« AnteriorContinuar »
(Reported for the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.)
raw potato. A. Pinney had never found any good, but ' Fruit Grower's Society of Western New-York. fully grown ones.
T. G. Yeomans stated that he had 140 trees of the AnThe winter meeting, held at Rochester on the 4th and goulenne on one-third of an acre-they yielded about 30 6th of the present month, was as usual largely attended, a barrels of these, five barrels were blown off by wind, large portion of the counties west of Syracuse being rep. But the best six barrels sold for one hundred and fifty-six
and were sold from six to eighteen dollars per barrel. resented. The exhibition of fruit was excellent, contain. dollars, or $26 per barrel. The whole third acre yielded ing several large collections of apples, but the most re- him five hundred dollars. The trees are planted ten feet markable part of the exhibition was the superb display of apart, cultivated by horses, at much less expense than culwinter pears, embracing more than fifty varieties, filling tivating potatoes. The best barrel was filled with 166 as many dishes, and most of them specimens of admirable pears. He has already had applications for his next year's
crop. The barrels hold two and a half bushels. He growth, all from Ellwanger & Barry.
places the pears in carefully, till the weight of one person p'iscussions on Fruits and Fruit Culture. is required to press them enough to place the head in, The first question taken up was, " Is the dwarf pear a G. Ellwanger stated that the fruit of the Louise Bonne
after having covered them at the top with cotton batting. humbug?" A. Pinney, of Clarkson, had cultivated it with of Jersey, he had sent to market at New-York, sold from great success, and especially the Louise Bonne of Jersey, sixteen to twenty dollars per barrel—and from the experiwhich had outborne all otlier sorts. W. P. Townsend, of ments already made, he thought that eight or ten year Lockport, believed, from 25 years experience, that this sort trees, with good cultivation, would safely yield on an are would bear three times as much as any other pear-he would rage per annum, at the rate of over a thousand doilas per plant dwarfs rather than standards, placing them near to acre--and that this variety would produce at least twice as gether—and would cultivate the whole surface, and keep
much money from the same land as any other sort. it thoroughly stirred, as often as at least once in two weeks.
Cuiture of the Grape. The best sorts as dwarfs he thought were, Louise Bonne H. N. Langworthy remarked that of the amount of fruit of Jersey, Virgalieu, Angouleme, Beurre Diel, Winkfield, sent to market, the Isabella had greatly exceeded all others and for summer, the Doyenne d'Eta. The Flemish Beauty -he alluded to the importance of quickly testing the was also a fine grower. C. L. Hoag, of Lockport, found many new sorts, and inquired in relation to the practicathe Flemish Beauty to grow better than any other sort, bility of doing this by grafting. C. P. Bissell said that after it became once established. Prof. Coppock, of Buf- grafting was difficult, but he recommended more attention falo, differed on one point-he thought the Vicar of Wink- to inarching for this purpose. He thought that vines field would bear twice as much as any other sort.
propagated in pots, (which some other members thonght G. Ellwanger, of Rochester, named the following sorts tardy in bearing,) would soon furnislı clusters of fruitas never succeeding on the quince, namely, Bosc, Autumn he had had them the second year-and C. L. Hoag stated Paradise, Sheldon, and Dix. There are several others that similar results. G. Ellwanger said that he had found no succeed imperfectly. But all the fruit, borne on dwarf difficulty whatever in grafting, doing the work in winter trees, is invariably finer than when grown on pear within doors by the cleft-grafting mode—and they genestocks. II. T. Brooks thought that they were not the rally bear the second year. He had known them to grow sort to send out among farmers, for no sort should be 20 or 30 feet the same year. S. H. Ainsworth had sucrecommended to them but such as would bear "grief” cessfully practiced grafting by taking up carly in spring well, for they would not take care of them, and although two-year roots, and they had grown 30 feet the same year. he would set at the feet of the Rochester nurserymen, yet Strong ligatures were required. When set out, the place he would presume to advise them, in making up lists for of union must be below the surface of the soil. L. B. farmers, to put in very few dwarf pears. W. B. Smith, of Langworthy said he had found no difficulty in grafting a Syracuse, replied by suggesting the same cautious course vine, even as large as one's arm, provided the grafts were in relation to recommending improved breeds of cattle to kept cold and dormant, till after the leaves were expanded, farmers. S. H. Ainsworth said he had formerly spoken and then cleft-grafting in the usual way, taking care to and written against dwarf pears—but he had found that cover the work three or four inches below the surface of some sorts bore more heavily, as well as better fruit, on the soil. quince. He had two old trees of Louise Bonne of Jersey, Comparativo Profits on Fruits. one a dwarf, and the other a standard ; the fruit on the The comparative merits of apples, pears and smail former was always double in size, and of superior quality. fruits, for market, by skillful cultivators, occcupied a conWith other sorts the difference was less obvious. The Vi. "siderable share of attention. B. Barry said the proper escar of Winkfield was fine and valuable on quince-on pear timate of their merits would depend greatly on circum“worth nothing.” The whole secret in raising dwarfs, is first stances. Near a city, small fruits would doubtless be most to get the right sorts (which are few,) and then give thorough profitable. For distant marketing, by barrelling up the cultivation. The trees must be properly pruned, and cultiva- fruit, larger and longer keeping fruits will be best. In some ted broadcast, as often as once a week-of course by horse places the soil may be best for pears—in another peaclipower. With this treatment, success will be certain. es may be most remunerative-in others again, apples may He had failed at first by using bad stock-on the com- be best. Apples, if good, always have a ready sale. In mon quince, they soon failed--seedlings from the common Niagara county, the estimated amount sold was half a quince were perfectly worthless. The Angers quince was million of dollars worth. Where the soil is right, pears the only sort that he had succeeded with. In answer to a promise the highest profit—notwithstanding that terrible question, he said he erred in sending his pears to Boston malady the fire blight, and the various accidents to which market, where he received but ten dollars per barrel, while this tree is peculiarly liable. He thought the pear promthey sold freely at all times at New-York, for at least fif- ised higher remuneration to skillful cultivators on proper teen dollars per barrel. He finds the Winter Nelis to crack soils, than anything else. For farmers the apple promises badly by the side of Virgalieus that never crack with him. best. Some who had but four or five acres of good orcharıl, G. Ellwanger thought the Fontenay stock better than the of the best winter apples, had realized more from this Angers the latter, indeed, grows faster at first, but the small area, than from all the rest of their farms. The crop Fontenay afterwards expands and makes a better union fails less frequently than some of the most common farm with the pear. He said he had never found the Avgou- crops--and from the fact that in large portions of the counleme of any value on the pear—which remark was con- try elsewhere good apples could not be raised, he thought firmed by S. H. Ainsworth. * T. G, Yeomans stated that it the market would not be soon overstocked. In answer to is important to have well grown specimens of the Angou- a question, he said the pear was a more certain crop than leme--that first and second size are generally excellent in the apple-indeed it bore cvery year without exception quality, but sinall ones never but only as good to eat as a land by keeping a quantity of trees on hand to replace losse
es by the fire-blight, he does not apprehend much trouble extend downwards but a few inches; but in well drained under good management of this tree,
land, the roots had gone down to the full depth of the W. P. Townsend of Lockport, said he had Baldwin ap- drains. He had never found the feared evil of roots chokple trees ten years planted, that yielded seven barrels of ing the tile. fruit at a crop. Pears had never yielded so great a crop, P. Barry said that the result of his experiments proved but a greater value in market. He would never set out that scarcely any ground could be found that did not need standard pear trees for profit, but always dwarfs. W. B. draining. To would tile-drain all land for orchards-next Sunith of Syracuse, was satisfied that for the first ten years, plow deep;--as deep as practicable, and follow in the fur
from an equal area, more fruit could be raised from pear row with a four-horse subsoil plow. He would not plant • trees than from apples, and alluded to the constantly in trees near the drains, but intermediate between them, and
creasing price of market pears. In answer to a question, then the downward roots would not choke them. He dishe said that pears could be raised for a dollar a bushel, it couraged the use of manure at the time of plantingapples could be
stating that thousands of trees were yearly killed by placII. T. Brooks of Wyoming county, strongly recommen- ing fresh manure vear the roots. The manure will be ded the apple for cultivation by farmers A neighbor had more, useful applied to the surface and worked in, some three Baldwin trees that produced six to eight barels each, years afterwards. During the summer, the best mulching and being very fine, sold them at three dollars per barrel. is to keep the soil constantly mellow, and in winter old He was confident that one acre of good orchard would straw or manure. Working manure into the surface of yield more than any ten acres with grain crops.
heavy or clayey soils, served to keep it loose and moist. S. H. Ainsworth stated one prominent advantage pos- T. G. Yeonians stated that the proper distance for plantsessed by the pear. The trees, if properly cultivated, never ing apple trees in orchards is about 40 feet, especially if failed in a single year of producing good crops; while the the land is rich and deeply plowed. If only two rods apart, apple does not utford a good crop only about one-third of the branches will touch each other. He thought that the the seasons. He was strongly in favor of standard pears extremes should be avoided of low heads and very high -had found the young trees on an average, to bear a ones. Some trees of Baldwin and R. I Greening, if trimbushd of fruit sooner than apple trees set out at the same med six feet high, when heavily loaded would have branches time. And as there might be 160 trees per acre, and the nearly toliching the ground. (Would it not be best in crop more certain, they were rastly more profitable. They pruning, to remove those low branches, and leave such need, of course, good cultivation--but this need not cost only as have a more ascending position.--Eds.] These so much as the yearly cultivation of grain.
sorts he would train to much higher heads than the Northern On the sulvject of the marketing of pears. P. Barty re- Spy, which is very upright in form. P. Barry differed marked that in offering winter pears for sale, more than from his friend Yeonians, and would prefer low heads to triple the price might be obtained by the grower attending trees. The severe winters and hot summers seem to reto the proper ripening, and forwarding them to the dealers quire the protection which low heads afford; and the oba few daya before full maturity. Doubtless when they be-jection that such trees impede cultivation, he answered by come more abundant, houses would be fitted up in the saying that incy aiu no seguint curatione very near the cities where this could be done on a large scale, with great tree when the ground is shaded by them, the roots extendperfection
ing a long distance beyond this limit. Bearing Years of the Peach.
The subject of the mode of digging trees from the nursery
now attracted considerable attention ; and in answer to a 1. G. Yeomans of Walworth, Wayne Co., a very suc question, if it is ever pardonable in nurserymen to muticessful cultivator of the peach, had known but two entire late the roots," a member said he would not like to say it failures of the crop in 30 years, and only two or three par. is unpardonable," but if he did, he would be only telling tial failures. He thought the great and first requisite was the truth—for “ if there is any sin that nurserymen will to have the ground dry. He seldom prunes until they have to answer for in this world and the next, it is the rehave borne a crop. He then takes a saw or pruning shears, morseless mutilation of the roots of trees.” and cuts all the longer branches, which greatly invigorates the rest, and increases the value and quality of the crop. Proper Age for Setting out Young Trecs. Five minutes at each tree is erough. It is done early in The president, (B. Houge,) said he was once a nursery, spring. Cutting off yearly only a portion of the previous man, and when be recommended to purchasers small and summer's growth he has found too troublesome and la- young trees, they thought it was because he was interested borious
in selling them. He had now ceased to be a nurseryman, W. P. Townsend of Lockport, said, along the borders and had planted orchards largely, and was only confirmed of Lake Ontario was the best locality-he had known the in his previous opinion. Ile would greatly prefer an apple thermometer to be six below zero at Lockport, and seven tree only five or six feet high to any larger,—would never above at the lake at the same time.
set out a cherry tree over two years of age, and preferred The President (B. Hodge,) stated that under ordinary a dwarf pear of the same age.' He cited instances where cireumstances, when the thermometer sinks lower than 12° large and small trees were set out side by side some years below zero, the crop is destroyed; but there are excep- since: the latter were now much the finest. Judge Lang. tions, varying with the condition of the tree and the sub- worthy had witnessed the same results. sequent weather. Sometimes the temperature had sunk
The Borer. to 16° or even 18° below zero, and bad left a partial crop. - Several members urged the importance of shortening
0. Chapin of Bloomfield, had been much annoyed by back the branches, not by cutting the yearly growth, but this insect, but had succeeded after losing many trees, in occasionally the larger limbs--not at the center of the tree, clearing. liis orchard, by employing a man to examine his but out nearer the extremities.
trees twice a year, in May or June, and in September.
The second year but few could be found, and one man Preparing Ground for Orchards.
would then go over twenty acres of orchard in a day. He Deep loosening of the earth with the subsoil plow or used a jack-knife and a flexible wire to destroy them by double Michigan was generally recommended. When the punching in the hole. He cleared his peach trees in the subsoil is fertile, the use of the double Michigan, which same way, the knife only being required. throws the bottom of the furrow to the top, was regarded Many other interesting facts were stated during the disbest otherwise the commou subsoil plow is to be prefer- cussions, of which our limits preclude the statement, and red, leaving the subsoil loosened at the bottom, T. G. the Society voted to hold its next or summer meeting at Yeomans considered draining of first importance--much Buffalo. land that is generally regarded as not requiring it, he had found greatly improved. In some cases, it had proved It has been computed that there are eight hundred milprofitable to lay the tile once in every 20 feet. In un- lions in gold and jewels at the bottom of the sea on the drained soil, he had found the small roots of the trees to rout between England and India.
-25019 2007 Lundin 1991 unul 2012 Bolo I Categd er
heriod 9 EB 09 900 biotinho de moi 10 BTU 099ud 99#që 31 an 11001 1o give 3. LEICESTER SHEEP-Late the property of Jurian Winne, Bethlehem, Albany Co., N. Y IS vom bolln.onand T
ed Mr. WINNE has found the Leicester Sheep so well suited shown. The next addition to Mr. Winne's flock was the to feeding purposes, that he has been improving and en- purchase from Patrick, Brodie & Hungerford, of a ram and larging his flock from year to year, and aside from the two ewes bred from their importation of 1856 or 1857, breeding animals, is this winter engaged in fattening over and, lastly, his first choice out of 13 yearling rams bred 500 for the butcher. He began by purchasing the entire by Mr. John Snell of Brampton, C.W. The last named flock of Mr. Suaw of Talbot St., C. W. from which he animal took the first prize at the State Fair last October in selected the best females and put with them a ram obtain this city. His weight at about 17 montlis' old, was 285 lbs. ed from Hungerford, Brodie & Converse, of Jefferson Co. The engraving is executed from a photograph, and repreHis next cross was obtained by means of a ram from the sents the three ewes and a lamb purchased from Mr. flock of Mr. John Stewart, Sr., of Orford, C. W., who has WINNE a few weeks since, by Mr. Edward FRISBIE of been engaged for 17 years as a breeder of Leicesters, and California, where they will doubtless be of good service been quite successful as a prize-taker wherever he has and give ample satisfaction. -TOTT
TTTTT 270 Fitting Soil for Grain+Harrows, &c.
The Large or Peavine Clover. 1. What is the best implement for fitting fall-plowed land for sowing A correspondent of the Country Gentleman, (E. A." in the spring? Our common barrows do not stir up the land deep 120 hat is the practice in fitting land for drilling in the seed, i. e.. tial failure of the grass crop the past season, thus alhrdes
KING, of Cayuga county, N. Y.,) after alluding to the par: wheat, &c. ? Does it require harrowing previously? 3. Is it advisable to roll land sowed with a drill as well as that sown
to this clover: 4. Will the "Shares" barrow fit land which has been plowed in the “ Farmers who seeded with the larger kind of clover, fall as well as the steel tooth cultivator ? C. B. 1). Greenlake, Wis. The best implement for puivering in spring, land plowed able for this variety. It stands an early drouth better than
were exceedingly well paid. The season was very favor. 17 in fall, depends upon the condition of the soil. If stubble
any kind of grass. The smaller kind was ready to cut has been plowed in autumn, leaving a clean surface, the when the larger was green and growing finely. It tlius regang-plow is best, especially if the land is heavy, and has ceived the benefits of the July rains, and got a fine growth. become much hardened by lying unstirred so long. It From a lot of five acres we cut this season 12 tons of as will break up and pulverize the surface three or four inches fine bay as a person could wish for. The lot was what is
termed Lake land, of a clayey soil. If we had sown the down, much more efficiently than Shares' harrow, and more smaller kind instead, we would probably have got about 3 completely than the steel tooth cultivator. But on inverted tons. The greatest objection which farmers have to this sod, the gang-plow or cultivator will be apt to bear up clover, is its aptness to grow too large, and then fall bemuch of the sod, and here Shares' harrow will be far the fore fit to cut. This I think can be remedied by increasbest. This is especially the case if the sod has been ing the quantity of seed; it will then grow thick on the lapped. Shares' harrow never tears up the sod, but so apt to fall. Our stock eat it very readily. To my mind
ground, and will not grow so tall, and therefore will not be presses it down.
If plowed very deep, and the sod laid it would be just the thing to raise for the purpose of plowHat, the gang plow would perhaps do well after the sod ing under.” had settled all winter.
I notice an inquiry about Peavine clover by J. A LawOn heavy or clayey soils, that were plowed in autumn, the German clover. It is sown largely in this county on
I am of opinion that it is the variety known here as the surface has usually become hardened so much by the thin lands, with timothy. It is too large a growth for spring, that Shares' harrow is hardly efficient enough; but on spring-plowed sod, or on lighter soils, it is an ad- and is very hard to mow, but it produces double the quan
our limestone lands, and it grows too long and falls down, mirable pulverizer. On the other hand, there is scarcely tity of hay. Long and rough as it is, it is eaten clean by any soil too hard for the gang-plow, if there are no weeds cattle and horses, and is easily cured, as it is made after or vegetable growth upon he surface.
In order to use the drill to best advantage, the land grain cutting; and for pasture exceeds the smaller variety, should be previously harrowed. It is not necessady to roll as cattle will graze on it when loose, where both kinds are it , unless the soil should be very dry, and it is desired to houses. If any of my brother farmers wish I will attend
sown in the same field. The seed can be had at our warehave a smooth surface,
to having it forwarded to them if application be made soon.
W. H, WOODBURN. Newville, Cumberland Co., Pa. POTATOES AND Ruta BAGAS.-Mr. H, G. Patten, Duquesne Farm, Butler county, Pa., informs the Country Gen. Stock SALES.—We learn that James O. SHELDON, Esq., tleman, that he raised the past season on seven square of White Spring Farm, near Geneva, has recently sold a rods of ground, thirty bushels of potatoes and twelve and fine red and white bull calf, to Mr. FRANKLIN Far, of a half bushels of ruta bagas, the latter being planted where Brocton, Chautauqua Co., said to be a very promising anithe potatoes failed to come up; also, that on one-seventh mal--out of "Christabel," by "The Duke of Gloster," of an acre he raised one hundred and ten bushels rutai (11382,) and we hope it will be of great service to the bagas, some of them weighing four to six pounds each, stock in that section of the State.
CRIB 8% FT.
CRIR 34 FT.
PLAN OF A HOUSE. Eps. Co. Gent.--Enclosed I send you a plan of my house, which I have just completed. You are at liberty to publish the same. The only merits it has, are that it is
Upper Floor. convenient and comfortable, and the plan may be of ser The frame is 20 by 40 feet, with posts 14 feet high, and vice to some of your subscribers who have to build as I there are five bents, making sleepers and joists 10 ft. long. did, by piece meal. The first part, consisting of a parlor, I drive into it from the top of the hill, so that I unload &c., (a story and a half,) was built some years ago, the my corn' on the upper floor, (the floor with the beams ;) kitchen afterwards added, and now the wing, consisting of this makes but little labor to put away the corn, as the bed-room, &c. The up-stairs is divided into two bed-rooms cribe extend the whole length, and from sills to rafters, and and closets. The ground plan will speak for itself. The it is a saving of room, as the space between the cribs on dairy is sunk about two feet, and has a brick floor. The the tower floor gives the three large bins, beside a threshing house is kept warm by three stoves. A. FRANCIS. floor. The bins are filled through trap-doors in the upper di Pasi? 300 W
Hoor. The cribs are made by bolting studs to the joists, Etrian
2:18 and the bins are made by nailing boards to other studs, On thus leaving six or eight inches tween cribs and bins, for i
the circulation of the air and cats, the plank of the upper PIKOT
door being even with the joists, and not fitted to the studs.
a short distance the building looks as if it were clapboarded, the slats being put on horizontally, being first
beveled an inch 'on each edge, and then placed half an T inchi apart,so, eaeb laps the other a half inch. It cost about $400, including painting, &c. Onondaga. Co., N. Y.
10 X 14
KEEP AN ACCOUNT WITH YOUR FARM
Messrs. Ens.--Every evening during the past "workThis is a good and convenient plan—but would be im-ling season," I have " posted up” a record of the labors
of the day, giving my best estimate of their money value proved for most occupants, if the pantry immediately in to each item of work, and to every thing used on the farm. the rear of the hall were removed, and the hall and libra- As each crop was committed to the earth, I gave it an apry, made to occupy the whole, as there are already two oth- propriate heading and transferred to its page in my book, er pantries. This alteration would also allow a longer and the items of labor, seed, manure, &c., belonging thereto, casicr flight of steps; the stairs are now too short and several crops, or brought them so that I can see very near
and since harvest have “closed the account” with the steep. This house has more exterior wall than a more ly their cost and value. I find this a very convenient as square and compact building; but such a form is necessa- well as economical course of procedure. In any other rily the result of repeated additions—which many occu- business it would be a waste of words to argue in its favor, pants find it necessary to make. Such a form is better for men seldom engage in other operations, even of trifling also, for lighting and ventilation.
extent, without keeping an account of outgo and income. Why should not the farmer do so? There is no good rea
son, and the amount of time and thought it requires canPLAN OF A CORN BARN.
not be better employed in furthering the success of the
enterprise in which he has engaged. MESSRS. L. TUCKER & Sox-I have long been a reader of The CULTIVATOR, as I was raised on a farm, and dur- and circumstances, so I will not offer mine, at least as long
No particular system of accounts would suit all minds ing my minority I generally read it as regularly as it came, as I see so many chances of systematizing and improving and many are the useful hints I have gleaned from its pa it. But I would urge every farmer to keep an account ges. In the spring of 1855, I began to work for myself with his farm, so as to be able at the close of the season on this farm, and I have no desire ever to change my res, to "strike the balance,” showing, not by guess-work, but idence. The improvements I make, I intend to use and in pounds and bushels, and dollars and cents, the profit or enjoy-hence I endeavor to erect permanent buildings and loss of the business of the year. One cannot tell how he under drains, notwithstanding the assertions of so many stands with the world, how his plans have resulted, or how that " ditching does not pay.
each crop and animal has repaid the outlay of production, without such account, with any accuracy or detail. He may be losing his labor and money on that to which his
chief attention is devoted, while a good profit is returned
on some minor product, which he thinks of little conse-2 al care
quence. A statement of capital invested, with the ex- !,!
1. เป็น No one who has not pursued this course has any idea of Barnes' Corn-House..
its importance. Now is a favorable time to commence it, I have been building a corn-house, (the plan entirely my and I can assure those who will give farm accounts al own,) and herewith is the plan. If you think favorably of thorough trial, that “the figures ” will furnish them many it, use it as you think best. The only objection I have to a valuable lesson, and give many a hint by which they can it, is its cost, but I think that is more than repaid by con- make or save in after years. They will serve as sharp re-b". venience.
minders of the folly of attempting too mueh, or of leave him It stands on the side of a hill, on a foundation six and a ing the finishing touch undone, and show you from what half feet high, the floor to which is paved, and in this arose the comfortable satisfaction of pocketing the profits rooin, divided into three pens, I fat my hogs,
your well-ordered labors, B, F. * tudi lo saioa 295
FIELD CULTURE OF THE ONION. that made in the barn-vard, where stock is generously fed,
and where the shovel is faithfully used in fining it. Fin. An Ohio correspondent of the Country Gentleman and ing of the manure and pulverization of the soil are essens Cultivator, having asked for a "good article" on the cul. tial prerequisites to the growing of the onion. ture of the onion, we applied to the Ilon. Jonn. W. PROC- So much for the growing. There is more to be said ror of Essex county, Mass., who has kindly furnished us about the harvesting and marketing, which can better be the following, which we think answers our correspondent's done on another occasion. J. W. Proctor. Dec, 22. requirements:
Messrs. Tucker & Son-I am most happy to appropri. RAISING THORNS FROM SEED. ate a part of this memorable day, in answering your inquiries about the culture of the ONION.
I observe in the Co. Gent., an inquiry as to the best You are right in supposing this enlture to be extensive method of raising thorn seedlings. Although the answer. ly carried on in this vicinity. Until within the last three ing is referred to another person, I have concluded to give years, there have been no crops grown that paid so well,
an account of the methods I have used for years past, that and even the last year, there were many acres that came within my observation, that yielded a net product of oue
liave uniformly been successful. bundred dollars and more. This, when it is considered For the Cockspur thorn, Crataegus crus galli, when the that a laboring man, with the aid of liis own family, boys berries or haws are gathered, mix with them twice the and girls, can conveniently take care of five acres aud quantity of sand; put the whole in boxes without top or more, will prove this to be no mean business, although the bottom in the opeu air ; let them remain in that state till odor thereof may not be of the most agreeable character, the succeeding autumn, (about one year;) then riddle the
Success in this culture demands the inost: persevering sand from them, tread or roll the berries, to separate the industry and watchful care. Ng lazy man cu succeed in seeds from the cover which will then be much decayed. it. Any land that will yield a good crop of Indian corn Make a good seed-bed for them, saving two inches of the --say fifty bushels to the acre-can be made to produce top of the bed to cover the seed. Then sow broadcast, onions. There are several points in the culture exisential and cover with the carth kept for the purpose. They will to be regarded
come up the following spring. 1. The soil must be thoroughly prepared. Nothing less I have also succeeded well by crushing the berries imthan the best of garden culture will fit it for growing the mediately when gathered, being careful not to crush the onion. Although the plant matures chiefly on the surface, seeds--then sowing thein as described above, and also still its delicate fibres penetrate to the depth of a foot or with them, other seeds expected to come up a year svoner, more, in search of sustenance and moisture; and therefore and to be taken away. I used generally the Honey Lo. every facility to aid their ready penetration should be af- cust, which grew and were drawn cut the succeedias forved not only aid to penetrate, but vigilance to preserve auiumn, and the spriug following the Thorns came up weil. from larm. Nothing can be more injurious to the growth These methods will do well for the following kinds, viz., of the onion, than the rude fracture of these fibres. English hawthorn and the Dotted thorn, oxyacantha and Hence weeds should have no place on onion grounds. I punctata, but for the Newcastle thorn, C. CORDATA, it is have frequently known a loss of full half the crop by suf- necessary to plant immediately when gathered, (erushed fering them to remain a week too long without eradicating and mixed with sand as above, to separate the secus,) or the weeds. When the injury is once done, it cannot be else to plant very early in the ensuing spring, as the seeds repaired. The delicato sensitiveness of the onion admits come up early the first year, generally so early that it is prono atonement for a wanton injury.
per to provide a place in the fall in proper order to sow A good crop may not be expected withont unremitted them in. vigilance and care. Care from the beginning to the end- With the Scarlet thorn, the Coccinea, I have had little cure in the preparation of the ground-care in the selec. experience of late years; but judge that as the seeds are tion and growing of the seeds--care in depositing-care in less, and not protected by so hard a cover as the Cockspur, eradicating the weeds--care in securing the crop, and care it will be safest to put thein in the ground when gathered. in taking it to the market, under circumstances the most A. W. Corson. Plynouth Meeting, Pa. fuvorable. First and foremost, it is necessary to be vigilant in plant
Farm Accounts-Profit on a Corn Crop. ing the seed early. Those who are up and doing, are sure to find their reward in growing the onion. There are so How soon the Mechanic, the Merchant, the Manufacmany cmbarrassments in the way of their successful turer-in short every business man, would get entangled growth, in this cold and changeable climate, that no fair in interminable difficulties did they not have a system of day after April commences, should be permitted to pass book-keeping by which they could at any time ascertain without something being done on the field for onions, either the true state of their business operations. Now if these in fitting the ground, fining the manure, or in distributing classes are unable to proceed without it, how much more it upon the surface, so that it will not be in the way of the necessary for the Farmer to practice some system of keepeven distribution of the seed. The seed is distributed by ing accounts with a business a good deal more complicated machines, in rows fourteen inches apart, as straight as they than cither; yet how few do it. Ask a mechanic bow can be made, to facilitate the safe movement of the onion much a sleigh, a plow or cultivator has cost, and he can weeder, which passes between the rows so guaged as to cut tell you to a penny, for he has kept an exact account of it, the weeds without disturbing the plants. Whatever weeds which he has to do in order to know how to sell it, and remain uncut, are carefully removed by the fingers of boys make a living by his business. Ask a farmer how much a or girls, who pass on their knees between the rows. No bushel of corn costs him this year, or how much that yearone who is afraid of soiling their knees or their fingers, ling or colt has cost to raise it, and he will say, “Oh, I need engage in the culture of the onion. Nothing short ask so much for it; don't know how much it has cost me,” of a close embrace will command the sympathy or affec- and so it is with everything. Not one farmer in ten knows tion of this plant.
the cost of anything he produces. To this simple act of I have spoken of thorough manuring, and rarely have I negligence may be traced the cause of two-thirds the frilknown a crop to be injured by a too free application of ures in farming, for if the farmers knew the cost of promanure. Ordinarily, six, eighi or ten cords of good, well ducing every article, they would then know what crops fined manure, is applied annually to each acre, and such paid the best on each one's particular farm, and they application I have known successively for twenty years. could reject all those that were no profit to them. Sono Unlike most other crops, the onion continues to grow well farms are most produetive for one kind of grain and somo after itself for many years in succession. I know no limit for another, but we do not know which these kinds are in this respect.
without some method of ascertaining the cost of each, Any good manure is good for onins. None better than But, says one, it takes too much time. All a mistake, my