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[For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) though they might demand more than the ordinary rate of WILSON'S SEEDLING STRAWBERRY. wages. There are Yankees enough to be had on the Con
necticut River on similar terms. This is a variety that is fully worthy of the high com- gines that he can grow tobacco successfully or profitably,
Any person who ima. mendations it has received, and it is decidedly the most from written or printed directions, has only to make one prolific of any variety I ever cultivated, and the number trial of it to be convinced of his error. It is an art only somewhat exceed 40. It succeeds well upon almost any to be acquired under the instructions of a master. Boil, and bears abundantly. I have seen accounts of large Northern tobacco is grown principally for segar wrapyields from this variety, but last season I had the curiosity ping, for which its thin leaf is especially adapted. Calcato determine how much could be raised. I measured one reous soils produce the finest qualities. The crop of bed, 16 feet by 17 feet, and measured the berries, and ob- 1858 raised in Cayuga and Onondaga counties, mostly the tained 31 bushels, which would be at the rate of $60 bushels latter, was estimated at 4,400 cases of 400 pounds each, per acre. The plants were set 2 feet by 1 foot, and allow and at 10 cents per pound was worth soinething like ed to cover the ground, and the above is the result. The $175,000. The last was an unfavorable season, and I bed has now to be turned under and manured and re-set. have no definite information as to the quantity produced I have found this method to be the least trouble, but the or its value. V. W. S. Syracuse, Jan. 25, 1860. beds require to be renewed every third year. The old plants usually exhaust themselves, and require the thrifty
Cost and Profit of Hens. runners to renew with.
WILLIAM NEWCOMB. Rensselaer Co., N. Y.
MESSRS. Tucker & Son--Having been a subscriber for
the COUNTRY GENTLEMAN for some time, I have been some(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) what interested in the various articles from your correspon. TOBACCO CULTURE.
dents, tending to develop the best methods of productive in
dustry, as well as being enlightened by perusing them. If Messrs. L. TUCKER & Son-I notice that inquiries are my experience with poultry will add anything to the common occasionally made through the medium of your columns, stock of knowledge on that subject, I give you the result of for information in regard to the cultivation of tobacco. my experience from Jan. 1, 1859, to Dec 31, 1859. As I Having had soine experience with this crop, I venture to
was but a povice (when I commenced "the science of hen. supply you with a few remarks which its consideration sug and nature, I have been obliged to learn everything in rela
ology," some two years since) as to their habits, proper food gests.
tion to that subjoct by experience. I commenced the year There is no hand-book on the subject. No person with 58 hens and two roosters, Black Spanish breed with a should think of raising tobacco to any extent unless he cross of about 1-18th of Game and Leghorn. I give you the knows all about it, or has in bis employ some one who quantity of eggs for every four weeks, from January 1, 1859, does, that he can depend on. Every part of the process, to December 31, 1859, as follows: from the time you undertake to prepare the gronnd for Four weeks to Jan. 28. your seed plants, in March or April, till it has undergone its last manipulation in the winter following, requires close
April 22, attention, a nice judgment, and a thorough acquaintance with the business. I should recommend to any person
Dec, 30 and 31, determined to engage in the cultivation of tobacco, but
Total in one year,.... 8,013 without experience himself, to procure the services of some
or, 667 doz, and 9 eggs. one else who has, to raise one or two crops for him. He Egen have averaged in our market over 25cts. per doz.. should hire his labor from a tobacco district, the valley of My family have consumed about 30 fowls, at 37%.c. .... the Connecticut River for instance, for one or two sea- My stock now is 73—increase of stock 13, at 37%..... sons, after which he might attempt its management without such assistance. It is a good way to adopt the Con-Themen kept an accurate account of the cost of food, necticut River plan-that is, for the owner of land to fur
have charged it a $1.00 per bushel. The whole cost nish the ground, properly fitted with the sheds for curing the crop, and let it upon shares or for a money rent, to
I carry to the account of Profit and Loss, Cr. side,... $83.32 another," to perform the labor. This is done to a great came in late. I have had but few eggs from my young
About a dozen of my old hens have died. My chickens extent at the east. The proprietors of river bottom, es
average of pecially along the Connecticut, provide land, manure: 50, which would give an average of about 160 eggs to each
my laying hens would not exceed housing, &c., for which a rent of fifty dollars, and I think hen. B. Newark, N. J. one hundred per acre, are paid. The crops thus produced will sometimes amount to $300 per acre. The tobacco
Barley Meal and Shorts for Cows. raised in this county has occasionally sold for that sum. The cultivation of tobacco has been carried on in Onon- MESSRS. EDITORS--I wish to know the relative value of daga county for ten or fifteen years, having been first in barley meal and shorts for feeding cows giving milk, which troduced from the Connecticut. It is now grown mostly would make the best feed, say three quarts of barley meal in small parcels, many of the farmers in some of the or four quarts of barley meal and shorts, equal portions of towns planting from half an acre to two acres, which they each, daily? I wish to feed about that quantity in addition can take care of without its interfering with their main to hay and roots. The milk is used for butter making-barbusiness, and with no special outlay for shed-room. To- dollar a bundred, consisting of the coarse and fine bran, with
ley is worth about sixty-three cents a bushel, and shorts ono bacco is an uncertain crop as to price, and if grown to the out that portion termed ship stuff. I hare usually fed a mixextent of five or ten acres, requires a considerable prelim- ture of the above, but have some doubts about the utility of inary expenditure for curing sheds. It is doubtful wheth- feeding shorts to make rich milk. My mode of feeding is to er its cultivation at the north is permanently beneficial. add scalding water sufficient to make a thin slop, and feed it Ten acres would consume all the manure which could be when cold. I prefer this way to feeding it on cut straw or hay. produced on a large farm with the ordinary amount I should also like tu know the value of brewer's grains as a of stock. But when extraordinary facilities are enjoyed feed for cows-it can be obtained here for eighteen cents a for obtaining manure, nothing pays better. A gentleman
bushel-will it pay at that, and is it suitable feed for cows in this city furnished ground and manure from a distillery, giving milk? By giving the desired information through the
Co. Gent. you will grently oblige
J. L. R. for 15 or 20 acres, last year, which was worked on shares, and the same parties are making preparations to plant 35
We know of no definite experiments to determine these points acres in the spring. A distiller in the western part of the who have given these materials for food a thorough trial.
-ror do we know the prevailing opinions of intelligent formers county has raised even more. But this can only be done Barley meal makes a rich feeding-at its present low price, where manure can be obtained in abundance. I presume it is thought by some to be the most profitable food for cattle. that men could be hired who have worked in the tobacco We have used it ground with corn in the cob, and find it exfields of this county, capable of taking charge of a crop, I cellent.
of food has been,.....
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.)
ject, and think how their horses, or milch cows, or fancy ON FEEDING CATTLE AND SHEEP.
cattle, if they have any, would do with such treatment, I A Young Farmer, p. 60, Co. Gent., asks me to give him know there would soon be a great improvement in stock information about buying and fattening stock. It is al- generally, and in nothing more than in the Merino sheep. most impossible to do this on paper. °It is one of those Where you find a farmer who has purchased a few Leicesthings that has to be learned by experience, and I have ters or South Downs at a high price, those he feeds well, often advised beginners to commence on a small scale, and and he gets well paid for it, and 'I am convinced that feel their way cautiously . One great error in many, is Merinos would pay liiin better if he would give them the
same feed.'' JOIN JOHNSTON. that they get alarmed for fear they are going to lose by
Near Geneva, Jan. 31. the operation, and sell their cattle before they are half fat,
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) which almost never pays. For instance, if you feed 100
USE OF SPARRED FLOOR STABLES. days, they will generally gain more the last 35 days than in the first 65. Others again, when they think they are MESSRS. TUCKER & Son-I am not accustomed to write not making fat fast enough, (as all men unaccustomed to for the public eye, but I notice you ask for the views and feed will,) are apt to feed too much meal. Cattle that experience of your readers on the use of sparred floors. have been kept on poor fare, cannot stand much meal the I keep from sixteen to twenty cowg on sparred floors. first two months. I can put on more fat on such cattle They suffer no inconvenience. I use no bedding except with three or four quarts of corn.meal or its equivalent in in the coldest weather. I have a cellar under the stable, other feed daily, with right good hay, than with double eight feet deep, into which the manure drops. Not havthe quantity of meal. Take three or four year old steers ing muck, I use earth from headlands to mix in to absorb of good quality, and an average of four quarts of meal the urine. We draw the earth and put it in a pile conwith good hay for 100 days, and they will make prime venient to the stable, any time when it is most convenient. beef with me. In 1100 days, aged oxen will require much In my stable are two rows of cows, heads from each more meal, but I never made any thing by fattening oxen other, ticd in stalls six feet wide, and two in a stall. 'I unless bought very low. You get no growth on them have a double door, wide enough to drive a horse and only the fat you put on.
wagon with dirt into the stable. The barn stands on a Farmers that intend fattening cattle, should always buy side-hill
. The manure is easily removed, as we back the those of good size of their age. It takes no more to fat cart up to it, under the barn. When the cellar is empty a steer that weighs 1,400 lbs., live weight, than it does to we cover the bottom of it a foot or so with earth, and then fat one weighing 900 or 1,000 lbs., and the largest will al- earth is added from the pile or field as suits our conways gain the most with equal feed, if they are of the venience, from time to time, at the rate of from eight to same age. Then when fat, the largest are worth more per twelve loads per week. pound to the butcher; so there is a profit every way in In this way I get a large pile of excellent manure. It fattening cattle of a good size according to their age.
is not very hard work, for we drive a horse and wagon Then again I have seen men undertake fattening cattle, with the dirt into the stable, and if the dirt is fine, we and think they must be stabled all the time, and only let throw it on to the floor, and it passes down readily with out to get dripk. I think it is very far wrong; for many the manure, just where it is wanted—if not fine, we throw years I have only stabled them while they eat their meal, it down the scuttles. feeding their hay in open yards in boxes. They have the
Perhaps I ought to say that my cows run in the pasture liberty of large sheds to go out and in as they choose, with during summer, and are stable nights, and fed a little both sheds and yards thoroughly littered with straw, and
green fodder when the pastures are short. in this way my cattle are always as clean as they are in
Some may think it hard to get dirt from a pile out-doors summer when in the fields. Cattle won't lay down in dirt in winter. But I find by practice it works well. Last if they can get a clean place. I only, or at least seldom, tall I made a pile 12 ft. by 30 ft., 8 ft. high-the outside buy sheep or cattle oftener than once a year, unless I sell froze a foot thick or more. When we wanted dirt we in February, and buy half fat ones to finish off before May. took our picks and made a hole of sufficient width to back
I have given my mode of fattening sheep so often that in the one-horse wagon. After getting what dirt is wantI think a Young Farmer” must have read it. One thing ed for the time, the entrance is closed with straw, and I will tell him, that it takes no more feed to fat a lot of the frozen earth forms both walls and roof. When we sheep averaging 140 or 150 lbs. than it does the want more earth, remove the straw, back in the wagon or same number averaging only 85 or 90 lbs.; therefore it sleigh, and it comes easy. In case of a long thaw the roof is far more profit to feed heavy sheep than light ones. I
may need some support. The center of the pile is conhave heard men I thought of great knowledge, say that siderably the highest; this allows the water to pass off every animal eat according to their size but man, and for free, and perhaps adds strength to the roof. a long time I believed it; but when I came to feed steers
Chicopee, Mass. meal in stalls, some weighing 1,000 lbs., some 1,500 lbs., and found the largest putting on the most fat and gaining LARGE YIELD OF CARROTS. most in weight, which they always do, I found those mens' theories would not stand the test when tried by practice. A correspondent of the New England Farmer, writing
I look upon experience as being of vast importance from South Danvers, says "Mr. B. H., one of the most to the farmer, and farmers can if they choose, make many successful cultivators in this town, informed me that he experiments at little cost, even if they don't succeed; but had gathered six tons of as handsome carrots as he ever I would not advise a ". Young Farmer,” or any one else, to saw, from thirty-seven square rods of ground. This would go into fattening stock largely for market, especially in be about one ton to six square rods, or about twenty-seven winter; but I would advise every one to feed their regu- tons to an acre," &c. lar stock much better than is generally done throughout Although this is a heavy crop, it will not compare with Western New-York. I know inen who keep, say 25 head some crops of the same vegetable grown here. For inof store cattle, that don't pay any profit, and another will stance, in the fall of 1858, Mr. Wm. H. Starr, proprietor keep 5 or 6 that will sell for more than the other 25 or 30, of the East New London Nurseries, gathered from eight and make a good profit; and the same way with sheep square rods of ground, seventy-five bushels of splendid An iminense improvement can be made on the Merino carrots, of the long orange variety, being at the rate of sheep; if only thoroughly kept the year round, they can 1500 bushels, or forty-five tons to the acre; and the prebe made to weigh from 130 to 150 lbs, and more when fat, sent season, (1859,) he gathered from five square rods, and at a great profit-more so I think than any other kind orty bushels of the short horn variety, being at the rate of sheep or cattle either. But farmers in general think of 1,280 bushels, or more than thirty-eight tons to the any feed may do for shecp-fallows, woods, stubble-fields, acre; and this on land not better than an average of this and even the highways, and in fact the latter is often their entire field. Can any of your correspondents inform us of best pasture. Now if men would only reason on the sub- la larger yield from ordinary cultivation ? H. E. c.
M. S. K.
they would shrink and swell by dryness or wetness, and soon Ynquiries and Answers.
decay. On very hard smooth earth, water linne might be
used, without building a wall, if it were possible to have a CUTTING FODDER.-How short should fodder be cut for stone wall foundation above it. Frost soon cracks water-lime; milch cows and young cattle? The machines in use here out and to have it for the lower portion, and common stone wall
in lengths varying from three-fourths of an inob to three for the exposed part, would be entirely incompatible with inches. Which is the proper length, and why? Cheshire solidity.] Co., N. H. (When bay and straw only are to be out, for the STRYCH SINE FOR Rats.- I noticed in the Cultivator, that purpose of mixing them together, (as well as for having short some of your correspondents advise the use of strychnine to manure,) an inch or two in length will answer, and some ani- destroy rats. Do you think that the use of it would be safe mals even like them better than if shorter. But for corn in a barn where the rats have access to the hay-mow, cornstalks--which are doubled at least in value by eutting pro- stalks, and rutabaga cellar? A SUBSCRIBER. (If the pure perly,--the length should not be grenter than about the fourth or concentrated strychnine is used, it will probably finish of an inch, and such a machine should be driven by horse- speedily every rat which partakes of it before he has had power. If the length is greater than this, many hard, woody time to scatter much. It is well, however, to use caution, lumps will not be eaten. The nearer that the stalks are re that nothing voided by them is mixed with the roots or grain duced to the state of a powder or fine chaff, the more freely before it is fed out. The danger is small.] they will be enten, and tho better they will be digested. If cattle will not eat them well at first, a little meal intermixed, readers inform me of the value of good hay compared to corn
HAY AND CORN FOR FEEDING.-Can you or any of your and some salt or brine sprinkled thinly over, will render them as feed for wintering cattle and sheep--which is the cheapest palatable.)
to purchase, hay at $12 per ton, or corn at $1 per bushel ? c. UNDERDRAINING.+Much of our land in this country is what CB. St. Albans Bay, Feb. 2d, '60. [Authorities as well as we term a cold clay soil. It generally produces grass very experiments vary considerably as to the relative value. Difwell, but is too wet for anything else, except in suinter after ference in the quality of the hay no doubt has partly produced it is too late to put in a crop. It is in many places wet on the this variation, as well as the condition of the corn and the side of a hill, the water not seeming to come from any one peculiar character of the animals. But the average places channel, but to issue from the ground as much in one place as hay as little more than one-half the value of corn, of equal another, rendering sometimes several acres in a place unfit weights; say 50 lbs. of corn equal to 100 lbs. of bost bay, for the plow, and if we make a ditch it will be as wet within would make 20 bushels of conui equal to a ton of hay, The ten feet of it as it was before. Now what I wish to know is hay is therefore much the cheapest. A little corn, however, whether such land can be profitably underdrained, and how well ground, and given daily in connection with the hay, may K.C. Deerfield, Va. [We have met with similar land, and be profitable, as mixed food is found best.) have underdrained it profitably. We would recominend
Cobs for Food.–Will you give us your opinion as to the parallel drains, three feet deep, and two rods apart, the short value of the corn-cob ground with the corn ; it is a general est way down hill. These will be likely to tap all the subter- practice here to grind them together, and has been mine until ranean puddles and springs, and carry their contents speedi- latterly, when I have come to the conclusion that they (tho ly off; but if any wet spot remains afterwards, a side ditch cobs) are only fit for fuel; and now I shell all my corn giving will tap it. A single ditch may fail to accomplish the object; one quart a day to my calves, two quarts to heifers, and three but a series of parallel ditches scarcely ever fails. We should have no fear whatever. Tile is best and cheapest, but stone try to find the information, but cannot ; and there is such a
to my cows. I have been looking over your back volumes to will do ; and if the quantity of water is small and the descent diversity of opinion here, that I thought I would like to have steep, brush will do.
yours, which I have always supposed first authority in all Paint ror Barns.-Can you inform me through your such matters. A. W. Parsons." (Analysis shows that cobs columns what is the cheapest and most durable paint or wash contain some nutriment, but the amount is quite small. The for old buildings. I have on my farm two barns that have question whether to use them, should be answered somewhat been built 15 or 20 years. They are in a good state of pre- according to circumstances. When ground, after cracking, by servation, and only lack a coat of paint to look well; but as a common grist mill, many hard lumps remain unpulverized, they have been exposed to the weather so long, it will take a and these are hurtful to horses, but may be of no detriment large quantity of oil to paint them. If you or any of the to cattle. If ground in this way, the meal should therefore readers of the Country Gentleman can give me any informa- be sifted, if for horses. We find, however, that the new farmtion or a ivice how to paint them woll and cheaply, you will mills, like Joice's Star Mill, Scott'e, or Young America, if in much oblige A. SUBSCRIBER. (We think a coat or two of good running order, will tear the cob into such minute fraggood whitewash first given to these old exposed surfaces, will ments as to obviate this objection. But when these facilities serve to fill the pores of the wood, which would otherwise ab- are not at hand, but little loss will be sustained if the cobs are sorb a great deal of oil. In the coure of a year, when the entirely rejected, and only used for kindling-wood.] lime has lost all its caustic quality, and will no longer make
KEEPING FRUIT.- Would it not be well to give on one soap of the oil, the paint may be applied. Whitewash alone, sheet, the results of experience in keeping different kinds of if repeated biennially, would be very useful }
fruit-little details wanting, result in an entire failure. I COBBLE-Stone Floors.—Have you or any of your corres- have just opened a box of grapes put up with layers of cotton, pondents used cobble-stone for stable floor, and are they as and not one fit to eat. J. H. (We intend, on a future ocgood or better than plank? A SUBSCRIBER. (We have seen casion, to furnish some facts on the subject; and in the meancobble-stone, laid as a pavement, for the floors of cattle sta- time would be glad to secure the results of experiments from bles. They must be solidly as well as evenly laid ; solidly, those who have been uniformly successful, as well as those or the stones will work loose, or the pavement become uneven ; who have failed. The mode of packing should, however, be and evenly, or they will be unpleasant to the cattle and hard given at the same time, as well as condition of the fruit, chorto clean. They require a free use of litter to make them com- acter of the treatment, &c. Our correspondent may have failfortable. They are of course, very durable, if well laid. As ed because his grapes were not well grown and well ripened, it has been found injurious to horses to keep them in a base- indispensable requisites; or from a dainp apartment, too warm ment stable, cobble-stone cannot be well used for them. The a temperature, or all these combined. Unless grapes are practice of filling in the interstices and coating the surface thoroughly cultivated and freely pruned, they never ripen with water-lime mortar will answer only in such places as are well enough to keep long. free from frost, which soon cracks and spoils wet hydraulic Shanes' HARROW.- Would you advise a man to purchase mortar.
Shares' coulter harrow, as a useful farm implement? My ARTIFICIAL STONE Cellar WALLS.- Can some of your land is a stiff clay. I have not a cent to spare or speculate correspondents inform me how to make artificial stone, and on, yet I am willing to do anything vill assist in thorwill a house built of it stand the frost well; and how will it oughly refining and pulverizing the soil, as I think that in itanswer in building cellar wall, where stone is scarce, to lay self is equal to half manuring, and if so, please say what may in blocks of wood instead of stone? How will it do to plaster be the cost, when dropped at the Chatham station, C W. (We on tho bare earth, a part of the way, instead of building a think our correspondent will run little risk of loss by purchawall from the bottom of a cellar clear up to the floor of the sing Shares' harrow, if he has a farm of average size or over. house ? A. B. [The first question we must leave for such of For pulverizing the surface of newly inverted sod, either for our correspondents as have tried artificial stone. Blocks of planting corn or other crops, we know of nothing that will wood will not answer instead of stone, except when set in the compare with it
, as it cuts up and mellows the surface more wall merely to drive wooden pins in, or to nail to-in which than twice as deep as the common harrow, and does not and case they should be in the dryest places. Near the earth, I cannot tear up the sod. It is also said to be excellent for
covering sown grain, but on this point we cannot speak from entering through a door in the outside wall. There is no our own experience. The only disadvantage we have found, communication between the stalls, each animal entering her is that the teeth are not quite strong enough for the rough owa stall through this outer door. I wish a floor that can be would obvinte. We find the timber work heavy enough. The is intended principally for cows, though
sanalge noen en rett
urine. It cost is $15 at Albany, and a dollar or two would be charged stalls for bulls and steers. Please tell me how I can arrange to carry it to Chatham station, C. W.]
it to drain the urine into the manure heap or some better Milk Weeds.-Can you tell me how to destroy this pest place, without too much cost. I wish, also, the floor of the of the lawn and meadow? I have an annual crop in a Inwo, whole building rat proof if possible. RW. H. Moorewhich it is not desirable to plow and cultivate for two or three field, Ky. [The best floor, perhaps, is made of hard-burnt years, if it can be avoided ; yet I find that the plant rather brick set on end. If well laid, this foor is smooth, easily enjoys being pulled up twice in a season. How shall I kill cleaned, and will last indefinitely. Nently laid paving stone it? E. [To destroy any weod, like the milk-weed, which do well, but need more litter to make a soft bed. Some good extends beneath the surface by creeping stems or roots, it farmers prefer bard beaten earth for the floor on which the must not be allowed to breathe. Cat every plant as far before feet stand, on which the animals may kneel on lying low the surface as possible, the first moment the tip of its stalk down and rising, and to be well covered with straw to make appears, by means of a chisel set on the end of a spade handle it comfortable. The hinder portion is to be paved with brick, -unless the soil is so loose as to allow pulling to bring up a stone or with thiek solid flagging. A gutter may be made longer portion. Watch constantly for a few months, and keep behind the stalls to onrry off liquids, but the bottom should them all below ground, and they will die. But if the care is be fiat; and wide enough to receive a square shovel for cleaintermitted they will soon renew themselves, and the war may ning it daily. This gutter is best made of flagging, or of be interminable.]
wood; but unless the wood is of some durable sort, it will LAYING OUT DRAINS.-J. T. H. has sent us a plan of his soon decay.] grounds, for directions how to lay out ditches for draining it. Kidney Bran. Will you inform me through the Co. Gent., There are two important points of information not given, if the Kidney Bean is a pole bean or not, and where can they which are requisite to enable us to furnish these directions. be had for seed. E. J. P. Orleans, Co, N. Y. (The name The first is the size or dimensions of the land, that we may Kidney Bean includes all the varieties of the Phascolus vulknow the number and distance of the drains. The second is garis, or copion garden bean, including both tbe bush and the degree of descent or slope -- the number of feet of fall in runniug varieties. The seed may be had at all the principal a hundred, both of the swamps and upland, as nearly as can seed stores. The Vicia Faba, or English garden or horse be determined by a common leveling instrument. He wishos bean, is totally distinct, and of no value in this country.) his inquiries answered in the Cultivator for February--but,
GRAPES ror VERMONT.--- Please ir form mo which are the as is often the case, the inquiry came after that number had best sorts of hardy grnpes for Vermont-sny half dozen sorts. gone to press.
S. DILLINGĦAN. [Delaware, Diana, Hartford Prolific, NorthSALT FOR CATTLE.-Can you inform me if some salt is not cru Muscadine, Concord, Rebeccn.] indispensable to the health of cattle, given with their food ? W B (It is the common opinion that a portion of salt with ted with a hopper, so that the enrs can be poured in promiscu
CORN SNELLERS.-- Do you know of a corn-sheller constructheir food contributes to the health and thrift of animals..ously and will feed itself? J. RANDALL." [All common cornBut the experiment can never be tried, whether they would shellers, sorked by hand, receive the ears one by one, on do well entirely deprived of it,-for all vegetables have more or less of it. For example, a ton of barley straw contains which the ears are emptied by the bushel, and which can be
end-but there is a large one driven by horse power, into 4 lbs. of salt; a ton of green white clover, 2 lbs.; a ton of had at most agricultural warehouses.) carrots, 4 lbs., and a ton of beets 15 16s., according to chemical annlysis. How much more ought to be added to this portion, Mr. Langstroth's book, does not, we presume, give any one the
LANGSTROTN's Bee-Hive.-P. P. P. The purchase of for the best health of animals, we cannot tell.) CHINESE SUGAR CANE FOR CATTLE.---What are the
right to use his patented hive. What the charge for the right ties of the Chinese sugar cane as a substitute for hay, to be to use it is, we are not informed. fed to horses, and would you recommend it in preference to
The KICKING Colt.-In answer to your correspondent who common millet; and if so, how shoull it be given, what its asks for the best method to break a colt of kicking while beculture and process of saving? M. (We have never used ing cleaned, I would say, according to my experience, the the Chinese sugar cane to any extent, for horse feed. We most easy and effectual way is to bend one of the forelegs have no doubt it would answer well in winter, provided it and slip a loop over it, so that he cannot get it down--after could be cut very short by a horse-power cutter, say not the Rarey plan. While in that position is will be impossible longer than a sixth of an inch. This would remove that hard for the colt to kiek, and he will at once submit to be cleaned. woody character which the stalks possess when kept till win. Also, if a colt is reluctant--as is often the case—to have his ter. We have found cows to eat it well when cut somewhat hind legs handled, or his crupper adjusted, this mode of treatlonger; and in autumn, before it becomes dry, it is eaten in inent will be found effectual" This method may also be apthe stalks by them with grea: avidity. We should, however, plied with success to kicking cows. S. Fayelleville, N. Y. prefer cutting it for horses, even at this time of the year. To
URINE AS MANURE.--Will you please tell me how to best raise the gugar cane, it should be grown in drills three feet use the urine of, say about 300 workmen, on a farm I own of apart, by plowing furrows at this distance, strewing the seed about 50 acres? If used as a top-dressing, how much must along at the rate of thirty to a foot, and covering with a har: it be diluted? If it will interest you or your readers, I will row, run lengthwise. Cultivate it two or three times--it will give you the method I employ to obtain so much urine. A not require hooing. The product will be several times greater REGULAR READER AND SUBSCRIBER. (If used as a liquid than that of meadow. Put it in large shocks, where, as it is manure, it should, while fresh, bo diluted with at least its stiff and tall, it will keep well till wanted.
own bulk of water, for two reasons ; first, that it may not LIMING Land.-I should like to be referred to some work prove injurious by being too concentrated ; and secondly, the containing the best treatise as to the quantity, time and mode water retains a large portion of ammonia and prevents its of application of lime as a fertilizer; and whether it is best escape during the fermentation of a few weeks, which should applied in the caustic or slaked condition. A. W. McDon- alwnys take place before it is applied. If intended for comALD, Jr. Our correspondent will find good practical direc- post, many substances may be used for absorbing it and give tions in Stephens' Book of the Farm, for the English practice, ing it a solid form, such as dry peat, dry loam or turf, suwand in Allen's American Farn Book, for American practice dust, straw, coal ashes, and charcoal. If any of these subHe will also find much on the subject in Browne's Field Book stances are moist, they will absorb but little, and retain less. of manures, a good compilation on the subject of manures The amount mentioned would probably be a suficient appligenerally ]
cation for ten to twenty acres, if preserved and used in the To BUTTER-MAKERS.-Can some one of your numerous best manner. Please send us the method alluded to ] readers inform me through the Cultivator, the best way to
FARM RECORD.--In the first No. of the present vol. of the keep butter in rolls during the hot summer months. L.
"Co Gent.," I see a notice of a blank book, (* The CompreFloors For CATTLE STALLS.-Will you do me the favor hensive Farm Record,'') gotten up by Dr. F. B. Hough of to inform mo as to the best mode of constructing floors in Albany, which was expected to be issued about this timo. cattle stalls. My stable is to be 62 feet long, and 30 feet wide, How will we find out the price, &c? D. S. Pennsville, Pa. with a passage of 6 feet running the length of the house for [The book will, we presume, he advertised in this paper, with the convenience of feeding. The s'alls are arranged on each price, &c., as soon as ready, wbich will, we understand, be side, the animals standing with their heads to thu center and learly in March.)
[For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.] at night, for foddering in the morning-cattle are early SOILING CATTLE.
risers, and want their breakfast as soon as up, and should Editors OF THE COUNTRY GENTLEMAN-I am always done the first thing in the morning, and should be re
not be compelled to wait for it. Foddering should be glad to see this subjeet discussed in the agricultural peated two or three times, so that by eight o'clock, they papers, for I think it of great importance to a large num- have had all they require. They may now be turned into ber of the farming community. And as I have kept my the yard until noon; when they should again be stabled, stock under this system, for the last four years, with your and fed sufficient to fill themselves ; so also again at night. permission, will give the result of my experience and my A full supply of pure water, is of course, necessary; method of doing it. If what I shall say, will throw any Regularity as to the time of foddering, is important, and liglt upon the subject, or benefit any one, I shall feel re- should be varied from as little as possible. It is better to feed warded for the effort.
n the stable-the labor is more easily performed, and then I have a farm of fifty acres, all tillable land, except about each one gets his share—the weak are not molested by the three-fourths of an acre around my barn rather tony strong. The trouble of tying up is very little, and the this is fenced off for my stock to run in, during the sum amount of manure saved, is very considerable. I am par
In this lot there is an unfailing spring of water, ticular to keep my cattle well bedded with straw, and this, sufficient for fifty head of cattle, at all seasons of the year, with a little carding, keeps them perfectly clean. Every díy stock is small-have usually kept six cows, two year- two or three days, a boy with a wheelbarrow and shovel
, lings, and raised two calves yearly, but intend to increase passes over the yard and gathers up all the droppings, and the number of cows. I also have a span of horses they deposits them on the manure heap, thus saving all or are kept on cut hay and meal, until spring's work is done, nearly all of the manure. and then put upon the green dieta,
In the fall, after my crops are all secured, I give my The crops raised for soiling purposes, are rye,, corn, cattle the run of the farm, except a few acres around the sorghum, millet (have raised three varieties, think the house. They are fed with a little corn or millet in the Hungarian best,) and clover--though last season clover was cutirely killed out , and I was compelled to use Timo- morning, and again at night; by feeding them a little
night and morning, they are not as hungry when turned thy and red-top. My stock kept well on this—clover, out, and I think do not feod the meadows as close during however, is preferable, as it yields a larger amount of the fall; consequently injure them less. I stable them feed, and may be cut two or three times during the season. nights the year round, and always milk in the stable--not Corn, I consider the best of the other crops named, but one of my cows was ever milked out of doors--think it for the sake of variety, would raise them all.
the best plan, as they are then all quiet, and in rainy The mode I pursue is this: In the fall I bow about an weather all is snug and dry; they are carded every day, acre of rye, pretty thick—then in the spring, as soon as the weather and ground will permit, I put in a piece of except in the busy part of the year; much might
in favor of this practice. corn, sorglium and millet, and at intervals of about two weeks, put in more of the same, until about the middle from the little experience I have had in soiling cattle,
And now, Messrs. Editors, in conclusion let me say, that of July. In this way I secure a succession, and a variety. I am decidediy in favor of the system-especially for milch of fresh, succulent feed—just the thing for making milk cows and should like to have said a few words in regard and butter. I also raise roots to some extent, and think to some of its advantages ; but as I have already occupied them valuable to feed in the spring to milch cows. The too much space in your valuable paper, will forbear: sugar beet and carrots succeed best with me; turnips are Light is needed upon this subject, and I hope those who generally a failure, from the ravages of the fly. Pumpkins have had experience in the matter, will “ let their light are excellent to feed in the fall, to keep up the flow of shine," through the columns of the Country Geñtleman. milk,
Jefferson Co., N. Y. In pursuing this system, it is necessary to fodder a little later in the spring, as neither rye or grass are sufficiently
Butter from Six Cows. large to cut, as early as pastures will do to turn into. I fecd hay and roots, with a little meal or shorts, until the
Messrs. Ens.--I would like to give you a statement of our rye, sown in the fall, is about a foot high-then commence butter-making the past year, (from Jan. Ist to Deo. 31st, feeding from it-moderately at first, so as not to make the 1859,) not that I have the vanity to believe that it cannot be change from dry to green food, too rapid, and increase beat, but chiefly as the result of soiling. My cows, six in num.the quantity, as it increases in size, and the cattle become ber, are the native breed, medium size, and their ages as folaccustomed to it. In a few days, clover will do to cut-lows:-1 two, 1 three, 1 four, 2 six, and 1 ten years old; all when it is from four to six inches high, if it stands pretty raised by myself. They were dry froin six weeks to two thick-and is fed in addition to the rye. I continue to months previous to calving. feed hay until well into June. Cattle will eat a little hay
During the winter they were fed once a day on cut straw, once or twice a day, and relish it, when kept on green wet, with two quarts of barley meal and shorts mixed with it. feed, whether soiled or pastured. By the time the rye is I also fed forty bushels of roots to the six cows and three yeardisposed of, cloter has attained sufficient size to furnishings during the winter. The balance of their food was good all the feed required. As soon as the other crops are bay, and all they would eat. In the summer they were kept
on green corn, sorghum, millet and grass, cut and fed to them large enough, I feed from them once a das-changing in the stable. The oldest cow proved not to be with calf, and from one to the other, often--cattle like a change of diet in the fall I fatted her-she was not milked after the 28th of -making clover the principle feed as long as it continues Sept. On the 6th of Dec. a heifer, 20 months and 25 days old, fresh and good. The other crops are to furnish a variety, dropped her call, (too young by 4 months,) and I hare esti. and to meet any contingency that may arise from drouth, mated the two (tho heifer and the cow fatted) as occupying or otherwise, and for fall feeding.
ten months of the year-- or say five cows for one year, and one The next thing in order, is the cutting of the feed and cow for ten months, One quart of milk was daily kept by itcare of the stock. Clover should be cut when freshs--in self for ordinary family use ; when more was wanted it was
used. the early part of the day, or just before night. Morning
Now for the butter. We have made thirteen hundred and is the best time, but not until after the dew is off; for if seventy-two pounds and five ounces, or a fraction less than cut and handled when wet, it is not as well eaten by cattle, 2354 pounds to the cow. The butter was disposed of weekly and I think is not as good for them. My way is to cut in at 25 cents a pound, except that used in our own famıly. the morning, suflicieut to last until the next morning, and Walertown, N. Y.
J. L. R. draw it in immediately, so that it shall wilt as little as possible, and place it in a long narrow pile in front of the Wheat Crop or ORLEANS Co.--The annual report of manger-it is then convenient for feeding out, and will this county Ag. Society, states the last wheat crop as an keep fresh until used up. Saturdays, I cut in the morn- excellent one, and remarks" one reason for the large ing, and again at night--the last cutting to be fed the yield was, the wheat was sown on the best soils, well prenext day. It is important that suflicient feed be provided pared and tended, and sown earlier than heretofore.”
J. L. R.