« AnteriorContinuar »
the roots of the trees and crops extend-neither wholly tory confirms this remark as correct. All the great deserts buried deep, nor left wholly near the top-but be inter- of the world are composed mainly of shifting sands. The mixed through every part. This mode we do not propose most fertile soils, wherever found, contain a large portion to speak of at present. The second way is its influence on of clay. Clays, however, differ largely in agricultural the crust of the surface, as already alluded to. On very value, as may hereafter be shown. light sandy or gravelly soils, this influence is less impor- One reason for the valuable charneter of clay soils, is tant, so far as the mellowing effect of manure mixed with found in the fact that they contain, more than any other the surface is concerned. On such soils, there is little to hold soil, the elements of fertility within themselves. They or retain its fertilizing portions, and it is soon dissipated are usually more or less produetive, if rightly cultivated, and lost. Straw or coarse litter, strictly as a mulch, is without aid from stimulants or manures, but acknowledge better here than manure merely. But on clayey soils ma- such aid very gratefully when received. A recent writer nure becomes highly advantageous. It combines with and says "they are deposits of various earthy compounds mixmellows the crust in a most efficient manner. The great ed in many cases with organic matter, and frequently readvantage which it possesses when thus applied to clay soils quire only aeration to render them productive." is not only in softening the hard crust to which such soils
As an illustration of cultivation or continued cropping are liable, but in the ready combination which is effected without manure, we may refer to the Lois Weedon experibetween the clay and the volatile manure.
ments of Rev. Mr. Smith of England. - We find them noThere are various ways in which surface manuring,
and ticed very opportunely for our purpose in a recent issire mulching with straw benefit crops. Among others a most of the Boston Cultivator, and quote the conclusion of this important one is shelter in winter. The soil about young paragraph therefrom. In these experiments, which have trees and plants, if perfectly bare and hardened by ex; now continued for twelve consecutive years, the same posure, radiates heat upwards towards a clear sky on a cold ground has been cultivated in wheat, without manure, winter night with great rapidity. A very thin coating of giving an average produce of thirty-five bushels per acre, manure or litter is a great protection. Hence the benefit and with as good a yield now as when the experiment first derived from the winter mulching of young fruit trees. commeneed. “ The nethod is to till the land by the spade In severe regions, the difference between the success and to the depth of the subsoil; plant three rows of wheat, failure of dwarf pears, has sometimes resulted from this with a space of one foot between ench, "and 'then leave a alone. Exposed crops of winter wheat have been saved breadth of three feet, which is used as a fallow and kept from winter killing by surface manuring in autumn with open by the spade. When the crop is taken off, the follow thin coarse material.
spaces are secded, and the ground previously oecupied left The protection which such a coating affords the soil and vacant; thus in reality producing wheat on half the ground the plants upon its surface from severe and cutting winds,
every year." is frequently of great importance. A screen of trees, or a
While copying the above, we remember an exposition high, tight board fence, often saves young trees or plants of this system given in the Mark Lane Express last sumfrom destruction ; and next to such a screen is a mantle mer, and on referring to that journal find that light land, covering the bare earth.
dressed with clay, has also produced uniformly excellent The great practical question arises, how much and how crops of wheat under this system. So that clay is not only frequently is it most profitable to manure the surface ? valuable as an original component of the soil, but as a maWhat proportion of the manure applied should be diffused nure for soils in which it is deficient. It is stated as above, through the soil, and what proportion left at the surface ? however, that green crops—beans, roots and cabbage. At what season of the year should the work be performed ? have required animal manures to keep up the prodactireWe have tried but a limited number of experiments to de: ness, not finding in the clayey soil all the elements required. termine those points, and those of not much accuracy; but we noticed some years ago a detailed statement where their general teaching was in favor of antumn or early corn on sandy land was manured with a shovel full of clay winter manuring, if to remain upon the surface of untilled to each hill, and the increased product was considerable land, or to be plowed in in the spring; and on tilled clay equal in fact to that from hog manure applied in the same lands a small portion of the manure left on the surface, and
The soil on which the Lois Weedon experiment only harrowed in in the spring or early summer, has had a is in progress, is “a natural wheat soil "--a clayey loam good and sometimes excellent effect. On light soils, sur- with a subsoil of yellow clay. The depth to which it has face manuring during the summer has proved of little bene- been dug is sixteen inches, and this only for a single year in fit, even if harrowed into the top soil
. We believe the the course. It is now found that the staple soil is richer subject is one worthy of further examination.
than the subsoil, and in fact gives better crops of wheat than at first. Taking all things into account, the experi
ment goes far to show that clean and frequent cultivation, HINTS ON FARMING CLAY SOILS.
with abundant room for the crop, goes far on a clay soil to Nearly two years ago (Co. Gent., May 20, '58) we called supply the want of manure. The alternate strips of fallow
have time for storing up the ærial food which their mellow for light on the question of the best system of culture and and friable state allows them to obtain. On a soil deficient cropping for improving a clayey soil, but so far as any in clay no such result would follow, sand having no attracdefinite reply is concerned, we called in vain. There are tion for ammonia, and but slight power to hold it when now, as then, scattered hints in the various agricultural artificially applied. publications of the day, but no writer has taken up the
The practical lesson taught us is, that to farm clay soils
profitably we must take full advantage of the property they subject for a full and exhaustive discussion thereof. We possess of attracting and holding the elements of fertility do not feel competent to the task, but the want above supplied by atmospheric influences—air, water and light. stated has incited us to piepare the following hints and To this end they must have exposure to the air, freedom suggestions, originating in our own experience, or gathered from stagnant water, and a course of tillage which shall from a variety of duly acknowledged sources, thinking characteristic of clay is to attract and retain water, to
keep them in a comparatively mellow state. The natural them worth thus laying before our readers.
barden in drying, and to become impervious generally to Thaer says, in his Principles of Agriculture, that all ameliorating influences, and the more so the longer they “Land should be chiefly valued according to its consis- remain undisturbed. This, however, depends more upon tence; the greater the degree of this quality which it pos- their state of drainage than upon avything else, and this sesses, the nearer does it approach to first class land; but naturally accords with the amount of clay present
soil, and the porous or non-porous character of the subsoil. the smaller the proportion of clay, and the larger the quan
Other hints and considerations will be added in future tity of sand which enters into its composition, the more numbers, and we invite correspondents to join with us in rapidly does it fall in value.” Experience as well as his- the more practical discussion of the subject.
[For the Country Gentiman and Cultivator.] it, becomes agrecable in a little while. I have not the Management of Meadows-More Grasses least doubt but that the Clinton will yet be extensively Wanted.
planted for wine. It is one of the bardiest, most vigorous MESSRS. Editors--- It is generally admitted that good my taste is quite an agreeable eating grape when fully ripe,
and productive vines we have--knows no disease, and to grass crops are one of the foundations of good farming, and and will keep till mid-winter without any care scarcely. Í this being the case, the importance of more attention being
am buying Irundreds for my own use. S. M. Calmdale. given to this subject will be at once apparent. A very excellent article upon this subject appeared in the Coun. try Gent. of Aug. 4th. It contains much truth in a nut Statistics of New-York Cattle Market for 1859. sliell, and it is now alluded to in confirmation of the im
We quote the following interesting statistics from the New York portance of top-dressing grass lands. On this point you Tribune remark with truth, " that even were it to be plowed the 139,000,600 Pounds of Beer CONSUMED IN ONE YEAR-OVER $12,000,000
FOR BEEF. next season, for a grain crop, the manure could not be
The annual tables of the great metropolitan market or live stock better timed or applied." I have the past season, by top will be read with interest by all who are engaged in the production. dressing the previous September with 15 loads of stable and they should be by all wbo consume the flesh of butchers' animals, manure per acre, doubled the yield of timothy and also of business of buying and bringing live stock to market, and to all who orchard grass, as compared with portions of the field un- handle the cattle or ment between the producer and the consumer.
We have had something over seven per cent, increase in the num. aided in this manner. I have also trebled the product of ber of ballocks, but the general opinion is that the weight is from 25 to clover and blue grass, by an application of 10 bushels of 50 lbs, cach less on the average than it was in 1858, owing to the error. unleached aslıes, gosting but $1.20 per acre, and have seen have estimated the average net weight of all the bullocks brought to the action of this cheap fertilizer on these grasses with marketeduring the year to cwt., and adding the cows, which event very decided effect for three successive seasons--200 lbs. cut each, will glyre 139,596, 600 pounds of beef. We find that the aye. of Mexican guano has had an improving effect for two the sum of $19/138, 189.78. This would make an average per bead of years, applied about the 1st of April.
$59.32, and a fraction. Estimating all the bullocks sold at an average
of $60 a head, it will make the sum of $12,885,840. Mr. Flint, in his recent valuable work on grasses, states It is curious to observe that of the 154,878 cattle reported for sale at the well-known fact that in England they rely more upon vedere produces tew years ago none arrived
in any other way.
the great weekly markets in Forty-fourth street, only 2,413 head arri a mixture of grass seeds, than upon a variety sown sepa- There has been a considerable increase of the number of cattle rerately.
ported from this state, and a large falling off from Ilinois. The in
crease in New York is made up wholly of lean cattle, sent to market In the several tables Mr. Flint gives of mixtures of seeds, to save feed the present winter, as hay is unusually high. The
falling it is observed that there are none containing a less weight off in Illinois cattle is owing to the failure of the corn crop in 1858, by than 35 lbs. for one acre, but the majority contain 45 lbs. ficiency will be made up in 1860, unless we are greatly mistaken in the
sig of the times. seeds. Therefore, if this be the weight of seed required
We have made some useful comparisons, and commend others to for an acre, we have in most parts of the United States, study these tables, and compare them with
former years. been up to this time laboring under the error of sowing ed effect upon the log market, reducing the number 150,000 head be. too small a quantity. In the middle States, the usual low the receipts of 188 of Sleep this year there has been an increase ainount of timothy sown per acre is one peck, or 11 lbs.; figures that we are decidedly a meat eating people. It must be under: (tlie seed of this grass weighing 44 lbs. per bushel,) and stood, however, that this market supplies not only New-York City and thus, according to Mr. F., we have
been sowing but one- try residences, within a radius of sixty miles. It is said that a good fourth of the necessary quantity. With orchard grass, two many of the animals included in our weekly reports of the Cattle inar bushels per acre has been considered liberal sceding-this an equal number come to the city ready dressed, so that the aggregate weighing 12 pounds per bushel. We have therefore been given as our demand upon the country to supply our meat eating prousing but little more than half the required amount. Can
From the tables alluded to in the above, we gather the following not some of your practical grass growers enlighten us upon facts. The arrivals at the New York market during the year 1859 were:
Sheep,. this important matter?
399,685 We want, to sow with timothy, some valuable grass, or The following states furnished the Beeves:
1,001 several varieties, that will take the place of it when it runs Pennsylvania,
3,299 out, which it will do in a few years. Red top would in Ohio,
35,153 Connecticut, Indiana,
8,692 New Jersey, some measure answer this purpose, but there are no doubt Illinois.
Michigan, other varieties that could be brought to aid in the matter,
3,309 which could be suggested by some of your many hay-growing readers.
Comparatire Prices - 1838 and 1859. The difficulty with that valuable hay and pastui e forage,
PRICES OF BREADSTCFFS IN NEW YORK, DEC. 31.
1859. orchard grass, is its propensity to grow in tussocks, Icav
Superfine State Flour, Pbbl.,
$4 200 $4 40 $5 20@65 30 ing so much' land uncovered, and thereby reducing the Extra state flour. Wb.,.
5 40 5 50 product perhaps one-half. The great desideratum with Superfine Western Flour. *bbl., 4 300 4 65 5 206 5 30 this grass would be to obtain a variety ripening at the Canadian Flour, e bu...
5 306 6 50 5 GO 6 8 the same period, and which would fill up the intervening Southern Flour, W.1,
4 75 875 5 450 7 25
3 25 4 10 3 a 4 40 spaces. By this means the crop of hay might be doubled, Corn Meal, whi:, and leave as good aftermath for grazing. What variety Red Wheat, bush.,
1 356 1 55
669 1 27% 1 18@ 1 30 would suit best to sow with orchard grass ? A SUBSCRIBER. Corn, a bush... Maryland, Dec. 30, '59.
Barley, bush., P. S.-Since the introduction of mowing machines into State Wats, a bush.. this neighborhood, 10 years since, our timothy meadows
PRICES OF PROVISIONS IN NEW YORK, DEC, 31. do not run out so soon as they did when mowed with the
1859. scythe. The reason is that the mower leaves a longer Prime Pork, #bbli.,
417 00 $17 62% $16 06%
13 00 13 10 stubble-say three or four inches-while the scythe cut so Cut Meats, * .....
9% 6% Coun'y Mess Beef, bbl..
7 75 @ closely as to destroy the roots of the grass.
10% State Butter, D.,
23 (For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.)
8X 9% 86- 11% THE CLINTON AS A WINE GRAPE,
ADVERTISING GRATIS.-We have several advertisements, MESSRS, EDITORS-Your notice of the Clinton Wine re- in the shape of communications, offering choice seeds in minds me of some I made a few years ago, which was pro-exchange for other choice seeds or a few postage stamps, nounced by physicians an extra fine article. Your cor- which justice to ourselves, and those who advertise their respondent will find it equal to the best Port, such as we goods regularly, compel us to decline. All who have valcould get twenty-five or thirty years ago, without the ad- uable seeds, plants, implements or stock for sale or exdition of any sugar, but it requires time to lose a harshness change, will find our advertising pages an excellent medium which some dislike at first, but which pucker, as some call through which to apprise the public of the fact.
4 955 20
5 506. 8 50
5 35@ 725
3 600 4 20
3 406 4 00
PRAIRIE GROWN TIMOTHY SEED.* especially when those opinions at first met with much op
position and some feeling, and have only come to be adThe seed 'market is now largely supplied with timothy mitted as right,
after an almost obstinate abiding by them seed grown upon the Illinois prairies, and it is usually a on his part. And it very much gladdened me-indeed it very perfect article. The weeds which often crowd our did, that the merits of a system of farm managementmeadows, are as yet almost unknown there, and good crops its stocks and its products, had been so well exhibited as of fine quality can be grown and ha ested at but trifling
to attract the attention of so many intelligent agricuhurists
as to be thought worthy of sneh a magnificent gift. expense. A friend tells us of an instance where six hun
Politicians and heads of mercantile and manufaeturing dred bushels were raised upon eighity acres, and harvested establishments, and captains of paekets, are not nnaceuswith a reaper, and then threshed and cleaned by machine- tomed to sueh reward for conduet or exertions considered ry--paying a very handsome profit. He has given consi- meritorious; but I know not any practical farmer who has derable attention to the subject, and commends the prairie ever attracted the notice of his fellows to liis undertaking
and his managemeut by their fitness and good results, so grown seed as perfectly free from noxious seeds—an im- as to receive such a testimonial; and it very much plensed portant consideration to every farmer.
me that it was to a farmer, for his ordinary day by day The land is usually cropped with different grains after and year by year management, that this has been done; the first breaking, but it must not be cropped too severely, and I hope it will stimulate others in like position with or the soil will become somewhat foul, and wom so that myself
, to exertions and experiments in improving their
farms and farmi operations, when they know that the the grass seed will not catch as well as upon newer land. eyes of fanning men are looking about to discover, and The seed is generally sown with spring grain at the rate of their tongues ready to praise efforts in this direction. For a peck per acre, and rolling will usually sufficiently cover I feel sure that with an efficient system of anderminingit, as well as better fit the ground for the employment of a far more liberal method of feeding the cattle and sleep machinery in harvesting. Perhaps two crops of seed is as
-a more plentiful manuring, and a higher state of genermany as can be profitably taken off; then cut one year for in independence, and push forward his class to the position
al farm culture, the American Farmer may place hiv.sell hay, then plow up for other purposes, following here as in it ought to occupy—the front rank of human society. It most places, a system of rotation,
is the farmer that puts the bread in the mouth of the rich Timothy must be cut for seed as soon as it fairly begins and the poor, and feeds alike kings, princes and beggars ; to ripen, or it may be badly wasted by winds or beating and should the farm labor of the land cense froin May iii
November for but one season, dire would be the calamity showers. As soon as the seed is ripe at the upper end of to the inhabitants of this globe. the head, it may be cut, and will then perfect its whole I have for many years looked upon the occupation of product of seed in the shock, while drying. Let it be the farmer as of vastly more importance than that of any bound in sınall bundles and set up immediately after the other human being--not the mere drudging occupation of
the daily labor be pursues, but that labor industriously reaper; it will cure in a few days, and should then be secured in the barn or stack, or better be threshed at once. lively and intelligent eye to all the teachings of the daily
followed, directed by forethought, and carried on with a In stacking particular care should be taken to secure from and yearly experience he has with the soil beneath lis injury by rain and damp, or it may suffer loss which would feet, the elastic atmosphere about him, the insect life that go far toward providing a roof to cover it. It is also, it swarms his fields, and the useful brutes under his control. should be remarked, an advantage of early cutting that thus for plenty makes peace, and he that raises plenty is a
peace-maker, and it is in peace and plenty that mon niust a fair quality of hay is secured.
reach his highest development, and I know of no land on The best soil for othy is moist rather than dry, but it the face of the earth, where so great results in husbandry flourishes well on any good wheat soil. We should be lotis, and the elevation of the husbandmen (and men in genehowever, to crop land which produced wheat well, with ral) may be reached, as in the United States. timothy, as it would injure it for the production of this
But I must not delay longer giving you and the gentlegrain, taking, as it does, nearly the same elements from the men connected with you, my hearty thanks for soil. But upon the newly opened prairie farms of the ness and consideration in rendering me this gratifying west, it is generally useless to talk of exhausting the soil; pursuits which we love and follow, and in every way and
compliment. May success attend you and them all in the present profit is far more considered than the wants of the effort in which I may assist in pushing those pursuits tofuture. It is too much so everywhere.
wards perfect results, I am with great respect and esteem,
your and their obedient servant. John JOHNSTON. TESTIMONIAL TO JOHN JOHNSTON.
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) In the Country Gentleman of Dec. 29, it was stated that
FARMING AT HORNBY. a number of gentlemen interested in the promotion of the Culture of Potatoes and Carrots-Management of Grass Lands-- Irriagriculture of the state, had presented to Jony JonssTON
gation and Draining-Seeding. of Seneca county, a testimonial of their appreciation of Ens. Country GENTLEMAN-I came to this country his services in the cause of agricultural improvement, con- seven years since, to see the country and purchase some sisting of a massive silver pitcher and a pair of goblets, land in Missouri and Iowa. On my first visit, and every embellished with appropriate agricultural emblems. They subsequent one, I made a visit to Hornby, to see a farm
that has been made out of the forest in the last thirty were forwarded to Mr. JOHNSTON by HENRY S. Olcott of
years, and a farmer with whom I intend in 1861, to finish the N. Y. Tribune, who has sent us the following acknowl- iny agricultural education, at the age of seventy--if I edgment from Mr. Johnston :
should live until that time, -and take four of my grandsons NEAR GENEVA, 27th Dec., 1859. with me, and stop from March to December, and if possi. HENRY S. Olcott, Esq.: My Dear Sir-I received ble educate them practically, that they may not only farm your letter of the 24th inst, and also the rich Christmas well but cheaply. Gift mentioned therein. Truly, I may say that I was both I have had some experience with the agricultural schools surprised and delighted—surprised, because the present of Great Britain, as well as several of the best on the was entirely unexpected-delighted, for I suppose there Continent, and am constrained to say that the art is very is no man that lives who is not pleased by a compliment imperfectly taught at those I have visited, compared with to his opinions and his way of showing them forth. More Hornby, where agriculture is understood praetically. The
Principal understands what his soil lacks for all the plants than on 100 acres of the common meadows of the counhe grows, and applies the deficiencies with skill and profit. try. He has no use for guano, poudrette, bone-dust, or any of The manner of seeding down lands, like most other the popular commercial manures of the day; yet the most things, is peculiar to himself
. Every grass seed is coated of his crops, on his hilly, 'cold; thrin soil, are better than with tar, (as every other seed is that is sown or planted,) can be found on the richest tand in Europe or America and rolled in lime or plaster, which ever is best adapted to As much as we boast of our root crops in England, there the plant. The grass seed is then sown on the newly culcan rarely be found in her Majesty's Government, or at tivated ground, and only rolled after sown, if sufficiently any of the government trial-fields of Continental Europe, dry to use the roller, and before the roller passes over it. Butch a field of potatoes or carrots as on this farin. If there are any suds of blue grass that have not been
The manner of his culture of potatoes is simple when killed by cultivation, or have not been set out by the plowunderstood. After the ground is put in order, his furrows man, they are set out before the roller, with a hoe, and are made with a wide plow that runs deep by going twice they, as well as the seed, never fail to grow. in the same furrow, turning the furrow each way. Then
Let'any farmer visit this farm in July or August, and a subsoil plow is run by the aid of three horses in each he will see one of the most beautiful sights I ever saw, in furrow; then a machipő which he sets so as to make two the matured grass, the growing roots, and the ripening small furrows in the main furow. The machine has four corn, and-all this accomplished with one man to the 100 snall plows made fist to two pieces of timber drawn by a acres, as nearly every thing is done with machinery and horse. The two 'forirard ones are placed so as to throw horse power, The machinery is much of the farmer's own the mold out with a wide flat share that runs under the making or invention, among which is his drain plow, with soil; the two hind oues are set so as to turn the mold into which he makes drains for two cents per rod, that are the furrows, making a place on each side of the furrow quite as good on his clay soil, as those that cost a dollar. for the potatoes, so that the plow which is used for plow. I aun now convinced more thoroughly than ever, that ing in cannot disturb them when plowing them in, the there is more in good, farming than in good land, and to potatoes being planted zig-zag on each side, at twelve in. repeat his own language, a farmer must not only be a clies apart, making two rows in the same drill. They are working but a thinking man, ard above all things else, an then rolled down with a heavy roller, and dragged imtil observing nran, as he can learn from the wild plants of they come up, when the horse-hoe and shovel-plow are nature that grow on his soil, what it is best adapted to, freely used. Then the subsoil plow is used with three and what application is necessary to make it productive, horses twice between each row, which makes deep, mellow better than from all the chomists on earth. 'E. G. earth sufficient for three or four plowings with a double
St. Louis, Mo. mold-board plow; and in case of a drouth, as there was last summer, he attaches wings to these plows, and raises
TOP-DRESSING MEADOWS. the mold as bigh as he chooses, the work being done with horse-power and machinery. As he does not use a loe, the meadow land is receiving considerable attention among
Ens. Co. GENT.--As I see the subject of top-dressing the plow better than is usually done with the hoe, and his sour correspondents, I will throw in my mite, by giving
my experience in top-dressing. potatoes are perfectly free from weeds.
I have a piece of meadow, about six acres, that I seeded He substitutes the subsoil plow in cultivating his carrots to timothy in the spring of 1856, after barley. It being a instead of the spade, which saves nine-tenths of the labor. very dry season, it came in tbin. The next season I mowed He usually plants them late in the fall.
it, and got about half a ton to the acre. It was old land, His mode of draining and irrigation is so far in advance clear from stumps, and rather a hard clay subsoil. Well, of anything that I have seen elsewhere, that I wish to say I concluded I would try top-dressing it with manure. So one word, that those who lack bay may profit by his teaching, the next winter I wintered twenty cows arrd four horses, as it is so unlike anything that I have ever seen or heard of all of which I stabled, and every morning through the He can irrigate almost anywhere, and in this lies the great winter, after my stock were let out of the stanchions, I secret of his enriching his land. By drawing the water to would take my team and sled, and take up the manure a given point where he makes a pond, which he plows that had been dropped through the night, and haul it out when dry and cultivates when the water is in, and makes on to the meadow. I left it in heaps as even as I could. it thick as mud, and runs that on to his meadows and places in the spring, as soon as it thawed out, I spread it evenly, along the roadside, and runs the bard-pan (or clay) on to and the result was the next baying I cut full two tons and his grass land. There is not a stream running on the farm a half to the acre, and it continues to do about the same that now runs where it formerly did. He has changed all yet. Since that, I hate tried other pieces with the same the channels, and carried them to the highest ground pos- good results. E. Rozkli. Bradford Co., Pa. sible, and used them to enrich his land. He showed me where he run on five hundred cubic yards of water in one AN AMERICAN AMONG THE ENGLISH FARMERS.-It of day, by the use of two teams to plow and one to cultivate, ten affords us pleasure to notice the accounts of the warm besides leveling down a bank. He says, and I have no reception and hearty good feeling which is extended to doubt of the fact that clay run on to meadows is better than distinguished Americans while visiting the mother country, even barnyard manure, for the reason that the latter makes by the lords, noblemen, and members generally, of the age it grow more coarse and more likely to fall down, while icultural societies of that country. The prejudices that the clay makes a solid firm growth, if put on with skill, so once existed between the citizens of America and those of as not to rot the sod, which is too often the case even in England, seeni to have given place to that brotherly regard Italy, where they have practiced it for the last 2000 ycars, that should ever characterize the intercourse of members and where they convey the water from rivers in canals, and of the same great family, and speaking the same tongue. kave accomplished wonders, but I saw no such results, or These friendly visits and the interchange of thouglit and the entire character of the soil so changed for the better, sentiment among the farmers of these two great nations, as on the hills of Hornby, where some as good alluvial soil are productive of universal good. has been made in the last seven years, as can be found on We have recently met with several notices from foreign any of the river bottoms, where there is not even a journals, of the marked attention with which our fellow. spring oritunning brook on the farm that does not head on citizen and co-laborer in the cause of agriculture every: the same. There is a know-how to do everything, and where received, on his late tour through England. We alwhen and where to do it. To say the least, I saw ten acres lude to LUTHER H. Tucker, Esq., of the Albany Country of meadow this unpropitious season, the best I ever saw in Gentleman. In attending various gatherings of farmers' any country. The timothy and redtop stood even all over and agricultural societies, in Great Britain, Mr. Tucker wag it, five feet high. I measured several stalks in different often called upon to respond to toasts and sentiments, parts, that were 51 feet, where no manure had ever been highly complimentary to him, and to the country which he put, and have no doubt there was more bay grown on it, I represonted. --St. Louis Valley Farmer,
Beans and Indian Corn for Milch Cows, &c. depot, just one dollar per bushel. Corn is worth one dol..
lar and ten cents. R. H. Brown, of Greece, informs the editor of the Gene
And now the question comes up--Will it not be more see Farmer, that he fed his cows early last spring, with three pints each per day of Indian Corn and white beans, profitable for Mr. C., to have an equal number of bushels ground together, in equal parts. He never had his cows of corn mixed and ground with the beans, than it will to
feed the bean meal ne? If the views advanced in the do so well on any other food; they gave a large quantity of milk, and the calves were the finest he ever raised. He third paragraph of this article are correct, it certainly says he shall sell no more beans, but feed them to his would be better to give equal quantities of bean and corn
meal, even if the corn should cost him one dollar and fity. cows.
Indian corn contains a large per centage of oil, starch, cents per bushel, for then luis feed would possess, in nearly sugar, and other carbonaceous or fat-forming principles,
the right proportions, the necessary requisites for the and it is thought to be more productive of fat than, of greatest production of " fat, muscle, wool
, and milk," and milk, when freely fed to milch cows; while peas, beans, a much larger proportion of the nitrogen of the bean and vetches, (according to the statomerits of some writers, would be assimilated, instead of passing off in the excrecontain three times as much nitrogenous or milk and Hesk,
It has been believed by some persons that none but ani. forming matter as corn.
mal food, milk and meat, contained all the clenients reTo render the largest possible amount of the nitrogen quired for the support of life; but such an idea is erroneof peas, beans, &c., assimilable, there must be in the food, ous, for regetable substances--the grasses, grains, fruits, a corresponding amount of available carbonaceous suh- nuts, roots, tubers, &c.—-contain all the elements, and in stances ; but there is a deficiency of these substances in most cases in nearly the same proportion as they are found : pcas, beans and vetches; consequently, a large portion of in animals. Now all these foods possess, in animal nutri-their nitrogenous constituents--the true flesh, milk and tion, a three-fold value—Ist. Bodies 'containing nitrogen, Wool forming principles-are not, when fed alone, assimi- like the gluten of corn, wheat and oats
. When the Lour lated, but voided in the excrements. If the above views of wheat is made into a dough, and this dough is washed are correct, they explain the good effects resulting from in water upon a fine sieve, a milky liquid passes through, Mr. Brown's corn and bean meal mixture.
from which starch gradually subsides; but on the stere, Beans are, doubtless, a valuable feed for milch cows. In when the water ceases to go through milky, there rennius a late number of the London Gardener's Chronicle, Mr. a soft, adherent, tenacious and elastic substance, which can': McAdam, of Staffordshire, who keeps a hundred cows, be drawn out into long strings, has searcely any color, says, in his experience in the dairy business: "After taste or smell, and is scarcely diminished by washing either having tried various methods and different sorts of grain, with hot or cold water. This substance is the gluten of as oats, wheat, barley, Indian corn, oil cake, rape, &c., I wheat; and in cabbage and many vegetables there are : decidedly prefer bean mcal, both for quantity and quality compounds termed vegetable albumen. In peas, beuis, of milk and butter." Bean straw, when properly prepared, and vetches, there abounds a substance termed legumin, is a valuable feed for milch cows. Mr. Ilorsfall says: in composition nearly identical with gluten and albumen. “Bean straw, uncooked, being found to be hard and un- These are called the nitrogenous bodies of vegetable food, palatable, it was steamed to make it soft and palpy, when as in their chemical qualities they contain from 15 to 20, it possessed an agreeable odor, and imparted its flavor to or more, per cent. of vitrogen, and are nearly identical in the whole mass. It was cut for this purpose just before composition with the muscle, (lean meat,) of animals; the ripening, but after the bean was fully grown, and in this casein or curd of milk, and the albumen or wbite of eggs; state was found to contain nearly double the amount of and, from their solution in the blood, form the tissuesalbuminous matter (so valuable to milch cows) of good muscle-the actual organism. meadow or up-land hay."
2d. Bodies or portions of the food destitute of nitrogen, : Whether some of the varieties of our field or garden as the starch, sugar, gum, and woody fibre, as also the oil beans, would be more profitable to grow for feeding pur- of seeds, nuts, &c. They consist chemically of carbon, poses, in preference to the English field beans, or not, I oxygen and hydrogen—the two last, in the same proporhave no means of ascertaining. In the Co. Gent. of 25th | tions in which they form water. As the above named subof last August, it was stated that Mr. C, S. Wainwright, of stances consist so largely of carbon, they are usually termDuchess county, “had been raising English beans for cat- cd carbonaceous portions of food, and by their decompositle feeding. His crop last year was successful, and this tion or digestion they afford the necessary heat to the aniyear it promises a rery gratifying yield.” Mr. W. is well mal body. Wben fed in quantities larger than needed for known as one of the most successful and largest breeders the keeping up of the required temperature of the system, of North Devons in the United States.
the overplus, or a portion of it, goes directly to the fat, for Mr. Wainwright would confer a great favor upon many it is well known that cattle, hogs, sheep and poultry can of the readers of the Co. Gent., if he would, through the be fattened on potatoes, which largely abound in stareh— columns of that paper, favor them with the result of his but still those varieties of food which contain the most oil, experience in the culture of the English bean, and the like Indian corn, oil and cotton-seed cake, fatten animals feeding value and profit of the English bean, when con- quickest; and recently, in England, linseed and cod oil trasted with Indian corn, oats, the common field bean, have been somewhat extensively fed to fattening cattle roots, &c.
A farmer there fed a pair of North Devon oxen upon linSome weeks since, John Coucu, Esq., of Warner, N. H., seed oil and barley straw cut into chaff and mixed with a who is one of the most successful growers of fine wool in pint of oil per day. "The said oxen were not only fat outthat section, purchased in Boston 60 bushels of white beans, side, but full of fat within." of fair quality, for feeding to his sheep. They were put " The organic food must then, in order to meet all the up in flour barrels
, and cost him at the Warner Railroad / wants of the animal, contain staréh, sugar or gum, fatty