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the roots of the trees and crops extend---neither wholly tory confirms this remark as correct. All the great deserts buried deep, nor left wholly near the top-but be inter- of the world are composed mainly of shifting sands. The mixed through every part. This mode we do not propose most fertile soils, wherever found, contain a large portion to speak of at present. The second way is its influence on of clay. Clays, however, differ largely in agricultural the crust of the surface, as already alluded to. On very value, as may hereafter be shown. light sandy or gravelly soils, this influence is less iinpor- One reason for the valuable character of clay soils, is tant, so far as the mellowing effect of manure mixed with found in the fact that they contain, more than any other the surface is concerned. On such soils, there is little to hold soil, the elements of fertility within themselves. They or retain its fertilizing portions, and it is soon dissipated are usually more or less productive, if rightly cultivated, and lost. Straw or coarse litter, strictly as a mulch, is without aid fronı stimulants or manures, but acknowledge better here than manure merely. But on clayey soils ma- such aid very gratefully when received. A recent writer nure becomes highly advantageous. It combines with and says "they are deposits of various earthy compounds inixmellows the crust in a most efficient manner. The great ed in many cases with organic matter, and frequently readvantage which it possesses when thus applied to clay soils quire only' aeration to render them productive." is not only in softening the hard crust to which such soils
As an illustration of cultivation or continued cropping are liable, but in the ready combination which is effected without manure, we may refer to the Lois Weedon experibetween the clay and the volatile manure.
ments of Rev. Mr. Smith of England. We find them noThere are various ways in which surface manuring and ticed very opportunely for our purpose in a recent issue mulching with straw benefit crops. Among others a most of the Boston Cultivator, and quote the conclusion of this important one is shelter in winter. The soil about young paragraph therefrom. In these experiments, which have trees and plants, if perfectly bare and hardened by ex
now continued for twelve consecntive years, the same posure, radiates lieat upwards towards a clear sky on a cold ground has been cultivated in wheat, without manure, winter night with great rapidity. A very thin conting of giving an average produce of thirty-tive bushels per acre, manure or litter is a great protection. Hence the benefit and with as good a yield now as when the experiment first derived from the winter mulching of young fruit trees, commeneed." The method is to till the land by the spade In severe regions, the difference between the success and to the depth of the subsoil; plant three rows of wheat, failure of dwarf pears, has sometiines resulted from this with a space of one foot between ench, and then leave a alone. Exposed crops of winter wheat have been saved breadth of three feet, which is used as a fallow and kept from winter killing by surface manuring in autumn with open by the spade. When the crop is taken off, the follow thin coarse material.
spaces are seeded, and the ground previously occupied left The protection which such a coating affords the soil and vacant; thus in reality producing wheat on half the ground the plants upon its surface from severe and cutting winds,
every year." is frequently of great importance. A screen of trees, or a
While copying the above, we remember an exposition higb, tight board fence, often saves young trees or plants of this system given in the Mark Lane Express last sumfrom destruction ; and next to such a screen is a mantle mer, and on referring to that journal find that light land, covering the bare earth.
dressed with clay, has also produced unisormly excellent The great practical question arises, how much and how crops of wheat under this system. So that clay is not only frequently is it most profitable to manure the surface ? valuable as an original component of the soil, but as a miWhat proportion of the manure applied should be diffused nure for soils in which it is deficient. It is stated as above, through the soil, and what proportion left at the surface ? however, that green crops-beans, roots and calıbagna At what season of the year should the work be performed ? have required animal manures to keep up the prodactiveWe have tried but a limited number of experiments to de- ness, not finding in the clayey soil all the elements required. termine those points, and those of not much accuracy; but we noticed some years ago a detailed statement where their general teaching was in favor of artumn or early corn on sandy land was manured with a shovel full of clay winter manuring, if to remain upon the surface of untilled to each hill, and the increased product was considerableland, or to be plowed in in the spring; and on tilled clay equal in fact to that from hog manure applied in the same lands a small portion of the manure left on the surface, and
The soil on which the Lois Weedon experiment only harrowed in in the spring or early summer, has had a is in progress, is “a natural wheat soil”-a clayey loam good and sometimes excellent effect. On light soils, sur- with a subsoil of yellow clay. The depth to which it has face manuring during the summer has proved of little bene- been dug is sixteen inches, and this only for a single year in fit, even if harrowed into the top soil.
We believe the the course.
It is now found that the staple soil is richer subject is one worthy of further examination.
than the subsoil, and in fact gives better crops of wheat than at first. Taking all things into account, the experi
ment goes far to show that clean and frequent cultivation, HINTS ON FARMING CLAY SOILS.
with abundant room for the crop, goes far on a clay soil to
supply the want of manure. The alternate strips of fallow Nearly two years ago (Co. Gent., May 20, '58) we called have time for storing up the serial food which their mellow for light on the question of the best system of culture and and friable state allows them to obtain. On a soil deficient cropping for improving a clayey soil, but so far as any in clay no such result would follow, sand having no attracdefinite reply is concerned, we called in vain. There are tion for ammonia, and but slight power to hold it when now, as then, scattered hints in the various agricultural artificially applied. publications of the day, but no writer has taken up the profitably we must take full advantage of the property they
The practical lesson taught us is, that to farm clay soils subject for a full and exhaustive discussion thereof. We possess of attracting and holding the elements of fertility do not feel competent to the task, but the want above supplied by atmospheric influences—air, water and light. stated has incited us to piepare the following hints and To this end they must have exposure to the air, freedom suggestions, originating in our own experience, or gathered from stagnant water, and a course of tillage which shall from a variety of duly acknowledged sources, thinking characteristic of clay is to attract and retain water, to
keep them in a comparatively mellow state. them worth thus laying before our readers.
harden in drying, and to become impervious generally to Thaer says, in his Principles of Agriculture, that all ameliorating influences, and the more so the longer they “Land should be chiefly valued according to its consis- remain undisturbed. This, however, depends more upon tence; the greater the degree of this quality which it pos
their state of drainage than upon anything else, and this sesses, the nearer does it approach to first class land; but naturally accords with the amount of clay present in the
, and the porous or non-porous character of the subsoil. the smaller the proportion of clay, and the larger the quan
Other hints and considerations will be added in future tity of sand which enters into its composition, the more numbers, and we invite correspondents to join with us in rapidly does it fall in value." Experience as well as his-l the more practical discussion of the subject.
(For the Country Gentlman and Cultivator.) it, becomes agreeable in a little while. I have not the Management of Meadows-More Grasses least doubt but that the Clinton will yet be extensively Wanted.
planted for wine. It is one of the bardiest, most vigorous MESSRS. EDITORS-It is generally admitted that good my taste is quite an agreeable eating grape when fully ripe,
and productive vines we have--knows no disease, and to grass erops are one of the foundations of good farming, and and will keep til mid-winter without any care scarcely. this being the case, the importance of more attention being am buying hundreds for my own use. S. M. Calmdale. given to this subject will be at once apparent. A very excellent article upon this subject appeared in the Country Gent. of Aug. 4th. It contains much truth in a nut Statistics of New-York Cattle Market for 1859. sliell, and it is now alluded to in confirmation of the im
We quote the following interesting statistics froin the New York portance of top-dressing grass lands. On this point you Tribune: remark with truth, “that even were it to be plowed the 139,000, 600 Poups of DekF CONSUMED IN ONE YEAR-OVER $12,000, OGÓ
FOR BEEF. next season, for a grain crop, the manure could not be
The amual tables of the great metropolitan market or live stock better timed or applied.” I have the past season, by top- will be rend with interest by all who are engaged in the production. dressing the previous September with 15 loads of stable and they should be by all who consume the flesh of butchers' animals.
Threse tables are particularly valuable to those who are engaged in the manure per acre, doubled the yield of timothy and also of business of buying and bringing live stock to market, and to all who orchard grass, as compared with portions of the field un- handle the satile ormeat between the producer and the consumer.
We have had something over seven per cent, incrense in the sun. aided in this manner. I have also trebled the product of ber of ballocks, but the general opinion is that the weight is from 25 to clover and blue grass, by an application of 10 bushels of 50lbs. cach less on the average than it was in 1858, owing to the er:or
Inous influx during the fall and early autumn of suall, lean stock. We unleached ashes, costing but $1.20 per acre, and have seen have estimated the average net weight of all the bullocks brought
to the action of this cheap fertilizer on these grasses with nally nearly all go to the butcher, we have 212,761 head, which at 6%
market during the year at 6%.cwt., and adding the cows, which event very decided effect for three successive seasons--200 lbs. evt. each. will give 139,596, 600 pounds of beef. We find that the ave. of Mexican guano has had an improving effect for two the sun of $19,738,189.70. This would make an average per head of
rage price of the whole year is 9% cents a pound, net, which will make years, applied about the 1st of April.
$59.32, and a fraction. Estimating all the bullocks sold at an average Mr. Flint, in his recent valuable work on grasses, states of the ideal paid it will make the sum of 12,565,840
It is curious to observe that of the 154,878 cattle reported for sale at the well-known fact that in England they rely more upon the great weekly markets in Forty-fourth street, only 2,413 head arti
none arrived in any other way. a mixture of grass seeds, than upon a variety sown sepa- There has been a considerable increase of the number of cattle rerately.
ported from this state, and a large falling off from Illinois. The in
crease in New York is made up wholly of lean cattle, sent to market In the several tables Mr. Flint gives of mixtures of seeds, to save feed the present winter, as hay is unusually high. The falling it is observed that there are none containing a less weight of in Minois cattle is owing to the failure of the corn crop in 1858, by
which farmers were unable to fatten their stock for market. This dethan 35 lbs. for one acre, but the majority contain 45 lbs. ficiency will be made up in 1860, unless we are greatly mistaken in the seeds. Therefore, if this be the weight of seed required signs of the times.
We have made some useful comparisons, and commend others to for an acre, we have in most parts of the United States, study these tables, and compare them with former years. been up to this time laboring under the error of sowing ed effect upon the llog market, reducing the number 150,000 head be.
The deficiency of corn in the West last winter has had a very mark. too small a quantity. In the middle States, the usual love the receipts of 188. Of Sheep this year there has been an increase anount of timothy sown per acre is one peck, or 11 lbs.; figures that we are decidedly a meat eating people. It must be under
of 50,000 head over 1858. On the whole, it must appear from these (the seed of this grass weighing 44 lbs. per bushel,) and stood, however, that this market supplies not only New-York City and thus, according to Mr. F., we have been sowing but one- try residences, within a radius
of sixty miles. It is said that a good
Brooklyn, but in part all the cities and villages, and many of the coun: fourth of the necessary quantity. With orchard grass, two many of the animals included in our weekly reports of the Cattle mar bushels per acre has been considered liberal sceding this keteguhacking in to the farmers. We have to answer that inore than
come to ready weighing 12 pounds per bushel. We have therefore been given as our demand upon the country to supply our meat eating pro
pensities, is not too large. using but little more than half the required amount. Can
From the tables alluded to in the above, we gather the following not some of your practical grass growers enlighten us upon facts. The arrivals at the New York market during the year 1859 were:
154,878 this important matter?
399,685 We want, to sow with timothy, some valuable grass, or The following states furnished the Beeves:
42,085 Virginia, . several varieties, that will take the place of it when it runs Pennsylvania,
3,997 out, which it will do in a few years. Red top would in
8,692 New Jersey, some measure answer this purpose, but there are no doubt Illinois,
Michigan, other varieties that could be brought to aid in the matter,
15,188 Canada, which could be suggested by some of your many hay-growing readers.
Comparative Prices-1858 and 1859. The difficulty with that valuable hay and pastui e forage,
PRICES OF BREADSTUFFS IN NEW YORK, DEC. 31.
1859. orchard grass, is its propensity to grow in tussocks, Icav
Superfine State Flour, Pbbl.,
$4 200 $4 40 $5 20@45 30 ing so much land uncovered, and thereby reducing the Extra State Flour. ib.,
4 956 5 20 5 406 5 50 product perhaps one-half. The great desideratum with Supertine Western Flour, sbbl.,
Extra Western Flour, bbl..
5 50.8 50 5 356 7 25 this grass would be to obtain a variety ripening at the Canadian Flour, p bul...
5 G6 80 the same period, and which would fill up the intervening Southern Flour, wh...
5 45@ 725 Rye Flour, P bhl.,
8 25a, 4 10 3 606 4 40 spaces. By this means the crop of hay might be doubled, Corn Meal, bhi.,
3 60 4 20 and leave as good aftermath for grazing. What variety White Wheat, bush.
686 1 27% 1 86 1 80 would suit best to sow with orchard grass ? A SUBSCRIBER. Corn, y bush..... Maryland, Dec. 30, '59.
92% P. S.-Since the introduction of mowing machines into State Vats, # bush..
496 this neighborhood, 10 years since, our timothy meadows
PRICES OF PROVISIONS IN NEW-YORK, DEC, 31. do not run out so soon as they did when mowed with the
1859. scythe. The reason is that the mower leaves a longer Prime Pork, # Ubl..
Mess Pork, bbl...
€17 00 $17 62% 916 06%
13 00 @ 13 40 11 50 © stubble-say three or four inches-while the scythe cut so Cut Mcats, * ...
Coun'y Mess Beef, bbl.... closely as to destroy the roots of the grass.
11% - 10% 10%
State Butter, D. (For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.)
11% THE CLINTON AS A WINE GRAPE.
ADVERTISING Gratis.-We have several advertisements, MESSRS. EDITORS-Your notice of the Clinton Wine re- in the shape of communications, offering choice seeds in minds me of some I made a few years ago, which was pro-exchange for other choice seeds or a few postage stamps, nounced by physicians an extra fine article. Your cor- which justice to ourselves, and those who advertise their respondent will find it equal to the best Port, such as we goods regularly, compel us to decline. All who have valcould get twenty-five or thirty years ago, without the ad- uable seeds, plants, implements or stock for sale or exdition of any sugar, but it requires time to lose a harshness change, will find our advertising pages an excellent medium which some dislike at first, but which pucker, as some call through which to apprise the public of the fact.
5-12 5.334 3,309
4 300 4 65
5 20 5 30
5 302 6 50
3 406 4 00
1 358 1 55
PRAIRIE GROWN TIMOTHY SEED. especially when those opinions at first met with much op
position and some feeling, and have only come to be adThe seed 'market is now largely supplied with timothy nitted as right, after an almost olistinate abiding by then seed grown upon the Illinois prairies, and it is usually a on his part. And it very much gladdened me- - indeed it very perfect article. The weeds which often crowd our did, that the merits of a system of farm managementmeadows, are as yet almost unknown there, and good crops its stocks and its products, had been so well exhibited as
to attract the attention of so many intelligent agricuburists of fine quality can be grown and harvested at but trilling
as to be thought worthy of sneh a magnificent gift. expense. A friend tells us of an instance where six hun
Politicians and heads of mercantile and manufaeturing dred bushels were raised upon eighty acres, and harvested establishments, and captiuins of packets, are not anaceus with a reaper, and then threshed and cleaned by machine- tomed to such reward for comuet or exertions considered ry--paying a very handsome profit. He has given consi- meritorious; but I know not any practical farmer who has derable attention to the subject , and commends the prairie and his management by their fitness and yood results, so
ever attracted the notice of his fellows to his undertakius grown sced as perfectly free from noxious seeds-an im- as to receive such a testimonial; and it very much pleased portant consideration to every farmer.
me that it was to a farmer, for his ordinary day by day The land is usually cropped with different grains after and year by year management, that this bas been done;
i the first breaking, but it must not be cropped too severely, and I hope it will stimulate others in like position with or the soil will become somewhat foul, and wom so that myself, to exertions and experiments in improving their
farms and farming operations, when they know that the the grass seed will not catch as well as upon newer land.
eyes of farning men are looking abont to discover, and The seed is generally sown with spring grain at the rate of their tongues ready to praise eftvits in this direction. For a peck per acre, and rolling will usually sufficiently cover I feel sure that with an eflicient system of andererairingit, as well as better fit the ground for the employment of a far more liberal method of feeding the cattle and sheep machinery in harvesting. Perhaps two crops of seed is as
-a more plentiful mamuring, and a liigher state of genermany as can be profitably taken off; then cut one year for in independence, and push forward his class to the position
al farm culture, the American Farner may place himself hay, then plow up for other purposes, following here as in it oughi to occupy-the front rank of human society. It most places, a system of rotation,
is the farmer that puts the bread in the mouth of the rich Timothy must be cut for seed as soon as it fairly begins and the poor, and feeds alike kings, princes and beggurs; to ripen, or it may be badly wasted by winds or beating and should the farm labor of the land cense from May tini showers. As soon as the seed is ripe at the upper end of to the inhabitants of this globe.
November for but one season, dire would be the onlamity the head, it may be cut, and will then perfect its whole I have for many years looked upon tlie occupation of product of seed in the shock, while drying. Let it be the farmer as of vastly more importance than that of any bound in sınall bundles and set up immediately after the other human being--not the mere drudging occupation of reaper; it will cure in a few days, and should then be se
the daily labor he pursues, but that labor industriously cured in the barn or stack, or better be thresbed at once. lively and intelligent eye to all the teachings of the daily
followed, directed by forethought, and carried on with a In stacking particular care should be taken to secure from and yearly experience he has with the soil beneath his injury by rain and damp, or it may suffer loss which would feet, the elastic atmosphere about him, the insect life that go far toward providing a roof to cover it. It is also, it swarms bis fields, and the useful brutes under his control. should be remarked, an advantage of carly cutting that thus for plenty makes peace, and he that raises plenty is a
peace-maker, and it is in peace and plenty that man nust a fair quality of hay is secured.
reach his highest developinent, and I know of'no land on The best soil for timothy is moist rather than dry, but it the face of the earth, where so great results in huslanery flourishes well on any good wheat soil. We should be loths, and the elevation of the husbandmen (and men in genehowever, to crop land which produced wlicat well, with ral) may be reached, as in the United States. timothy, as it would injure it for the production of this
But I must not delay longer giving you and the gentle. grain, taking, as it does, nearly the same elements from the men connected with you, my hearty thanks for your kindsoil. But upon the newly opened prairie farms of the ness and consideration in rendering me this gratifying west, it is generally useless to talk of exhausting the soil; pursuits which we love and follow, and in every way and
compliment. May success attend you and them all in the present profit is far more considered than the wants of the effort in which I may assist in pushing those pursuits tofuture. It is too much so everywhere.
wards perfect results, I am with great respect and esteem,
your and their obedient servant. JOHN JOnxSTOX. TESTIMONIAL TO JOHN JOHNSTON.
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) In the Country Gentleman of Dec. 29, it was stated that
FARMING AT HORNBY. a number of gentlemen interested in the promotion of the Culture of Potatoes and Carrots-Management of Grass Lands-Irriagriculture of the state, had presented to Joun Jouxston
gation and Draining-Seeding. of Seneca county, a testimonial of their appreciation of Eps. Country GENTLEMAN-I came to this country his services in the cause of agricultural improvement, con- seven years since, to see the country and purchase some sisting of a massive silver pitcher and a pair of goblets, land in Missouri and Iowa. On my first visit, and every embellished with appropriate agricultural emblems. They that has been made out of the forest in the last thirty
subsequent one, I made a visit to Hornby, to see a farın were forwarded to Mr. Jounston by HENRY S. Olcott of years, and a farmer with whom I intend in 1861, to finish the N. Y. Tribune, who has sent us the following acknowl- iny agricultural education, at the age of seventy-if I edgment from Mr. Johnston :
should live until that time, -and take four of my grandsons NEAR GENEVA, 27th Dec., 1859. with me, and stop from March to December, and if possiHENRY S. Olcott, Esq.: My Dear Sir-I received ble educate them practically, that they may not only farm your letter of the 24th inst, and also the rich Christmas well but cheaply. Gist mentioned therein. Truly, I may say that I was both I have had some experience with the agricultural schools surprised and delighted-surprised, because the present of Great Britain, as well as several of the best on the was entirely unexpected-delighted, for I suppose there Continent, and am constrained to say that the art is very is no man that lives who is not pleased by a compliment imperfectly taught at those I have visited, compared with to his opinions and his way of showing them forth. More Hornby, where agriculture is understood practically. The
Principal understands what his soil lacks for all the plants than on 100 acres of the common meadows of the counhe grows, and applies the deficiencies with skill and profit. try. He has no use for guano, poudrette, bone-dust, or any of The manner of seeding down lands, like most other the popular commercial manures of the day: yet the most things, is peculiar to himself. Every grass seed is coated of his crops, on his hilly, cold, thin soil, are better than with tar, (as every other seed is that is sown or planted,) can be found on the richest land in Europe or Anerica. and rollesi in lime or plaster, which ever is best adapted to As much as we boast of our root crops in England, there the plant. The grass seed is then sown on the newly culcan rarely be found in her Majesty's Government, or at tivated ground, and only rolled afier sown, if sufficiently any of the government trial-tields of Continental Europe, dry to use the roller, and before the roller passes over it. such a field of potatoes or carrots as on this farm. If there are any suds of blue grass that have not been
The manner of his culture of potatoes is simple when killed by cultivation, or have not been set out by the plowunderstood. After the ground is put in order, his furrows man, they are set out before the roller, with a hoe, and are made with a wide plow that runs deep by going twice they, as well as the seed, never fail to grow. in the same furrow, turning the furrow each wax: Then Let any farmer visit this farm in July or August, and a subsoil plow is run by the aid of three horses in each he will see one of the most beautiful sights I ever saws, in furrow; then a machine which he sets so as to make two the matured grads, the growing roots, and the ripening sinall furrows in the main furrow. The machine has four corn, and all this accomplished with one man to the 100 snall plows made fist to two pieces of timber drawn by a acres, is nearly everything is done with niachinery and horse. The two forward ones are placed so as to throw horse power. The machinery is much of the farmer's own the mold out with a wide flat share that runs under the making or invention, among which is his drain plow, with soil; the two hind oues are set so as to turn the mold into which he makes drains for two cents per rod, that are the surrows, making a place on each side of the furrow quite as good on his clay soil, as those that cost a dollar. for the potatoes, so that the plow which is used for plow.
I an now convinced more thoroughly than ever, that ing in cannot disturb them when plowing them in the there is more in good farming than in good land, and to potatoes being planted zig-zag on each side, at twelve in repeat his own language, a farmer must not only be a clies apart, making two rows in the same drill. They are working but a thinking man, and above all things else, an then rolled down with a heavy roller, and dragged imtil observing nuan, as he can learn from the wild plants of they come up, when the horse-hoe and shovel-plow are nature that grow on his soil, what it is best adapted to, freely used. Then the subsoil plow is used with three and what application is necessary to make it productive, horses twice between each row, which makes deep, mellow better than from all the chemists on earth. E. G. earth sufficient for three or four plowings with a double
St. Louis, Mo. mold-board plow; and in case of a drouth, as there was last summer, he attaches wings to these plows, and raises
TOP-DRESSING MEADOWS. the mold as high as he chooses, the work being done with
Ens. Co. GEST.--As I see the subject of top-dressing horse-power and machinery. As he does not use a boe, the meadow land is receiving considerable attention among furrows being exactly straight, they can be dressed with the plow better than is usually done with the hoe, and his your correspondents, I will throw in my mite, by giving
my experience in top-dressing. potatoes are perfectly free from weeds. Ile substitutes the subsoil plow in cultivating his carrots to timothy in the spring of 1856, after barley. It being a
I have a piece of meadow, about six acres, that I seeded instead of the spade, which saves nine-tenths of the labor. very dry season, it came in thin. The next season I moved He usually plants them late in the fall.
it, and got about half a ton to the acre. It was old land, His mode of draining and irrigation is so far in advance clear from stumps, and rather a hard clay subsoil. Well, of anything that I have seen elsewhere, that I wish to say I concluded I would try top-dressing it with manure. So one word, that those who lack bay may profit by his teaching, the next winter wintered twenty cows and four horses, as it is so unlike anything that I have ever seen or heard of. all of which I stabled, and every morning through the He can irrigate almost anywhere, and in this lies the great winter, after my stock were let out of the stanchions, I secret of his enriching his land. By drawing the water to would take my team and sled, and take up the manure a given point where he makes a pond, which he plows that had been dropped through the night, and haul it out when dry and cultivates when the water is in, and makes on to the meadow. I left it in heaps as even as I could. it thick as mud, and runs that on to his meadows and places in the spring, as soon as it thawed out, I spread it evenly, along the roadside, and runs the hard-pan (or clay) on to and the result was the next having I cut full two tous and his grass land. There is not a stream running on the farm a half to the acre, and it continues to do about the same that now rurs where it formerly did. He has changed all yet. Since that, I hate tried other pieces with the same the channels, and carried them to the highest ground pos- good results. E. ROZELL. Bradford Co., Pa. sible, and used them to enrich his land. He showed me where he run on five hundred cubic yards of water in one AN AMERICAN AMONG THE ENGLISI FARMERS, -It of. day, by the use of two teams to plow and one to cultivate, ten affords us pleasure to notice the accounts of the warm besides leveling down a bank. He says, and I have no reception and hearty good feeling which is extended to doubt of the fact, that clay run on to meadows is better than distinguished Americans while visiting the mother country, even barnyard manure, for the reason that the latter makes by the lords, woblemen, and members generally, of the ag. it grow more coarse and more likely to fall down, while ricultural societies of that country. The prejudices that the clay makes a solid firm growth, if put on with skill, so once existed between the citizens of America and those of as not to rot the sod, which is too often the case even in England, sceni to have given place to that brotherly regard Italy, where they have practiced it for the last 2000 years, that should ever characterize the intercourse of members and where they convey the water from rivers in canals, and of the same great family, and speaking the same tongue. kave accomplished wonders, but I saw no such results, or These friendly visits and the interchange of thouglit and the entire character of the soil so changed for the better, sentiment among the farmers of these two great nations, as on the hills of Hornby, where some as good alluvial soil are productive of universal good. has been made in the last seren years, as can be found on We have recently met with several notices from foreign any of the river bottoms, where there is not even a journals, of the marked attention with which our fellow. spring or unning brook on the farm that does not head on citizen and co-laborer in the cause of agriculture every. the same.
There is a know-how to do everything, and where received, on bis late tour through England. We al when and where to do it. To say the least, I saw ten acres lude to LUTHER H. TUCKER, Esq., of the Albany Country of meadow this unpropitious season, the best I ever saw in Gentleman. In attending various gatherings of farmers' any country. The timothy and redtop stod even all over and agricultural societies, in Great Britain, Jr. Tucker was it, five feet high. I measured several stalks in different often called upon to respond to toasts and sentiments, parts, that were 51 feet, where no manure had ever been highly complimentary to him, and to the country which he put, and have no doubt there was more hay grown on it, I represcuted. ---St. Louis Valley Farmer.
Beans and Indian Corn for Milch Cows, &c. depot, just one dollar per bushel. Corn is worth one dol
lar and ten cents. R. H. Brown, of Greece, informs the editor of the Genesee Farmer, that he fed his cows early last spring, with
And now the question comes up-Will it not be more threo pints cach per day of Indian Corn and white beuns, profitable for Mr. C., to have an equal number of bushels,
of coru mixed and ground with the beans, than it will to ground together, in equal parts. He never fiad his cows do so well on any other food; they gave a large quantity feed the bean meal alone? If the views advanced in the of milk, and the calves were the finest ho ever raised. He third paragraph of this article are correct, it certainly Bays he shall sell no more beans, but feed them to his would be better to give equal quantities of bean and cura
meal, even if the corn should cost him oue dollar and fly Indian corn contains a large per centage of oil
, starch, cents per bushel, for then liis feed would possess, in nearly engar, and other carbonaceous or fat-formning principles,
the right proportions, the necessary requisites for the and it is thought to be more productive of fat than of greatest production of fat, muscle, wool, and milk," and milk, when freely fed to milch cows; wliile peas, beans,
a much larger proportion of the nitrogen of the bean and vetches, (according to the statements of some writer, would be assimilated, instead of passing off in the excre
ments. contain three times as much nitrogenous or milk and Hesli
It has been believed by some persons thint none but ani. forming matter as corn.
mal food, milk and meat, contained all the elenients reTo render the largest possible amount of the nitrogen quired for the support of life; but such an idea is erroneof peas, beans, &c., assimilable, there must be in the food,
ous, for vegetable substances-the grasses, grains, fruits, a corresponding amount of arailable carbonaceous such nuts, roots, tubers, &c.—contain all the elements, and in stances ; but there is a deficiency of these substances in most cases in nearly the same proportion as they are found peas, beans and vetches; consequently, a larver portion of in animals. Now all these foods possess, in animal nutritheir nitrogenous constituents--the true fesh, milk and tion, a three-fold value--Ist. Bodies containing nitrogen, wool forming principles—are not, when fed alone, assimi like the gluten of corn, wheat and outs. When the Cour lated, but voided in the excrements. If the above views of wheat is made into a dough, and this dough is washed are correct, they explain the good effects resulting from in water upon a fine sieve, a milky liquid passes through, Mr. Brown's corn and bean meal mixture.
from which starch gradually subsides; but on the stere, Beans are, doubtless, a valuable feed for milch cows. In when the water ceases to go through milky, there remaius a late number of the London Gardener's Chronicle, Mr. a soft, adherent, tenacious and elartie substance, which can McAdam, of Staffordshire, who keeps a hundred cows, be drawn out into long strings, has scarcely any color, says, in his experience in the dairy business: "After taste or smell, and is scarcely diminished by wa-bing either having tried various methods and different sorts of grain, with hot or cold water. This sulistance is the gluten of as oats, wheat, barley, Indian corn, oil cake, rape, &c., 1 wheat; and in cabbage and many vegetables there are decidedly prefer bean mcal, both for quantity and quality compounds termed vegetable albumen. In peas, beins, of milk and butter.” Bean straw, when properly prepared, and retches, there abounds a substance termed legemin, u is a valuable feed for milch cows. Mr. lorsfall says: in composition nearly identical with gluten and albumen. “Bean straw, uncooked, being found to be hard and un- These are called the nitrogenous bodies of vegetable food, palatable, it was steamed to make it soft and pulpy, when as in their chemical qualities they contain from 15 to 20, it possessed an agreeable odor, and imparted its flavor to or more, per cent. of nitrogen, and are nearly identical in the whole mass. It was cut for this purpose just before composition with the muscle, (lean meat,) of animals; the ripening, but after the bean was fully grown, and in this casein or curd of milk, and the albumen or white of eggs; state was found to contain nearly double the amount of and, from their solution in the blood, form the tissuesalbuminous matter (so valuable to milch cows) of good muscle-the actual organism. meadow or up-land hay."
2d. Bodies or portions of the food destitute of nitrogen, : Whether some of the varieties of our field or garden as the starch, sugar, gum, and woody fibre, as also the oil beans, would be more profitable to grow for feeding pur- of seeds, nuts, &c. They consist chemically of carbon, poses, in preference to the English field beans, or not, I oxygen and hydrogen-the two last, in the same proporhave no means of ascertaining. In the Co. (est. of 25th tions in which they form water. As the above named subof last August, it was stated that Mr. C. S. Wainwright, of stances consist so largely of carbon, they are usually termDuchess county, "had beeu raising English beans for cat- cd carbonaceous portions of food, and by their decomposi. tle feeding Ilis crop last year was successful, and this tion or digestion they afford the necessary beat to the aniyear it promises a rery gratifying yield.” Mr. W. is well mal body. When fed in quantities larger than needed for known as one of the most successful and largest breeders the keeping up of the required temperature of the system, of North Derons in the United States.
the overplus, or a portion of it, goes directly to the fat, for Mr. WAINWRIGHT would confur a great favor upon many it is well known that cattle, hogs, sheep and poultry can of the readers of the Co. Gent., if he would, through the be fattened on potatoes, which largely abound in starehcolumns of that paper, favor them with the result of his but still those varieties of food which contain the inost oil, experience in the culture of the English bean, and the like Indian corn, oil and cotton-seed cake, fatten animals feeding value and profit of the English bean, when con- quickest; and recently, in England, linseed and cod oil trasted with Indian corn, oats, the common field bean, have been somewhat extensively fed to fattening cattle. roots, &c.
A farmer there fed a pair of North Devon oxen upon linSome weeks since, John Coucu, Esq., of Warner, N. H., seed oil and barley straw cut into chaff and mixed with a who is one of the most successful growers of fine wool in pint of oil per day. “The said oxen were not only fat outthat section, purchased in Boston 60 bushels of white beans, side, but full of fat within." of fair quality, for feeding to his sheep. They were put “The organic food must then, in order to meet all the up in four barrels, and cost him at the Warner Railroad / wants of the animal, contain starch, sugar or gum, fatty