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CHAPTER XXXV.

SHAFTING AND BELTING FOR TRANSMISSION OF POWER.

In a majority of cases, and from various causes, the operation of machinery by direct connection to the engine shaft is inadvisable. The engine requires to be exactly proportioned to the speed and duties of the one machine, which unfits it for any other duties. Therefore, the use of shafting to transmit power is unavoidable, and as it is a factor in deciding on the form of motor to be employed, it is here dealt with.

Heavy Shafting.—A very common error, and one that causes much waste of power, is the use of shafting that is unnecessarily heavy. It will probably astonish a great many mechanics to tell them it will require twice as much power to revolve a 4-inch shaft a given number of times per minute as it will a 2-inch shaft, even though the shaft be hollow and weigh no more than the 2-inch shaft. And it will probably surprise them still more to tell them that in the transmission of power a 4-inch shaft is eight times as strong as a 2-inch. It is true, nevertheless, all other things being equal.

The means of ascertaining the proper strength of an iron shaft is the following formula :

The diameter should =

V

The force applied in pounds x the length of lever or crank applying it in inches

1,700

In the case of a wheel applying the power, the length of the lever is obviously the half diameter of the wheel.

In the case of a mild-steel shaft, the diameter may be reduced, safely, ten per cent. DIAMETER OF IRON SHAFTING PROPER FOR TRANSMITTING VARIOUS

POWERS.

EFFECTIVE HORSE-POWER REQUIRED TO BE TRANSMITTED.

Revolutions per Minute.

| 40 | 50

| 90

100

5.80 4.61

1 3.66

3.85

100

4.02 5.06 | 6.38 | 6.87 | 7.31 7.69
3.21 4.02

5.06 | 5.46 5.8 6.11
2.8 3.53 4.02 4.43 4.77 5.06 5.35
2.57 3.17 3.66

4.02

4.34 4.61 4.85
2.851 2.96 3.39 3.73 4.02 4.27 4.5
2.22 2.8 3.21 3.53 3.80 4.02 4.23
2.15 2.67 3.04 3.36 3.61 3.82 4.02
2.04
| 2.57

2.92 3.21 3.45
2. 2.46 2.80 3.07 3.33 3.53 3.71
1.86
2.69

3.17 3.39 3.56
2.22 2.57 2.8 3.03 3.21
1.64 2.08 2.35 2.62 2.80 2.96 3.14
1.58 | 2. 2.29 2.52 2.67 2.84 2.96
1.5 | 1.86 2.15 2.35 2.52 2.71 2.84

1.82 2. 2.22 2.35 2.52 | 2.62
1.29 1.62 1.91 2.08 2.22 2.35 2.52
1.26 1.59 1.82

2.15 2.29 2.35 1.71 1.91 2. 2.15 2.29 1.08 1.44 | 1.59

1.91

2.35

2.96

8.04 8.36 8.66

6.38 6.64 6.87 | 5.58 5.8 6.01 15.06 5.28 5.46

4.70 4.89 5.06 4.43 4.61

4.77 4.22 4.38 14:53 4.02 4.20 4.34 3.87 4.02 4.18

| 3.87 4.02

3.66 3.80

3.39 3.53 3.14 3.27 3.39

3.II 2.25 2.88 2.96 2.62 2.71 2.80 2.46 2.57 2.35 2.46 2.22 2.29 2.35

I20

1.76

3.36

wwwwww

150

170

13.

200

250

1.36

2.

300 350 400 500

2.67

[blocks in formation]

2.57

[blocks in formation]

Belting.—In driving machinery by belting, a ready rule is 70 square feet of belt surface per second = 1 horse-power.

So that as the diameter of most engines' fly-wheels is stated with the price in manufacturers' lists, together with the revolutions, it is easy to take out the width of belt required to be driven off the fly-wheel.

Approximately The width of single l _ 1,100 x the effective horse-power. belting, say it thick S The velocity of belt in ft. per min.

A capitally arranged practical table, for which I am indebted to Mr. Charles L. Hett, A. M. I. C. E., is the following:

Table of EFFECTIVE HORSE-Power TRANSMITTED BY VARIOUS SHAFTS AND LEATHER BELTS.

ALL DIMENSIONS IN INCHES.

Diameter of a Shaft is well Sup- ! |

ported.
Diameter of the Neck of a Shaft!

Carrying an Overhung Pulley. 13
Greatest Distance between Bearings 60
Effective Horse-Power to each

.010
Revolution,

It of 2 | 27 24 24 3 35 31 31 4 4+ 5 2 | 23 | 24 24 334 36 448 47 558 67 78 | 89 | 96 102 108 114 120 126 129 | 132 | 135 141 147 .033.053 .080 •114 .156 .208 .270 -343 .429 .527 | .640 .860 1.25

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Double Belting.–As a greater tension can be put upon double belts, the power transmitted by a given width is naturally greater, and a safe rule to assume is one-half more power than a single belt.

Ropes.— For driving machinery by hemp ropes, the circumference of the driving pulley must not be less than 30 times the circumference of the rope; a good proportion is 100 times.

(The circumference of any diameter = 3.141 x the diameter.)

The velocity of the rope should be from 3,000 minimum to 6,000 maximum lineal feet per minute.

For small powers the ropes should be 474 inches circumference. For large mill-driving the ropes should be 574 to 672 inches circumference.

Weight of hemp ropes = The square of the circumference X.04 = lbs. per lineal foot.

Some ropes have run for over 10 years, but the average life of ropes is from 3 to 5 years.

V= velocity of ropes in lineal feet per minute.

The circumfer-) ence of the ropes

S

V 4,000 x the indicated horse-power

V x the number of ropes

allow for changing and repairs.

INDEX

ACCIDENTS, 14.
Accumulators, 36, 65, 240, 247, 248.
Accumulators, cost of, 36, 247.
Air, 28.
Air condensing, 120.
Ampères, 18, 239.
Animal gears, 24.
Animal gears, cost of, 24.
Animal power, 17, 23, 26.
Areas, 42.

BEGASSE, 101.
Belting, 250.
Belting, double, 252.
Belting, strength of, 250.
Belting, table of, 251.
Boilers, Cornish, 185.
Boilers, cost of, 184, 187, 190, 191, 192,

193.
Boilers, grate area of, 178.
Boilers, heating surface of, 178
Boilers, Lancashire, 185.
Boilers, locomotive, 182.
Boilers, multitubular, 192.
Boilers, portable, 182.
Boilers, tubulous, 195.
Boilers, vertical, 189.
Breast wheels, cost of, 71.
Brick machines, 25.

Combined engines and dynamos, cost

of, 137.
Commercial horse-power, 16.
Comparative summary of forces, Io.
Compound engines, 109.
Compound engines, cost of, 143, 163,

164, 165, 169.
Condensation, III, 113.
Condensation, gain, 126.
Condensation, water, 127.
Condensers, cost of, 123.
Condensers, falling column, 124.
Condensers, independent, 123.
Condensing water, 148.
Conversion of power by electricity, 246.
Copper conductors, 18.
Cornish boilers, cost of, 187.
Cost of accumulators, 247.
Cost of animal gears, 24.
Cost of boilers, 184, 187, 190, 191, 192,

193.
Cost of cables, 245.
Cost of compound engines, 143, 163,

164, 165, 169.
Cost of condensers, 123.
Cost of Cornish boilers, 187.
Cost of double-cylinder engines, 142.
Cost of dynamos, 243.
Cost of electro-motors, 244.
Cost of engines and dynamos com-

bined, 137.
Cost of feed-heaters, 117.
Cost of floating-mills, 68.
Cost of freight, 5.
Cost of gas, 105, 228.
Cost of gas-engines, 213.

CABLES, cost of, 245.
Cables, losses in, 243, 246.
Cane-mills, 13, 25.
Chimneys, 199.
Cinders, 10.
Coal, 10, II.

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