« AnteriorContinuar »
late as Christmas, and again in spring until perhaps the for his own use and that of other farmers in the vicinity. 10th or 15th of May. Early, in June the land was plowed In calling at the works, not just then in operation, I found I and scarified, and then began the folding, 1,600 sheep be the kind of which most were made, to be pipe tile of 13 Ling confined by hurdles in a space just large enough to ac- inch calibre, sold for from $3 to $3.75 per 1,000, though
commodate them without too much crowding, and the hur- latterly as a general thing, at the lower figure-a price too dles being shifted from day to day until the whole surface small I think he said, to admit of any profit to the maker. should be thus treated. I find my notes deficient in not | These pipe appeared to be in more general use than tile of giving the size of the enclosure required for this number any other shape, so far as my observation went, but Yr. of sheep, but it appeared sraller than I was prepared to C. also made horse-shợe tile, for which his price was n anticipate; nor am I quite certain whether any feed was $6.25 per 1,000 for the size two inches in the clear, and
given them to be eaten during the night--where the latter they are generally laid, he told me, upon a flat bottom lile, s is the case, it is my impression that about two square in lieu of the board which has here been most frequently
yards of space are allowed per head. Stephens says that employed for a bottom with us, when one is required -p,the dressing thus given by 300 sheep.is 4 week for one acre of land, and is worth £
3ucient in a the price at which these are sold being $3.75 per 1,000.
Dur- They are of the same length as the horse-shoe tile, and in sing the day, as already intimated, the sheep are at large laying are made to break joints with them. Collars, also, upon the unenclosed gorse-lands.
are sometiines thought necessary with the pipe-simply a Along the side of the field in question, there ran an portion of a pipe one size larger
, cut to the
length of sevembankment of considerable breadth and height, together eral inches, and fitting around each joint. More than once with the natural accompaniment of a ditch to promote the I heard it advocated, however, that the continuity of the was to break
the force of the wind over the surface of the with them; in the former case the whole length of the ground, for the soil is so light as to suffer much from this tile resting upon the ground, while in the latter the length cause anless somo such precaution were taken. Arthur of the collar alone is apt to be actually supported, Young states that these drifting sands formed an exten
Here they were also making what are called "pan-tile” sive part of Norfolk, as well as bordering the Suffolk
coast, for roofing-and, expressing some curiosity as to the probefore the introduction of turnip culture, and if I am not mistaken, the embankments here are of quite early erec- tile, be it known, is of oblong shape, about 14 inches in
cess, a workman was called in to show it to me. The pantion. A favorite plow in use in this neighborhood, has its beam side curling down, so that the ends when laid have the ap
length by nine in width, with one side curling up and one erected at one end, even more than the handles are at the other, so that the two form very nearly a right angle. The pearance represented in the anaccompanying vignette taken froin the cover of Ran nexed figure. The clay is flatsomes & Sims Catalogue, will serve to give an idea of its tened out and shaped by hand upon a board of the right appearance, although there represented in rather neater forms, A man can make about 360 a day, and they sell for style than those one meets withi at work. The draught is say $1.87 per 100. The under side has one or two little proby a chain which will be seen attached to the beam just jections, and, in roofing, these catch upon slats far enough forward of the coulter, and in its shortness the affair re- apart to support the upper ends of each tier of tile, the minds one more of our implements, while it is in striking No close boarding of the roof is necessary; the tile are lajd
lower ends lapping perhaps four inches upon the tier below. contrast with the long, lithe, low-lying furrow-makers with mortar as a security against leakage, and these slats or which one finds further on in the same pamphlet this picture is taken from, and which I found occupying all the laths, tacked horizontally across the roof timbers, are their sheds at the English show-yards. It much resembles what for the gutters and to invert over the ridge. I have spo
Hollow tile of different shapes are made Loudon calls the Norfolk. wheel-plow, to which, although ken so much in detail, because tile is the almost universal “clumsy in appearance from the great bulk of its wheels work with neatness in light friable soils,” and of requiring I was discussing the subject, what we mean by “ shingles," and their carriage,” he accords the credit of doing its roofing material one every where meets abroad. I really
had some difficulty to explain to a gentleman with whom "only a small power of draught.".
After a tour among the stock with a farmer from anoth- and I realized low some of the simplest things in the world er county, whose dialect was quite marked—his pronunci- may not be very easily expressed in words on an imprompation of the word “bull,” for example, being precisely in tu trial. Pan-tile are made of different sizes, I should rhyme with the adjective dull,” but who was evidentlya add, and what are called "plain tile,” or perfectly flat paman of solidity and consequence whicre he lived—we set out rallelograms of burned clay, are also used, the latter profor a drive of several hours, meeting, just as we were on to answer the purpose of the projections upon the others,
vided with holes through which wooden pegs are driven, the start, I remember, an errand-sent farm boy, bestriding one of those rare animals with us, which are in England and in keeping them in place. Scotland, as well as upon the Continent, so common and so
Then we came to the “ Chillesford" farm, containing serviceable for odd jobs on the farm, and for villagers who another thousand acres, of which 400 are arable, 130 in cannot reach so high in the scale of aniinal labor as the horse marsh pastures, and the remainder in sheep walks. Among -I refer of course to that long-eared emblem of persis- the stock upon it were 450 breeding ewes with their lambs, tency and wisdom popularly kilown as the donkey.' A cap- 80 rams and four or five stallions, besides the horses cmital ass, it is stated, can be bought from $3.75 to $5, “in ployed in working it. IIere there are generally from forty the prime of his age," while a horse of much value costs to fifty bullocks fattened in winter, with the view mostly at least twenty times as mucli; "go long as there is a of their valuable services as manure-makers, and varying hedge-row overgrown with briers and thistles, so long as in number with the amount of straw produced for conthere is waste land furnishing a few tufts of rank and bit- sumption. The cattle kept here were the Suffolk polled ter glass rejected of other cattle, so long will the ass stick stock, several of which I mentioned as prize-takers at the to his work, thrive, and cost you nothing."* Treated al Ipswich Show. A brief call at a third establishment, that most uniformly with more or less cruelty and ingratitude, of “Gedgrave Hall,” concluded our rounds. it is capable of carrying proportionately a heavier burden Among other notes jotted down during this visit, I find than the horse. Mules, which especially at the south are several rather disconnected items. A mixture of two common enough with us, do not seem often bred in Eng- bushels vetches to one of rye is sown for the horses in land, and all the asses I saw were stunted little things in early spring, being ready to cut or graze in April. The comparison with some of the fine jacks our breeders have fields in Suffolk are almost universally plowed in lands or
imported for mule-raising, so that I do not think much at- "stetches," sometimes of 16 furrows width, or twice as intention is paid either to their production or improvement. wide as the drill and horse hoe are long--sometimes of 85 %. My host, among his other operations, manufactures tiles only an equal width with the length of these implements. ** H. D. RICHARDSON.
On some of the more luxuriant soils the wheat is "bla
Ildaia los 901 riu LES 12.11g Su: 170,00 locoitoub
L. H. T.
ded," as I think the operation is called; we saw field of The wages which laborers receive range from nine to 28 acres, which the sheep had fed quite bare in May, and twelve shillings per week--say from $2.25 to $3-but I just before it caine into head the men went through it think a good many operations here, as elsewheré, are paid cutting off the tops as a precaution against its being laid. for by the job. It was now promising a fine yield. After the sheep bad It was while we were undergoing on this side the water, had an early bite in this field, it was horse-hoed between our annual relapse of patriotism-while our church bells the drills and 12 lbs. white clover seed sown per acre; were ringing, processions moring, and gunpowder proving after which, if I am not mistaken, the sheep again grazed itself most vociferous of revolutionary reminiscences, that it over. After harvest the stubble would be grazed, and the interesting observations were made which I have been as late in the succeeding spring as May 20, or June 1, endeavoring to record above-greatly I fear to the loss of when the clover would be permitted to come on for a crop the freshmess and connectedness they possessed when of seed. Great care is taken to keep the low lands clean. gathered. And not until I had bid good-bye to the kind Gangs of children are engaged as weeders and for similar hospitalities of my friend, and seated myself in the evetasks--so much per acre being customarily paid for their ning London train, had it occurred to me, how that this labor to the man who superintends it—who, of course,
“Fourth of July” was rapidly passing by without salute makes as much as he can out of the job, by employing his or celebration, and, worst of all, in actual intercourse of own children or agreeing with the parents of others in the the most amicable kind, with one of those “Britishers," neighborhood to secure the services of theirs.
whom 'some charitable travellers have represented 118 as Of the “Butley Abbey" farm alone, about 300 acres hating so vehemently. are drained at an average cost of $25 per acre. Mr. C. has two steam engines for threshing, &c.—one a seven, Great Timothy Hay Crop--Pasturing Meadows. and the other an eight horse power. The "marshes which I have referred, are protected from the sea water
- Gould, as certified at the Washington (0.) by an embankment, with the usual system of drainage Co. Fair, raised the past year eight thousand, five hundred gates which let off the water when the tide is out, but and forty pounds of Timothy hay on a single acre-cutting when it rises shut by their own action to prevent its ad. the amount at once mowing. The aftermath, on the mission upon the ground. This dike extends more than twenty miles, and the marshes are very productive of first of October, was estimated equal to three-fourths of a wheat, as well as the best of grass lands.
ton. Mr. Rathbone, of Marietta, who communicates the With the Suffolk Swine, many in the United States are above to the Ohio Farmer, is of the opinion that "the already somewhat familiar. The stock of the Messrs. secret of this great crop lies in the fact, that Mr. Gould STICKNEY and others in the vicinity of Boston, obtained never pastures his meadows. The aftermath protects the directly from Mr. Crisp, has been quite widely disseminated stools throughout the winter, and the grass gets an early through the country. It is classed as a “small breed," start in spring. In case of a drouth the aftermath serves althongh it is difficult to say what standard of size justifies as a mulch, and under any circumstances makes a good the application of the name to some of those I saw at manure. Meadows that are never pastured, will last much Butley Abbey. Mr. C. was quite an exhibitor at the Royal longer than the pastured, besides giving a larger yield.” Society's show this year, having received the second prize It may be questioned whether pasturing meadows is as of $25 for a boar, the first being awarded to one of objectionable as Mr. R. believes, but no one can doubt Prince Albert's celebrated breed, and having taken also that Timothy meadows are injured and often ruined by both the first and third prizes in the class of sows. He close pasturing. The well known fact that this grass las has two distinct families of them, one of blacks, and the a bulbous root, generally lying just above the surface of other of whites—the latter of which alone have been im- the ground, which is often broken or eaten by grazing ported; he seemed, however, to be of the opinion that the animals, would suggest a caution to farmers against pasblack was the better summer pig” of the two-better turing Timothy meadows or depending on Timothy for able to stand the heat, while the white is the more com- pasturage to any great extent. But there are some evils mon, and equally good for cold weather.
attendant on a heavy growth of aftermath allowed to reSuffolk is a county of nearly 800,000 acres, in something main on the ground, as all farmers know. like crescent form. Like the other eastern counties, it Probably the above crop of Timothy hay is the largest feels less the influence of the Atlantic in tempering the ever taken from an acre at a single cutting. The Ohio climate and rendering it moist, and the winds of the north- State Ag. Society awarded recently its highest premium east in spring are spoken of as pretty sharp. The soil for six tons and 1209 lbs. of hay grown on two acres.along the coast is mostly sandy, and there are some sands Three tons is as great a crop as often produced—and the and fens in the northwest, but the central parts are of average hay crop of the country is usually not far from one strong loam, with a substratum of clayey marl or occasional-ton per acre. That it might easily be doubled, we verily ly of chalk. Draining was considerably in vogue at quite believe; and there is no item of farming which more an carly day, constructed with bushes or straw; claying needs or would better repay attention, than the grass crop. and marling the sands was practiced, adds Loudon, “but sand laid on clay found of no use, or marl on clay, accord
KING PHILIP CORN. ing to the old adage"Marle clay, throw all away;
The King Philip corn I suppose is named after Philip Marle sand, and buy land."
the celebrated King of the Narragansett Indians, who The same writer refers to the practice of folding as “uni- caused large quantities of corn to be raised and stored, versal ;" he also compliments the plowmen of the county preparatory to his great struggle with the colonies, and enas particularly skillful.
joined all the tribes of Indians that were in league with him While writing out these notes, foreign journals bring to to do likewise, thus providing the sinews of war; for corn, band a lecture lately delivered (Dec. 1) by Mr. ROBERT not money, was the sinews of war then. The kind of corn, Bond of Ipswich, in which that gentleman-who is the ac- or one of the kinds of corn he planted, was a rather complished Secretary of the Suffolk Agricultural Asso- large, white, eight-rowed variety, something like the smutciation," states a fact illustrative both of the progress of ty white, but larger. English Agriculture, and of the length of time which some The farm of one of my neighbors was purchased by his of the English records cover,--that in the year 1387, 66 ancestors of King Philip's father, when Philip was a boy. acres of wheat upon the Manor Farm of Hawstead in that Corn was growing on the farm at the time of purchase, county, produced 69 quarters of grain, and 26 acres of and it must have been ptanted by Philip or his father, or barley 52 quarters, 2 bushels-that is, the wheat at the by their direction. The same kind of corn is planted to a rate of less than 84 bushels per acre, and the barley at considerable extent in this vicinity now. On that farm the the rate of about 16 bushels. The present average pro- seed corn has never been changed. duction of wheat, on the other hand, is 28 bush. per acre. Plymouth Co., Mass.
CULTURE OF GROWING WHEAT. the 3d up the 25th of November, during which time we have
bad several hard rains; and I have examined the outlets to A writer in the Mark Lane Express argues that "of all all of the underdrains, which, without a single exception, are erops wheat is most in need of tillage during its growth ; passing off large quantities of water. From a close observathe climate requiring it to be sown in autumn, that it were quite as important to the growing crop during the
tion during the summer, I am satisfied that the underdrains may get a sufficient start in spring to give time for filling drouth, from May to September, as they were in carrying off and ripening the ear, there are many months. longer than the surplus water in the spring; and I am equally certain are taken by any other crop, in which the efficiency of the that the increase of erop, resulting from draining is all of 20
bushols per acre, which would leave the account stand thus : preparatory tillage may be lost, the fine particles of soil Six hundred and eighty-five rods open ditch, at sixty-five cts. coalescing again, and excluding the atmospheric supplies per rod, 8445.25. One thousand five hundred rods of underof nutriment; so that long before the crop has reached drain cost $65. Use of ditcher, wear and tear, $25.75. En
tire cost, $536. Cr. by twenty bushels of corn on two hundmaturity, or come to that critical period of the setting of red and thirty acres, gives four thousand six hundred bushels, the bloom and swelling of the kernel, (when the plants at 25 cents, $1,150 ; showing a profit of $626 in favor of the need "good keeping," or will fail in fecundity,) the land mole plow in a single year.” is almost as solid and impervious as it was before the seed
In regard to other experiments which have proved
failures, it is remarked: bed preparation began." Culture is only practicable under the drill system, and proper use, not procuring sufficient outlet, running the ditches
"The mole plow has been condemned from the fact of imthe shallow tillage generally given in England under that too shallow, and failing to reach the clay sub-soil with the system is found profitable, but the writer above quoted, mole. I have no faith in the use of the implement without a would have deeper and more thorough culture, like that ture made by the mole will cave, and fill up."
clay sub-soil for the mole to operate in. Otherwise the aperpracticed under the Lois Weedon system of wheat growing, which is there found to go far to maintain the fertility Strawberries Mulberries and Grapevines. of a naturally good soil without manure, as recently no
Eps. Cult. AND CO. GENT.--I am intending to set out ticed in another place.
quite a quantity of the Wilson's Albany and Hooker's
strawberry plants next spring, and have thought of adopUnderdraining with the Mole-Plow. ting the mode of culture of alternate strips. I wish to in
quire if these two varieties do well when cultivated in this We find in a recent Ohio Farmer an account by J. M. way? Hovey's Seedling does not, for a very large part of Trimble of Highland, of quite an extensive experiment in the young plants formed in the preceding autumn will not underdraining prairie land by the use of open drains, and bear any fruit. How is it with the Albany and Hooker ditches cut with Emmerson's Mole Plow. Thinking it will in this respect ? (1.) be of interest to our readers, we condense the main por- Mulberry. Is it a fine fruit worthy of general cultivation,
I also wish to inquire as to the merits of Downing's tions thereof below.
hardy and productive ? Are not birds fond of mulberries The year's operations were confined to 230 acres of as well as cherries? (2.) prairie land on the west bank of Rattlesnake creek. Mr. T. Can you inform me how grapevines are grown from sinfirst laid out with an engineer's level 685 rods of open ditch, gle eyes in the open air? Also how to raise extra sized at 80 rods apart, varying in depth from 4 to 6 feet, and in layers for immediate bearing ? (3.)
Is the method of propagating the Blackberry described width from 6 to 8 feet, allowing for slope of banks 14 feet, in the December nnmber of the Cultivator, equally good to one foot in hight, which was let by contract at 65 cents for the raspberry ? (4.) SUBSCRIBER. per rod, and finished in October, 1858. The underdrains 1. We have found the preceding year's plants of the were cut in March, April and May; first laid off with the Wilson and Hooker, but more especially the Wilson, to level, but more with the view of tapping the wettest por- produce well the next spring, but not so abundantly as tions of land between the open ditches, than a regard to their second year. When they do not the first year, thin straight lines, or thorough underdraining. In this way, them out, and they will make amends the second year. with the ditcher, two yoke of cattle and two men, in six- 2. We have found Downing's mulberry hardy, but canteen days we put in 1,500 rods of underdrain, at a depth not speak personally of its merits as a fruit, nor of the of three feet four inches, and a cost of $65.
fondness of birds for it, The account states that "at the time of running the 3. Grapes from eyes are usually grown in propagating mole plow, the surface of the ground was covered with houses or hot-beds, and not in the open air. Grafting is water, from one to six inches deep. The surface soil to the best for immediate bearing. the depth of from one to two and a half feet, is a black 4. Both the raspberry and blackberry are thus propagaclay, or loam, rather a compact, tenacious soil; the sub- ted, but the raspberry does best in a propagating house, soil is a close, compact, yellow clay, to the depth of from with a little bottom heat. three to five feet.” The sod was then broken up, or turn
Green Corn Pudding and Succotash. ed over, from six to eight inches deep, harrowed (200 acres of it,) and then planted to corn, finishing the 200 acres on
Will you or some of your subscribers, inform me how to the 23d of May. On the memorable fourth of June it make corn pudding of groen corn or roasting ears-also how to
make succotash. H.G. P. Butler Co., Pa. was up from 6 to 16 inches high, but on the morning of
Grate the green corn from 24 ears—to this add 1 quart of the 5th, all lay flat with the ground. It was then plowed milk and 3 eggs, 1 tablespoonful of sugar, half a teaspoonful up and replanted, and the product under these circum- of salt. Now, this must be varied according to the age of tho stances was 60 bushels per acre. The 30 acres planted corn ; if the corn is old add more milk or take less corn. Bako last, on the sod and without culture of any kind, produced in pie dishes, till of a proper custard consistency. 40 bushels per acre. In relation to the working and suc
Succotash is of two kinds-green and dried corn. For the
first, boil the beans first, as they need more cooking, then cess of the experiment, Mr. Trimble remarks:
shave the green corn off the cob, and boil it with the benns. "The underdrains all performed their work well up to the then season to taste with butter or cream.
With dry corn, middle of July, when they began to fail, and by the first of the corn must be soaked until it is thoroughly swelled out August were perfectly dry. I have been on the farm from tender, and then treated as the other.
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) find their way to the new home. This plan is a very good one CULTURE OF THE ONION.
for clearing box honey of bees.
Another plan is to invert the hive-set another one directly Ens. Co. GENTLEMAN-There is in the “Co. Gent." an on top of it, adjusting it in such a manner that the bees caninquiry for “a good article on the Culture of the Onion.” not escape without getting into the new hive. Then breathe The answer comes in an article by J. W. Proctor of Essex, tobacco smoke into the bottom of the old one, gently Mass., but as the onion is very largely cultivated in this the hive at the same time-a few moments will suffice for
the bees to clear the old hive. Care must be taken not to vicinity, many farmers raising from two to twelve acres, apply the furre too strongly, or it will make them so torpid and as our mode of cultivation may differ somewhat from and stupid that they will not stir, resisting all efforts to disthat of Mr. P., I have concluded to write you a short arti- lodge them. I think this is the reason why many fail in dri'cle on the subject.
ving them from boxes with tobacco smoke- they are rendered 1. The ground selected for onions should be the best on stupid before they are aware of what ails them. Bees natuthe farm, as free from stones as possible; and it should be rally have a strong antipathy to tobacco smoke, and will made very rich by the application in large quantities of always get out of the way if a chance is given them. the best manure to be had. We have lately practiced Still another method I heard spoken of the other day. It plowing in our manure in the fall, and then in the spring does not differ materialiy from the first howover. It is this we harrow thoroughly, and give a top-dressing of some Cover the fuce, &o, to prevent stinging-then place a rope bought manure-guano, bone-dust, or whatever
we prefer: wish to expel the bees-sot it off the plank-place another
of good length around the top of the hive from which you In this way we can sow our seed from one to two weeks instead and then carefully place the one containing the bees earlier than if plowed in the spring, and experience shows on your back, holding it to its place by the rope. Then take this to be very important. Whether plowed in spring or a stroll out in the lots- a few turns will suffice to dislodge not, the ground must be well harrowed-every stone or them. I should not prefer the last method for several reaany other obstruction picked carefully off, and then made sons not worth mentioning, very smooth and level with a hand rake. Extra care in My father keeps about 40 or 50 swarms of bees. The hive the preparation of the ground is amply repaid in the after which he uses - got up by himself five or six years ago-is cultivation,
very well liked by those who have seen it, and used by a
good many. It is different from any description that I have 2. When the ground is ready, we sow our seed, using a
ever seen. Perhaps it would suit the ideas of some of your small machine which sows two rows at a time as fast as a readers, and I will give a short description of it. The proporman can walk. This machine is made near here, and I tions of the hive are as follows: Height two feet-one foot have never seen it in the agricultural stores. To the onion square clear inside-space in top for box 9 inches high-leagrower it is invaluable. The seed after being deposited in ving 14 inches space below the box and partition board for the drills, is covered by pushing a common hoe along the the bees to form comb in. Door in front, 20 inches, is put on row, very lightly and carefully. The covering is some- 4 inches from the bottom. If put any nearer than that, the times done by å board attached to the machine, but I do bees when hanging out, are apt to get on it, thus hindering not think in as perfect a manner.
the opening of the door. Ventilator in the back of the hive
near the top. An auger hole is made through the partition If the weather is favorable, the plants will be up in buard for the purpose of letting the bees into the boxos. A about three weeks, and then the labor of cultivation begins. glass 9 by 12, is placed in the lower part in front, for the parOur rows are twelve inches apart, and we use, for the space pose of examining into the wellfare of the bees. He always between the rows, very narrow hoes, about nine inches planes and paints thom. wide, and so narrow that the earth will run freely over The dress he has for the purpose of hiving the bees, is made without moving along in front. There have been two ma- of coarse book muslin or musqueto netting, or anything which chines contrived during the past year for hoeing onions, will admit of a free circulation of air, and will prevent the and they promise to save a vast deal of labor. The weed bees from getting near his face. It should not be so close as ing is done by hand, the boys passing over the row on their to obstruct the sight It is made something in the shape of a
shirt, with sleeves, and reaches down well in the waist. The knees, and taking out the weeds with a small hoe an inch upper part is entire, with the exception of a hole of three or or two wide. These tools are best made from a thin saw four inches in diameter. It is drawn on over a hat, the crown plate, and should be kept bright. They are very bandy of the hat protruding outside. The briin of the bat keops it about the garden. The weeding should be continued until clear from the face. This, with the addition of a pair of gloves the crop is fit to pull, as the injury done by going through which come well up the wrist, when they are well tied on, the onions when large, is not half as great as that caused make a rig which costs but little, and one which any person, by the weeds going to seed for next year. When ripe, when they have them on, need have no fear of bees. the onions are pulled and left on the ground to cure. They rery little pains is taken to house them, however--are gen
There are quite a number of bees kept in this section ; but should be thoroughly dried, and then, if stored in a cool, erally left out without any protection whatever during the dry place, they will keep without much trouble the whole winter. In the spring the colony comes out very much weakwinter.
ened. This I think is one cause of so many failures, together The average crop with us is about 500 bushels per acre, with carlessness in spring when they are hatching. There but 800 are often grown. And the average price is $1.50 are exceptions to this rule however, some taking excellent per barrel, from which it is easy to see that with a good care of them. Still bee-keeping here as an art is in its inmarket, and thorough cultivation, the crop can be made fancy. very profitable. Edw. J. Taylor. Southport, Conn.
Bees situated a mile from the lake, which is 24 miles wide,
often cross it for the purpose of getting honey. E. A. King. (For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.)
Cayuga Co., N. Y.
RENSSELAER Co. Ag Society.—The annual meeting of In the Country Gentleman of Jan. 5, I noticed the inquiry of winter crops, and for the election of officers for the en
this Society was held on the 17th inst., for the exhibition another. "He asks if it is possible? It is, and very easily suing year. done. The simplest mode which I am acquainted with, is to The Society resolved to purchase six acres of land lying take the old hive a short distance from its usual place, and between Troy and Lansingburgh, at $300 per acre, for the put an empty one instead. Having protected your hands and permanent use of the Society, and to make a sale of its face in such a manner that they will not be able to sting you, present property in Lansingburgh. then jar the hive-the bees will fly out, dart back to where
The Hon. George Vail of Troy, was elected Presidentthe hive used to stand, enter the new one, and soon become the retiring presiding officer, L. Chandler Ball, Esq., doiniciled in their new abode. This operation I thirk is delivered an eloquent address, for a report of which, and sometimes very beneficial, especially when
the comb has be- of the proceedings of the Society, we are indebted to the ting the old swarm. When they have about all evacuated the " Troy Times.” Since the last meeting two of the earliest old hive, it can be carried into a dark room or cellar, being friends and most efficient officers of the Society bave died; careful to have a small hole through which a little light can B. B. Kirtland of Greenbush, and Joseph Hastings of penetrate--the remaining bees will fly to this, and thence Brunswick.
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) of my neighbors bought 2,000 plants of one year's growth OSAGE ORANGE FOR HEDGES. at a cost of $10 per 1,000. These plants, after being as
sorted, were set out in a line of about 100 rods, and careEns. Co. GENT.-The question naturally arises, with fully cultivated and trimmed for three years. Sinee then what shall we fence our fields a century or even a half it has been cut down but once, leaving the main body and century hence? When we look over the map of North limbs about five feet high. Now it stands full ten feet America, we find that a considerable portion of this vast high, and has been a perfect barrier to all quadrapeds territory is comparatively destitute of timber. From the since the third year after setting out. Others in this western line of the State of Indiana to the eastern slope of neighborhood soon followed, but had to send some 200 the Rocky Mountains, a distance of some twelve hundred miles to get the plants. Traveling agents were employed miles east and west, and south from Kentucky, including to scour the country and contract at prices from $6 to $8 Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Mlinois, and a part of per 1000, delivered, with full directions for setting, triniWisconsin, timber in this vast region is greatly in want. ming, &c. Some furnished plants, prepared the ground, The eastern States once were heavily timbered, but the set out and cultivated for four years, and then by prestately oak, with his vast list of associate neighbors, are, vious contract received 80 cents per rod. Some of the to a great extent, gone ; so much so that many of the best hedges in our county are those as last described.-inhabitants are now for parposes of economy, and to save Now thousands of miles of very excellent fence are the small remnant of timber left, compelled to use coal stretched over our western lands. for fuel from the mines of Pennsylvania. The question is, what shall we do for materials to guard our crops from
As the seeds were all procured from Texas, a trade of our domestic animals? In many locations in the eastern considerable importance sprung up. Now the seeds can States, a supply of stone is at hand. With stone laid in be bad at from $12 to $16 per bushel anywhere. No wall a good fence is made; but in the vast northwest we those who are acquainted with them, tan readily detect
doubt there were many worthless' seeds sold, but now, have neither timber nor stone.
It was believed by some in this region that a fence the spurious or defective. We know farge nurseries, could be made of a ridge of earth well sodded, by care who sell at from $1.50 to $2 per 1000. I understand that
some growing from 100,000 to many millions annually, fully cutting up the prairie sod into squares as large as a Messrs. Overman & Mann, near Bloomington, in this man could list, then throwing up the dirt and making a ditch about two and a half feet wide and two feet deep, State, the last year planted over 100 acres with sced. I then over the embankment placing the sod. These fences have not tried to raise the plants from the seeds but once, were of short continuance as the sods seldom compacted and then met an entire failure. The safest way, I conta and grow. The heavy beating rains and frosts of winter sider, is to buy the plants of the nearest nursery, enrefully soon made gaps in them, and after a year or two became assort them into three classes—the best and largest set unsightly and useless, affording a fine place for cattle to out together, and also the second size by themselves, and cut their pranks in, making the dust fly with their horns. the third class should be used for the stove. Thousands of miles of this sod fence have been made on After the plants are procured from the nursery and as our open prairies, but now seldom a trace of them can be sorted, with a spade make a trench some ten inches deep found.
—make a grout of loose dirt and cow dung, thin enough The heaviest and best trees of our timber have been to well cover all the roots—then place them in the trcuch felled, worked up into rails or used in building, and are and cover about two or three inches above the top of the now nearly extinct. For the last few years, as the west roots, care being taken to have all the roots well bedded has rapidly increased in population, posts and boards have in dirt. After the buds are well open, and the leaves bebeen mostly used for fencing. The new settler could not gin to appear, transplant. The ground should have been wait to raise a hedge—his crops must be protected, and plowed in the fall about eight feet wide, by leaving thd as posts and boards were the most ready material, they last furrow in the center at least a foot deep. In the were chiefly used. When the pines of the north are gone, spring commence in the center and throw the dirt all back, and the supply of timber from that source fails, I again leaving a fine mellow bed to receive the plants. It will ask, with what shall we fence our farms? Nature has do to prepare the ground in the spring. By either time, furnished us with a sure and reliable material, viz. : the be sure to have a finely pulverized soil to receive the Osage Orange or Maclura shrub.
plants. Draw a line, no matter how long, and fasten it Some fifteen years ago, Prof. Turner, of Jacksonville, to its place by driving hooked stakes over it; then with in this state, and a few others, procured seeds of the Ma- a spade, which is thrust at least ten inches deep, place clura from Texas; planted them, and tried the experiment the plants which have again been grouted and assorted, in hedge growing. Their labors were crowned with suc- after being taken out of the sprouting bed and put in their cess. Soon there was a great demand for seed, prices places. A man with his spade, and a boy to put in the ranging from $20 to $30 per bushel. The seeds were sown plants, can set half a mile in a day. While setting, the in nurseries, and at one year's growth, packed and sent to spadesman tramps the dirt carefully, but not too tightly, purchasers many miles distant at $10 per thousand. To about the roots. The plants should be set about two encourage the growth and to induce people to try the inches below the place where they grew in the nursery, hedge, the State Ag. Society offered liberal premiums for and about six inches apart in the row. All the yellow hedges at different ages of growth. The County Socie- part of the root should be out of sight. ties also rewarded the owners with suitable premiums for If there are low moist places over which the hedge is best hedges. We do not say that all who tried the plants to pass, raise the dirt some two or three feet high and succeeded. There are men who have the best of stone at keep the two ditches cleaned out that the water may have hand, who cannot or do not lay them into a handsome and a free chance to run off. If a low place is to be crossed, compact wall. Neither do we find a good substantial rail where water is liable to stand, bring the hedge raised on fence made, even where the rails are of the best kind, or the embankment to the center of the low ground, then cut a good post and board fence made even out of good ma- a deep ditch, sufficiently deep to carry off all the water, terials. Some ment wont do their work well; they will or under drain, which is better. At the opening in the make a balk or a botch of anything they undertake—so ditch set two or more posts and board up. It is very with hedge growing—they will not do it right even if a necessary that this care be observed in crossing low ground, good pattern is on their first neighbor's farm. In growing as the roots of the Maclura run almost straight down and an orchard, how many fail? We cannot, therefore, ex- very deep-and they will no more thrive in a wet subsoil pect that all who attempt it will succeed.' To meet with than an apple tree will. As a general thing, we, in this success, as in everything else, the work must be done well. region, have been too anxious to have a long unbroken
As I have had some experience in hedge growing, I line of hedge by setting plants without proper care over will give it to your re:ders, hoping that I may induce the low places, but to our sorrow have many gaps more others to try, for the question is still before us, “with wide and hedges more defective, by neglecting to give the what will we fence our fields ?" Twelve years ago, one roots the advantage of a dry foothold.