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Hop's To 24 days plowing..
friend. I have done it for several years, and have never cause érerybody knows that it isn't Being thus thrown taken any time that was necessary to be devoted to other upon my own resources, I refer to my geological map, and business. Every farmer has leisure time enough to keep endeavor to throw a little light upon the mystery by its aid. ten books, which had better be applied to that purpose In vain ; for I find that the three counties of England prothar doing a great many things which they now do on ducing the best cheese are not situated on similar soil. Cherainy days and other leisure hours. It is not necessary to shire is on the new red sandstone ; North Wilts and Gloucester have a complete set of books like a merchant, one being sufficient. Take a common aecount book, costing about are on the oolitic limestone ; Cheddar, on the carboniferous half a dollar, and take a certain space for each field, mak- strata," ing it debtor on the left and creditor on the right side, in
Mr. TEGETMELER the writer alluded to, accordingly conthis manner:
cludes that the cause of the differences must be sought in CORN-FIELD.
other sources; and there is little doubt but that it depends Date. Dols. I Cts, | Date
Dols. I Cts. almost entirely on the process of manufacture. Whenever you do anything to your crop, put down on the In'fact this conclusion is borne out by further testimony; Dr. side the actual worth of it, and thụs continue to do the Agricultural Association of Ayrshire, Scotland, have made until your crop is secured, and you know how much you it the subject of chresul'inquiry, actually sending a deputahave expended on it. Then place on the Cr. side the action to inquire'into the plans adopted in those counties of Eng: tual value of your entire crop, corn fodder, pumpkins, and land which produce the best cheese. The decision at which all that is of any worth. Then balance the accounts some they arrived' whs' that the quality of the cheese depends of these long winter evenings, and you will know just how wholly upon the observance or non-observance of certain much your corn has cost per bushel, and whether you have simple précautions, and that the price of the cheese depends made or lost on it.
wholly upon its quality. They were better pleased with the As a great many farmers wholly upacquainted with method adopted in the Cheddar district than with any other; any system of book-keeping, but would like to try it, I the best Cheddar cheese always realizes from $16 25 10 $18.75 will make an extract from my book for the past year which perentwhile that of an inferior quality may be unsaleable will show what I think to be a very good system of keep at half
this price. The general principles of the method are ing farm accounts, and at the same time give the result of
"The milk is employed without the removal of any of the an experiment in raising corn. My corn-field consisted of four acres, two of which I cream; for, as might be imagined, butter and good cheeso
cannot both be made out of the same portion of milk. The plowed in the fall. The soil, a slatey loam, was very uni- liquid used to congulate the milk is rennet, which is obtained form, and was all manured alike, and cultivated alike with by steeping in water the salted and dried stomach of tho the exception of the plowing in the fall, and I will state calf; these rells, as they are terned, should never be used here that the two acres plowed in the fall gave seven and until twelve months old. It is a remarkable proof of the a half bushels more corn than the other, the one giving power of the animal juices, that the rennet obtained from 82 and the other 894 bushels of shelled corn,
one vell is suficient to curdle enough milk to make half a ton Бул туура
of cheese. Before the rennet is added, the evening and the CORN-FIELD-Four Acres, Dr. May 3.
morning milks are mixed together, and the temperature of 4. " 1 day's burrowing.
the whole is raised to 80°, by heating a portion and mixing it 5. " 1 day's furrowing...
with the remainder. In one hour the whele is coagulated. 3 men planting one day, 75 cts., June 2. "1 day's cultivating...
Portions of the whey are then drained off and heated. The ** 400 pounds plaster and putting on,
whole of the curd is now minutely and most carefully divided ; cultivating and hoeing, July 3. “plowing and hilling,
after which, as much of the heated whey is added as will " cutting up corn, 4 days, 75 cts..
raise the temperature again to 80°. It is then left for an boy to bind, 50 cts.,
hour, when the whey is drawn off and heated rather higher Oct. 15.
" husking 10 days, 75 cts.,.... 25. “ drawing fodder,.
than before. The curd is aga minutely broken, and pailsorting and cribbing corn,
fulls of heated whey are forced in, so as to raise the tempera" threshing and marketing corn,
ture to 1000. The whole is constantly stirred during the " 40 loads manure, half cost. drawing and spreading the same,
time, so that the curd becomes somewhat consistent. It is interest, taxes, seed-corn, &c.,
then left half an hour, in order that it may settle, when the whey is dipped out, and the last portions drained off without
pressure. The curd is then cut into large slices, turned, and CORN-FIELD-Four ACRES, Cr. Dec. 15. By 171 bushels shelled corn, at 90 cts.,...
allowed to drain for half an hour, and when its temperaturo
$153.90 4 acres of fodder, at 85, ..
has fallen to 60°, it is subjected to a moderate pressure for 18 loads pumpkins, at 50 cts.;
half an hour. At the expiration of this time, it is broken 19 bushels ears soft corn, at 18 cts.....
fine in a card muill, and the best refined rock salt added (in Total receipts,
the proportion of two pounds to one hundred weight of curd,) Deduct total expenses......
made into cheeses, and placed in the checse-press. The next Which leaves a clear profit of,..
morning it is turned and pressed again; and the third mornDeducting the worth of the fodder, pumpkins and soft ing it is laid upon the shelf
, having been previously laced up com, from the cost of the whole, and we have $72.34 as in a piece of canvass, to preserve the shape whilst drying. the cost of 171 bushels of corn, or a little over 42 cents The drying is accomplished in a well-aired cheese-room, kept per bushel, which leaves about 47 cents per bushel profit. at a tein perature or from 550 to 60o.
Spite of all that prejudiced ignorance asscrts, there is no I have another piece on which the profit comes the other doubt but that the inferior character of certain kinds of cheese way. FARMER Oak Hill, N. Y.
depends mainly upon three or four causes :- firstly, on the
impoverisbment of the milk by the removal of crenm; seCheese Making-Skill more than Soil.
condly, on the employment of an excess of rennet, which pro
duces a too rapid coagulation; thirdly, on the use of too high An objection frequently brought forward, if the farmers of a temperature, from which results a hardness of the curd; one locality are asked why the cheese they make does not sell In the cheddar plan-- the low temperature of 80° in the first
and lastly, on the occasional want of cleanliness in the dairy, at so high a price in market as that manufactured by their stages gives richness of tasto, and the grenter hent employed brethern in other localities-- is "that the land is not adapted afterwards renders easy the separation of the wbey. for cheese-making, and that it would be alınost a waste of The most extreme and ultra cleanliness is absolutely indismaterial for them to attempt to make good cheese.” A recent pensable, as a single drop of milk sinking into an absorbent English writer in commenting on this fact says, " On further floor will cause the cheese made during a whole season to be
come sour and valueless." inquiry as to whether it is the peculiar geologię formation, or any remarkable difference in the species of grasses peculiar to The ANNUAL REGISTER OF RURAL AFFAIRS.-"Brim the district that is the cause, I am again informed, this time full of good things,” says the Ohio Cultivator. “Mavy a rather dogmatically, that the land is not adapted for cheese- large dollar book is not worth half so much as this little making, and that it's no use asking any more questions, be- volume, which can be had for only 25 cents."
30. Dec. 15.
THE UNITED STATES AG. SOCIETY. the Interior, as to how our agricultural interests might best The eighth annual meeting of the United States Ag. So- in favor of the creation of a Department of Agriculture,
be promoted. That committee had unanimously reported ciety commenced its session in the Smithsonian Institution, with a cabinet officer at its head, and had made sundry Washington, Jan. 10--the President, Gen. TILGHMAN of valuable suggestions. He moved that a committee be ap. Maryland, in the chair—Maj. B. P. Poore, Secretary, to pointed to wait on Mr. Whiteley, and ask a copy of the whom we are indebted for an account of its doings, froni paper for presentation to the U. S. Society to-mortow.
The resolution was adopted. Mr. Calvert, as President of which we make the following abstract:
the Maryland Agricultural College, invited members of the The President read his annual address, referring to the Society to visit the college before their return home. reports of the secretary and treasurer to show the workings
Col. Johnson of New-York, said he hoped that this reof the society and its operations during the past year, and port of the Advisory Board would be brought forth, for it also its present condition. He recommends an inerease of was the only real thing of value done by that body. the salary of the secretary, whose time, he states, bas for He thought our agricultural interest would never be fully several months past been entirely devoted to the business fostered and advanced until a department was created. He of the society. He also recommends, the purchase, of saw no great difficulty in the way of organizing a Departbooks for the use of the society. The Quarterly, Bulletin ment, and thought if our Members in Congress would depublished by the society hnd done much towards forward. bate the question awhile, it would be accomplished. ing the interests of agriculturo. Reference is made to the annual exhibition at Chicago, meeting by invitation, was conducted to the
The President of the United States having attended the and a detailed account given of its conduct and success a success never before equalled by any previous exhibition appropriately addressed by the President of the Society, of the kind in the country. Articles
:Were you exhibition. The splendid Gold Medal, valued at $200, awarded to Mr.
to which Mr. Buchanan replied in a few brief remarks. from twenty-two States and Territories, and the exhibitiou Fawks for his steam plow, was delivered to Mr. Buchanan, room was crowded daily. Suggestions were made as to to be by him
presented to Mr. F." the correctness of awards of medals; among which was a recommendation for the appointment of a general super
After the President had retired, Mr. Loring of Mass.,' intendent for this purpose. Recommendation was also read a paper on the subject of cattle-breeding. The views made to change the time of opening and closing of the expressed, excited some discussion, in which Mr. Conger annual exhibitions ; also for a change of discretionary pre- and Col. Johnson of this state, and Messrs. Tayloe, Cal. miums--on account of the difficulty in giving them out vert, and Clemsen took part. without dissatisfaction to the recipients--to diplomas. On the report of the nominating committçe, the followRecommendation was also made that the Presidents of ing officers were unanimously elected: each of the similar societies of Europe be made honorary
President-IIon. HENRY WAGER of Now-York. members of this society; also, that application be made to Congress for a charter for the society.
Alabama-N, B. Cloud,
Minnesota-H. M. Rice. Allusion was made to the late Harper's Ferry raid, as California-A. W. McKee.
Aflavnia-Sylvester Howry. Missouri-R, Barrett.
New Hampsbire--II, F. Frencb." being productive of danger to the agricultural interests of Connecticut-1, A, Dyer. New Jersey-Geo. Hartshorn,
New York B. P. Jolinson. the whole country, and members from both sections of the Delaware-John Jones.
New Mexico-M. A. Otero. country (the South and the North) were called upon to do Dist, Columbia-W. W. Corcoran. Nebraska-W. F. Brown,
N. Carolina-H, K, Burgwin. their respective duties in allaying the prevailing domestic Georgia-Richard Peters. Ohio-F. G. Carey. dissension.
Illinois-S. A. Buckmaster.
Oregon-J. H. Lane.
Indiana-Thos, H. Collins. The President also recommended that the time for hold- lowa-Legrand Byington. Rhode Island-Elisha Dyer. ing the annual meetings be changed from January to some
Kansas-WF, M, Arney.
Kentucky-W. L, Underwood, Texas-Thomas AMeck. convenient time in February in each year, because it has Louisiana–J. D. B. Delow. Utah-W. H. Hooper. been found that farmers who are members can better at- Massachusetts-John Brooks. Vermont-Fred. Holbrook.
Maryland-J. H. McHenry. tend during the latter than the former month.
Wisconsin-T, W. Hoyl.
Washington Ter.-I. I. Stevens The thanks of the Society were voted to the President Nississippi - A. H. Harrison.
Michigan-Henry Ledyard. for his address, and it was referred to a committee to re
Executive Committee--Ex Oficio members, Hon. M. P. Wilder, port as to what action might be necessary to carry its Tench Tilghman, and B. P. Poore. Members, Hon. B. N. Hunting
ton, N. Y.; J. McGowan, Pa.: llon. F. Smyth, N. H.: Jno. Merry recommendations into effect.
man, Md.; Col. Horace Capron, III.; J. M. Cannon, Esq., Iowa; COL The Treasurer's report stated that at the last annual Josiah W.'Ware, Va.
Treasurer-Hon, B. B, French, Dist. of Columbia meeting the
Secretary-Maj. B. P. Poore, Massachusetts. Balance in the Treasury was,
$417.14 Receipts at winter meeting, 1859,
THIRD Day. Receipts on account of Chicago Exhibition,
Mr. Calvert of Md., presented a series of resolutions ex
pressing the sense of the Society in relation to agricultural Payments on account of Chicago Exhibition,.....
education; also deploring the executive veto of the Mor.
$4,739.08 rill bill passed by Congress last year, and calling upon the Balance in Treasury,.......
agricultural societies throughout the states to co-operate Other expenses, .......
$4,398.48 with this Society in endeavoring to obtain the passage of a The Secretary's report was then made, in which state. bill containing provisions similar to those contained in said ment is made of the transactions of the Society in the bill. In his remarks Mr. Calvert censured the President publication of the Journal of Agriculture, and of the let- for his veto of the Morrill Land-bill, and was replied to by ters received during the year in answer to circulars, nearly Mr. Mann, when on motion of Mr. Kelley, the subject was eight hundred of which have required replies. The office laid upon the table. at Washington has been open through the year, for the The Society entered upon the consideration of the subconvenience of all interested in the subject of agriculture. ject of the future establishment of an agricultural division
On motion of Hon. M. P. Wilder of Mass., à commit- by the government, either under the Department of the tee of one member from each state and territory present Interior, or as a separate and independent branch, with a was appointed to report nominations for officers for the cabinet officer at its bead. A protracted and very inteensuing year.
resting debate ensued, which resulted in the passage of the On motion, President Buchanan, and ex-Presidents Van following resolution, introduced by Mr. Rockwell of Conn: Buren and Tyler, were made honorary members of the Resolved, That the Society would earnestly recommend Society.
the creation, at the present time, of a separate AgricultuMr. Calvert of Ma., referring to the defunct " Advisory ral Bureau in the Department of the Interior. Board of Agriculturists” which was summoned by D. J. Addresses were then delivered by Dr. J. G. Cooper on Browne, last winter, said that to a sub-committee of the the Forest Trees of America, and by Prof. Henry on MoBoard had been referred the question of the Secretary of teorology.
& Carolina F. W. Alston,
Virginia-W. A, Spence.
89d dyin des
Sunod ng Tomate them prime beef. In this way I have done very well;
but I have generally bought these after selling off my fat ve cattle. I have, however, done better by purchasing those
that have been fed meal for two months, where the farmer has lost hope of ever getting pay for his grain. Such catr,
tle could soon be made thoroughly fat at no great cost. BREEDERS.
I give the Maryland Farmer the way I have done ; but I cannot now ride or drive about in cold weather, and must change my plan, as I find it very difficult to find a man
who can purchase stock to meet my views. I have often REGULARITY IN FEEDING.
thought it singular that farmers who see me selling steers
from 22 to 24 months old, at from $47 to $60, (very few Every good farmer knows that any domestic animal is at the lowest price,) should keep theirs until 3 or 4 years a good clock--that it knows, almost to a minute, when the old, and then not have them worth over from $20 to $40, regular feeding time has arrived. If it has been accustom- without making an effort to do better. There is no intellied to be fed with accuracy at the appointed period, it will gence or enterprise in this. I have no doubt there are
numbers of farmers in the State of New-York, that make not fret until that period arrives; after which it becomes as good eattle or sheep as I do, but then they are far bevery restless and uneasy till its food comes. If it has been tween, and perhaps not numerous ; 'but I have done my fed irregularly, it will begin to fret when the earliest period best to have a better state of things. The only thing I arrives. Hence, this fretting may be entirely avoided by ever kept in the dark, was when I commenced feeding oil strict punctuality; but it cannot be otherwise. The very able it was, I would not get what I wanted, and for some
cake meal. I was afraid if farmers were told how profitmoment the animal begins to worry, that moment it begins years I said nothing on that subject. I said nothing about to lose flesh ; but the rate of this loss has never been as- draining for some years after I commenced. I was afraid certained—it is certainly worthy of investigation—and can farmers would all go at it, and that would raise the cost on be only determined by trying the two modes, punctuality me; but it let me know that I did not understand human and irregularity, side by side, under similar circumstances, I did-at least so far as feeding oil cake and tile draining
nature among the farming population so well as I thought and with the same amount of food, for some weeks or were concerned; but they go the tile draining now, and months together,
they will follow with the oil cake, I have no doubt; but as There is one precaution to be observed in connection a whole, their faith is very weak where additional labor and with regular feeding, where some judgment is needed. cost, has to be encountered. JOHN JOHNSTON. Animals eat more in sharp or frosty, than in warm and
Near Geneva, Dec. 24. damp weather. Hence, if the same amount by weight is given at every feeding, they will not have enough when
[For the Country Gentleman,1 the weather is cold, and will be surfeited when it is warm
SPARRED FLOOR STABLES. and damp. Both of these evils must be avoided, while a Eps. Co. Gent.--Observing in your paper some account little attention and observation will enable the farmer to of your Junior's visit to Tiptree Hall, I think it may indo it.
.terest some of your readers to learn that I am acting upon
some of Mr. Mechi's plans, and propose following his (For the Country Gentleman.) teachings yet further, and sending the results to the Co. ON CATTLE FEEDING.
Gent. if acceptable.
I have two young bullocks and a pen full of young pigs, In answer to “A Maryland Farmer,” (see Co. Gent., p. upon his open-boarded floors, and have come to the con403,) I would say that the calves I intend to sell, I com.clusion that they are “the thing.” I had great fears, lest, mence fattening when a few days old, by giving oil-cake in this cold climate, the droppings should freeze so as to meal, oat meal, or barley meal, along with their milk. stop up the spaces; but although my stable is far too cold This I continue until they are 3 or 4 months old—then and open, and we have had much cold weather of late, (as turn them to pasture; but I feed them hay or cut grass low as 10° below zero,) this has not been the case to any from the time they first begin to eat, until they are turn- considerable extent. In my pig-pen, which is warmly ed to pasture. Early cut clover hay is much the best and constructed and pigs packed close, there is no frost at all, better than pasture, and I don't think costs any more. and they are perfectly clean and dry, as are the bullocks, al
The following winter I feed clover hay, with some meal. though they have never been groomed. During the present Good clover hay, with a pint of oil-cake meal, will make scarcity of fodder the advantages of the system are peculiarthem grow finely. The next summer give good pasture, ly manifest. The bedding is set free for food. I cut mine and take them to the yards whenever the pasture fails. up with hay, with a horse-power cutter, and feed horses, Feed two quarts of oil meal daily, with cornstalks or good cows and sheep with the chaff. Double the number of clover hay-the hay is best with me. In this way I have animals can be kept, and large quantities of excellent mamade them realize me from $47 to $60 each, when 22 to nure, the pure article, can be made. The daily labor of 24 months old. They generally consume from 750 to 1000 bedding-down, and cleaning out the stables, which is conlbs. each, of oil-cake meal in all, by the time I sell them. siderable with a large stock, is entirely saved, as also the
It is only occasionally that I raise calves. I can do bet- piling and repiling of the manure. Two or three minutes ter by purchasing two, three, or four years old cattle (3 and suffice to take up one of these floors, and a cart or sleigh 4 best,) in autumn, and fattening in winter. These I gen. can be backed in to take the " pudding ” (as Mechi calls it) érally feed on oil cake, corn meal, or meal from other directly to the field. grain, mixed with the oil meal. If oil meal costy little The slats or boards should slip into a groove at either more per pound than other meal, I sometimes feed that end, so that they may be easily lifted. I have no nails in alone all the time to part of my cattle. It is better than mine. In cold weather I find the droppings have a tenmeal from grain to give lean cattle. They begin to gain dency to pile up under the floor, but by lifting up two or much sooner on that than any other food I have ever tried three slats, a man can readily get down and level it. I But no farmer ought to buy lean cattle to fatten in winter. have only had to do this once as yet, and my beasts have They should be good fair beef to begin with. Still lean been in since the middle of Nov., besides which my pits cattie I have often found to pay well when bought in Feb. are far too small, being only arranged in a temporary way or March. Feed them from eight to ten bushels of meal as an experiment. My boxes are about 6 by 10, but for <say 480 to 600 pounds each-until the pastures are good, the future I propose making them smaller, say 5 by 7.6, and then six weeks of good pasture will generally make so as to economize the animal heat. The pit under the
floor must be about 4 ft. in depth, to contain four or five 000,000 pounds, to which add the cheese reported, 105,000,000 months droppings. I hope next winter to have all my pounds, and this makes an actual cheese product of one thouanimals, except the horses, on these foors, and expect to sand forty-five million pounds, exclusive of the vast amount find many of your enterprising readers adopting the plan. of milk consumed in its primitive state, by families in country If by connecting the soiling system with the boarded floors, food substances as veal meat and raising young stock.
and cities; and also by animals, to produce other forms of we can double our stock, and we may safely, count on that,
New-York farmers may smile at the very modest calculait will be great gain.
tion of twenty-four dollars product per cow in the above estiIn practice I find no effluvium or unpleasant smell what-mate. If so, they can take an enterprising dairyman's stanever to arise from the droppings, as they run together so dard of money product, and double the figures, thus showing as to exclude air and thus prevent fermentation. Also, I an excess of one hundred and sixty-three million dollars, find no difficulty in getting the beasts to go on to the floors, yearly product from this humble branch of husbandry, over after the first night or two; they run in just as willingly million dollars over the aggregate of the far farned and uni
the entire aggregate of domestic exports; and of sixty-four as those that are on the old straw beds. With all deference, versal corn crop of this country, estimating
the price at forty I submit that too much has been said abouti the comfort
cents per bushels. and warmth of bedding under animals. It must be recol- The area of Indian corn is given at thirty-one million agres, lected that on my floors the beasts lie perfectly dry, while while that of hay and pasture is put down at thirty-three milon a straw będ they are generally more or less wet, which lion acres. is not conducive to comfort ; and further, if I lie all night It may be safely estimated that more than one million pertvithout any bedclothes over me, I shall not be kept rarin sons are more or less employed daily in this department of by the bed of down that may be under me. So as I keep production for at least two-thirds of each year. in my own animal heat by means of covering, I keep in
Onondaga Co., N. Y.
JONATHAN E. PETTIT. that of my animals by close packing, and for health and comfort, I think they agree with me in preferring å dig Subsoiling -Liquid Manure-Green Crops. hard bed, to a wet soft one.
W: R. FØRSTER.
MESARS, EDITORS--Can you inform me which is the best pattern of Canada West.
subsoil plows? I have a farm which has been plowed in five Toot lands. The soil, which is clas, seems to be tenacious, and holds water
a long time, although it has sufficient mil, and is not at all springy. Do [For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) you not think subsoiling would ohviate this, and enable me to plow in
wide lands and use a mower and reaper, which, in the present state Estimate of the Value of our Dairy Products. of things it is impossible to do? Ilow often is the operation necessa
ry? Would sul.soiling with every corn crop answer through the rota. Messrs. Tucker & Son-I have not the egotiem te sup- dou? . It has never, I believe, been tried in this neighborhood, and I pose that I shall do justice to the subject on which you have I have a pump situated below the barn yard, so that the washing's requested me to furnish sone papers for publication in your from the manure render the water entirely unfit
for use. Can you or journal.
I should like to know of any of your readers who have tried t, wbat The subject is too extensive, the facts nre varied, the con- season to plow, and the best crops to sow or plant afterwards. Does
is the best grain to sow for plowing in green for manure the proper ditions involved are in part obvious, but in very essential and this course answer in heavy soils as well as in light oues ? important particulars recondito, and besides iny knowledge
Bucks Co., Pa.
HENRY C. DAT18. and experience are deficient.
For land nearly clear of stone, the reversible subsoil Milk' of standard quality rapidly decomposes. Curd, the plow represented in the annexed cut, (fig. 1,) is the best.* product of milk, including both casein and butter, becomes almost as specdily putrescent and disgusting. It is nevertheless true that this animal product, milk-subtile, sensitive, perishable-is the basis of a department of husbandry, inferior to no other in importance, viewed in its present condition or future promise.
No doubt there has been much slovenly practice, and perhaps in many cases want of success in the absence of system, Inethod and managernent, while prejudice has whilom elbowed it out of genteel society:
Were I asked the question, “Is Cotton king ?" the reply would be, "No; but Milk is ;” and to justify this answer a
Fig. 1. few particulars shall suffice.
But if there are many stones in the soil, this plow will be It is a truism that a judiciously selected herd of dairy cows, thrown out, or will be difficult to enter among them; in well cared for and thoroughly handled, will. on an average of which case one with a much shorter sole or shoe will be a sories of years, in lots of thirty to eighty, inore or less, produce annually from each cow 450 to 550 pounds of cheese. necessary, like that represented in fig. 2, which is one of Allowing something for smaller product of cows under four the best forms of the ditching plow. The ditching plow years of age, not usually embraced in such a selection, and has been extensively used for subsoiling by different peralso for the fact that the entire number of cows will probably fall below the average quality of dairy herds, and the mini mum average ought to be stated at no less than 400 pounds of checse as the product per cow. The standard estimate of cotton bales anstrers in weight to this number, so that one bale of cotton, and the yearly product of one ców in cheese equivalent, arc alike in weight. As to prices, the winter's sales for the average of the last seven years are nine and onethird cents at the home delivery within fifteen miles of the farm, and this is by no means tho highest range of choose sn les which might be quoted. The cotton bales reported in census of 1830, were, ........ 2,445,786
Stating the home price of checse and cotton as gix to ten, to that shown by fig. 1, for clear soils.
Subsailing is of little use on henvy wet soils, before unvalue of $153,242,256 per annum, and of cotton $97,831,720, derdraining, or its effects are at best but temporary, and while the total domestic exports were loss than one hundred last hardly a single season. If the subsoil is broken with and thirty-seven millions.
Tho four special crops, tobacco, rice, sugar, and cotton, it in spring, (and it must be late in spring, after the subsoil (unly two of which are food crops,) aggregnte 1,630,000,000 has bad several weeks to become dry enough, or the plow pounds, while the milk (cheese equivalent) aggregates 7,554,- will only work it into mortar,) it may continue mellow 000,000 pounds.
Referring agnin to tho census statistics of 1850, the total through the summer; but the fall rains, or if not the fall, number of pounds of butter, in round numbers, is 313,000,000, those of spring, will settle the earth back again into its and multiplying it by tlireo as a cheese equivalent, gives 540 - * It is manufactured by Holmes and Stringer, Munsville, N. Y.
original compactness. Underdraining before subsviling is if an insect produced the evil after the head from this seed of the utmost importance, and will prolong the beneficial is formed. The experiment has also been many times reeffects of the subsoiling, through several seasons. We peated, of impregnating with smut through the seed sown. would advise our correspondent to try thorough under- If our correspondents will procure the best achromatic draining, if it is only to the extent of an acre or two, by way microscopes now made, and make a free and accurate use of of experiment. IIc can also, if lie chooses, try subsoiling them, they will probably make many new discoveries of a without it. Compare the results of the two operations highly interesting character. For, to undertake to decide separately, with their results combined.
questions of this kind, without the most powerful magniWashings from the barnyard should never be allowed to fiers, would be like a person undertaking to read the comrun off. Put up eave troughs on the buildings, so that the mou type of a book across a river or at midnight. water from the roofs may not wash the manure; make the mánure yard concave or "dishing” if necessary; and keep t" (For the Country Gentleman and Caltivator.) enough straw or other absorbing substance to hold all the
fug ; PRODUCT OF ONE COW liquid portions. The advantages in saving this valuable EDITORS OF Cultivator AND CO. GENT.—Having seen part will be greater even than that of the pure water from various statements in your journal of the quantity of milk the well.
given by different cows in stated perioda,, I send you a · The three crops most commonly sown for plowing in, statement of two years doings of one that I owned for the are clover, indian corn, and buckwheat. Clover is usually last five years, but lost in calving a few weeks since. She
was said to be one-half native and one-half short born ; regarded as best, and is an excellent crop.to precede wheat. her appearance warranted the latter, at least. Living in Buckwheat is more easily raised, but is less enriching the city, I could make no dependence on pasture, but Perhaps, however, this disadvantage is nearly balanced by have had to depend on what I gave her in the barn. She the two crops which may be buried in a single season. Corn gave the most milk the first year, as you will see by bas been less tried; but the heavy growth which it yields milked and fed her myself,
and I am satisfied I can make
statement annexed. I account for this in two ways. I when sown in furrows at the rate of two or three bushels more milk in the pasture I have) to have my cow calre in per acre, strongly commends its use. All these crops, but winter, when I can feed, cut feed, roots rowen oil meal the corn especially, need rolling or harrowing, to enable and flax seed, than I can on grass, when I can't add the the plow to cover them. Autumn grain may be sown upon former. I am not one of those who are able to make the inverted earth, or spring crops the year following. The large quantities of milk on grass alone. I can't obtain the best time to plow in is between the time of flowering and latter, and therefore had to find substitutes, or rather aux
iliaries, and plenty of them. the ripening of the seed. The decay of the vegetable I have often heard it advanced that cows giving large fibre takes place more rapidly in light than in heavy soils; quantities, could not give good milk. In answer to this, I hence in the latter the plowing may be shallower, and it will say that one season, when farrow, I took the cow into should be a little earlier, when the fiber will decay more the country where my family were staying, from July to readily.
October. When she was giving on an average nine quarts
daily, after using all we wanted in a family of seven persons, SMUT IN WHEAT.
my wife made over seven pounds butter per week for four
teen successive weeks, which I think is proof positive theWe have received a few communications, taking the her milk was A. 1. The most she ever gave me in twentyt position that smut in wheat is caused by an insect. One four hours, milked 6 A. M. and 6 P. M., was twenty-three of them states that all the theories and suppositions of quarts one and a half pints.
Quarts the fungus origin of smut, rust, &c., are founded upon Amount milk from July 1st to Jan. 1st.... mistaken views of the subject, I many years ago satisfac
from Augast 1st to Feb. 1857,......... 1,928 turily demonstrated, by long continued observation and Number of quarts in one gear:
1st. experiments on my own farm."
from Jan. 1st. to July 1st., 1859,... 1.683 We are not however inforined what were the nature and
Number of quarts in one year,... character of these observations and experiments, and
Total for two years,... especially whether they were conducted under a powerful
All the milk not used in the family was sold at the store achromatic microscope—an indispensable requisite to such at 5c per quart, many milk carts selling at 6 the year investigations.
through. H. B. CONGDON, Providence, R. I. We never yet found the man, no matter how much he might have previously doubted the fungus character of
Asparagus and Pie-Plant. rust, who questioned this character a moment after a care
The Gardener's Monthly recommends that Asparagus bo ful examination through such a microscope. The plants planted "twenty inches to two feet from plant to plant, and are most distinctly seen with root, stem, and seed-vessel, the rows eighteen to twenty inches apart.” [Tho plants are so far as cryptogamous plants are furnished with these often set four times as near together, in which case is imparts; there is no chaos or confusion about it; every sin possible for them to develope themselves properly and becoma gle plant is like all the rest. And the seeds are so minute of the largest size. For horse-culturo, the rows may be 30 that they will flow through the sap-vessels with perfect inches apart, and the plants 15 inches in the row. With rich freedom, and impregnate every part-ready to burst into of two feet is recommended for the soil - and the routs set four
soil, this will make "giant asparagus of any sort.") A depth living plants whenever peculiarities of the weather favor inches under the surface. Fertility of soil is all important. their development. The same is true, in part, with the The editor says there is a good deal of humbug" about the smut in wheat.
recommendation of salt for asparagus.
Pue Plant.-The following sorts the game journal states · We have found by our own experiments, and many to be best : Prince Albert and Tobolsk for enrliness ; Magother observers have arrived at the same result, that wash- num Bonum, Victoria, and Cahoon's Mammoth, for size and ing sinutty seed, greatly lessens the tendency to smat in productiveness ; Linnæus, for size and gnality; and Prince the product; and washing in lime water, newly or wholly plant should have an area of at least two feet square for its
of Wales and Crimson Perfection, for beauty of color. Esch destroys this tendency. This could not well be the case, I proper development, and a very rich soil.
4,387 at 5e $219,35 Quarts. 2.239-2
Amount milk from July 1st to Jan 1st..
3922-2 at 5e $193 12