulness ?”

dogs and shepherd leave behind a single one. Undoubtedly instances of this kind occur, but-argues After a glance at one other feature on this farm that was in effect our host—it is the object of the breeding of the a curiosity to me, I shall turn to my note book for a numpresent day to develop such influences in the parent as are ber of interesting facts which Mr. Crisp was goed enough most likely to beget the greatest and quickest power of to give me during the day or two spent se pleasantly in converting fodder into meat, and how are we to determine his company. how well these requirements are met, if we starve our ani- Mr. C. Wren Hoskyns, the lively author of the “Chronmals into the Show-yard? Let us avoid either extreme ; icles of a Clay Farm," in lecturing two or three years ago but all the rules of the societies can't prevent my neighbor upon the progress of agriculture, adduced the word copro. or me from wishing to show-not where, at some prospec- lite, among other scientific terms, which he said were tive period our beasts are going to fill out handsome and strange enough in the farmer's ears ten years before, alvaluable carcasses, but where on good keeping they actu- though now commonly understood; and he gave, in proof ally do at a certain age lay on that kind of flesh which will of his statement, the fact that Mr. Huxtable had then nar. pay the feeder and the butcher. And no judge will be rowly escaped being reported in the newspapers as the inwilling in his decisions, to be guided entirely by the lank troducer of “coppery lights into the dark places of agrianticipations of future fatness.

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The material in question, which if it had not been for ditional fertilizing material, which, without their intervenMr. Hoskyns' untimely extinguishment, would have had a tion, would have been purchased in the shape of artificials. debut before the world so much more brilliant than its We have thus seen two crops in the system of rotation, name could very literally authorize, has been largely found the wheat and beets, with an extra bite of turuips for the on Mr. Crisp's farm. The Suffolk crag and some other sheep intercalated. On land where the last is not taken; formations, abound in these coprolites-often so scattered the second year's crop would be turnips instead of bects. as not to be worth exhuming-now and then occurring, as In either case, the roots are folded off along from autumn in the present case, in large masses; they are the fossiliz- until spring, or otherwise harvested—the beets bearing ed excrements of extinct lizards (saurians) and other rep- the frost better and lasting later in the season than the tiles, and, as dug, washed and heaped up, no one in pass- turnips. I shall have occasion to refer hereafter to the ing would suppose the pile to be anything more than ordi- fact that the quantity of beets grown in proportion to that nary gravel. They appear, however, oftener in cylindrical of turnips seemed to be almost universally on the increase forms, and while they have the same water-worn exterior, in Great Britain--of late years mangolds are said very genone perceives on breaking them that they are quite diffe-erally to have given the better satisfaction of the two, and rent from the stones for which he took them at first. In to have gained wonderfully in popular favor. use they are either ground or treated with sulphuric acid, Sometime in March of the third year, the land is scarias bones are, and contain, according to Way and Gilbert, fied for barley, with additional manure, if the sheep bave fiom fifty-two to fifty-seven per cent. of bone earth or not already supplied enough. Mr. Crisp drills in six to phosphate of lime. I understood their intrinsic value to eight pecks per acre, and sows also twelve to fourteen or be between $11 and $12 per ton, while they sell at differ- sixteen pounds of “small seeds," with rye grase, pretty ent rates according to the state of the market. Between much in the following proportion: four and five thousand dollars worth had been taken out 8 lbs. red cloyer. and sold from a single acre—so that the discovery of their

2 lbs. white clover. 4 lbs, trefoil.


1 to 2 pecks rye grass. value was not only a boon to English farmers in general, The trefoil or yellow clover, as it is also called, is conbut in particular to those proprietors whose lands happen sidered very valuable for sheep. If this "layer crop," to have been a favorite resort for the reptiles of antiquity as it is called, is far enough advanced in autumn, it is fed -possibly the rendezvous of those which were driven out of off that season a little; the next spring, at any rate, it is the sister island by the valiant St. Patrick.

ready either for grazing or to come on for hay, -yielding The Sheep of this part of England, as I remarked when of the latter an average of about two tons per acre-thus writing from the Show at Ipswich, are prolific mothers and completing the rotation in the ordinary “four course good milkers, and the females are consequently in demand. shist.” Mr. Crisp has a herd of about 2,000 breeding ewes,* to

In October the land is plowed, or earlier if necessary, wbich he puts ». Leicester or South-Down tup. The lambs it having previously received a coating of manure. Mr. is his practice to sell, the autumn after they are one year old, sometimes uses a haymaking machine to spread his manure or indeed any time during that season according to circum- with; hereafter I shall be able to give a cut of this implestances, and the price received for them varies with age ment, as well as of the scarifier referred to above. Wheat and quality from $7.50 all the way up to $15 per head. is then sown, coming forward as the first crop in the sucThe lambs are dropped about March, and when they are ceeding quadrennial series; and here I may close for the ready' to wean after harvest, are put out upon the stub- present, for I find that we should have to linger longer bles to eat the "seeds” that were sown in the spring, and than time will now permit, in order to see the rest of the at night perhaps folded upon a turnip field as soon as the stock, and take a drive to the other farms under our host's latter is ready. But Mr. C. keeps a great many sheep cultivation, in one chapter. out a-boarding, as we might express it; that is, there are many smaller farmers, who do not have the means of keeping a large flock the year round, and who are glad to take

INFLUENCE OF THE SURFACE SOIL. in those of their neighbors both upon their stubbles and to eat their turnips. For the lambs thus sent out upon

There is something remarkable in the influence on vegestubbles on other farms, about 3 cents a head per week is table growth, of the upper stratum of the soil. Take, for paid. The price paid for turnip land is in the neighbor- example, its effect on the growth of young trees. If a hood of 6 cents a week for each head, though it varies young peach tree, for instance, is allowed to stand in a with the character of the crop, &c. ; when it does not ex. good soil, which from neglect becomes hardened and crustceed this price, Mr. C. considers that there is room for ed on the surface, it will make but a few inches growth in profit to the owner of the sheep. Sometimes he has flocks at a distance of 50 miles or even more, and a great advan- a single season. But if, instead of becoming crusted, the tage of this method to the small farmer, arises from the surface of the soil for only an inch or two downwards, is fact, that while the few sheep he would want to keep might kept mellow, and daily stirred, the growth of the tree will be all winter in eating his turnips off, if 500 or 600 come be more than double, and sometimes more than quadrupled, upon his fields at once, they are all cleared by Christmas although the roots may all be below the stirred portion. and ready for plowing.

We walked through a field which produced a crop of A more striking difference occurs when the surface is alwheat last year. Mr. C. had also obtained from it, what lowed in one instance to become coated with grass, and in is called a stubble or “stolen crop" of turnips, -sced the other is kept mellow. Although the roots of the grass drilled in rows 18 inches apart as soon as possible after extend downwards but a few inches, yet we have known harvest, and the roots folded off this spring. He calculates this mere surface-coating so to retard the growth of large the value of such a crop at about $7.50 per acre, for a fuir yield will keep 20 sheep 6 weeks—an equivalent at peach trees, that they would not make more than three or the rate paid for turnips elsewhere to $7.20, while their four inches growth, wbile similar trees, standing in mellow manure upon the land is rated as worth about 3. cwt. of cultivated ground, grew from two to three feet in a season. guano-more, probably, than the cost of sowing and cul. The roots of these trees were mostly a foot below the surtivation. The latter consists in the use of Garrett's horse.

face. hoe five or six times, according to the necessity of the case, and in one thinning and hoeing by hand, followed by markable surface influence, but merely to point out the

We do not propose here to discuss the theory of this rea forking off of the weeds, costing about 50 cents per acre. facts, and to suggest some important practical hints. This spring, after the turnips bad been fed off, the land was

Manure for trees and crops operates in two important scarified and plowed. Beets were sown about the first of May, after a manuring of from 8 to 12 loads of farm-yard ways. The first and most obvious is by its direct supplies dung per acre-the sheep-folds having supplied the ad- to the small rootlets in the soil. To afford such supplies

in the best manner, it should be finely pulverized, and In another letter, we shall see that Mr. Crisp occupies two other minutely diffused through the soil at just such a depth as warms beside that of Butley Abbey."

L. H, T.

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