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and Westerly-now in operation from there and in which Dr. McSparran at the former place as far as Narragan- times preached.* sett Pier, and promised to be com- Like Plato, the Narragansetts bepleted next year—will sweep near lieved in the immortality of the soul, them on the south.

The journey

and this belief they affirmed came which in colonial times required down from their ancestors. It could several days by stagecoach and in no other way be accounted for, packet between Boston and New since they had had no acquaintance York is now made in six hours. Thus with civilized nations, and were thus Wood River Junction is but about ignorant of revelation, two hours from Boston, four and a Probably there was never a prouder half from New York and one from and more sensitive race of primitive Providence.

people than the advanced tribes of Perhaps the fairest tract in all this North American Indians. The willregion is that known as Watchaug ingness with which a majority of the Heights, extending from the Cham- New England tribes yielded their plin road to Watchaug Pond, on which lands to the white colonists has hardly it borders for about five eighths of a been explained. mile, and for the most part under In the reservation of ten miles stately oaks a hundred and fifty years square, as adjusted in 1709, is included old. By the road, at an elevation of Shumunkaug Hill, an elevation averone hundred and forty feet from the aging two hundred feet above the sea sea,* is a plateau of fifteen or twenty level, and at some points reaching acres, half of which is covered by a two hundred and twenty-three. grove of thirty or forty years' growth, History does not tell us for how that serves as protection from north many years or how many hundred and east winds.

years this was one of the localities Watchaug Pond, if it were not al- most favored by the Narragansetts. It ready named, might fairly claim the is about a mile south of Wood River title of lake, for its circumference is Junction in the direction of the sea. rated at three miles, and its water, The views from its heights are still inclear and deep, fed from springs, has teresting, although some of them have considerable outflow that finds a way been temporarily obscured by the to the ocean through the Pawcatuck growth of wood. River. It is navigable for steam or The decidedly health-giving qualisailing craft.

ties of this reservation are attributed to The Watchaug lands are separated several causes. Its elevation above by a narrow strip from the Champlin most fogs, whether of land or sea, stock farm of 700 acres, which retains gives it a pure, dry atmosphere; its its name from the early proprietors of drinking waters are excellent; indeed, more than a century ago.

This farm, there is such an absence of contaminow owned by a gentleman of wealth, nating influences that the visitor must extends to the ocean, and from it in applaud the choice by which this discolonial years we

shipped to the trict was retained to the last as the West Indies quantities of cheese, oats home of the aborigines. and other products employing a large Fortunately no Narragansetts of number of hands, both women and pure blood survived to witness the men.

transfer of their favorite lands from In 1745 George Ninegret, then chief the red man to the white. A careful sachem of the Narragansetts, con- estimate places less than fifty persons veyed to Colonel Christopher Cham- in the township, who claim any deplin and others forty acres of land on scent from the once dominant Narrathe post road adjoining the Champlin gansett tribe. farin for a church which was built * History of the Episcopal Church in Narragansett,

† Arnold's History of the State of Rhode Island, Vol. I, * U. S. Geodetic Survey

P. 512.

p. 78.


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A truly monumental work, evidently to be happily executed, was planned by Richard Herndon —whose success with the several volumes of Men of Progress of the different New England states was such a satisfaction to us as its publishers-in “Universities and their Sons,'the first volume of which is now ready. Four more are to follow. If they equal this one, with its seven hundred and fisty pages, four hundred illustrations, and luxurious paper and printing, we doubt if any similar set of subscription books can compare with this one. It occupies a new field in university literature, being at once historical and biographical. Recognizing the place and influence of the higher institutions of learning in the development of national life and character, it records the struggles, sacrifices, and triumphs of the men who founded and developed these institutions. It shows what Higher Education has contributed to uplift mankind and advance civilization, and illustrates, by studies of the lives of University Sons, how the university training has borne fruit in the practical affairs of life. The editorial staff consists of General Joshua L. Chamberlain, LL. D., editor-in-chief; William R. Thayer, A. M. (Harvard, '81); Professor Charles H. Smith, LL. D. (Yale, '65); Professor John DeWitt, D. D., LL. D. (Princeton, '61); Professor J. Howard Van Amringe, Ph. D., L. II. D., LL. D. (Columbia, 60); Charles E. L. Wingate, A. B. (Harvard, '83); Albert Lee, B. A. (Yale, '91); Jesse Lynch Williams, A. M. (Princeton, '92); Henry G. Paine, A. B. (Columbia, '80). These names at once place a value on the books quite exceptional in the annals of subscription publishing, and provide for the treatment of each division of the work by the most competent hand available. General Eaton, ex-commissioner of education in the United States. sends a prefatory letter of commendation, while the introduction is by his successor, Hon. William T. Harris, Ph. D., LL. D. In it he treats of higher education in the United States, comparing American and European standards and showing statistically the preeminence of the college graduate, the peculiar function of the classics in education, and the advantages of the college graduate over the self-educated man.

A general article, on “Universities of Learning,” follows by the editor-in-chief, General J. L. Chamberlain, ex-president of Bowdoin College, and ex-governor of Maine; showing how these institutions originated from the natural desire of the human mind for knowledge, and a corresponding impulse to preserve its acquisitions and communicate them to other minds by the founding of some organized means; tracing the passage and quickening of the torch of learning from its earliest fitful gleams in the dark ages down through the mediæval schools and modern universities of Europe, to the American university

of the present day. Then comes the “History and Customs of Harvard University,” by William Roscoe Thayer, A. M. (Harvard, '81), editor of the Harvard Graduates' Magazine, author of “The Dawn of Italian Independence,” “Poems, New and Old,” etc.; an ably-written article of one hundred and seventy-five pages (in fact, a book in itself), giving a most interesting account of the founding and growth of the institution, and describing the progress of education and the student life there.

After this we have a “History of Yale University,” by Professor Charles Henry Smith, LL. D., professor of American History at Yale; a scholarly but none the less vividly interesting sketch of two hundred pages, treating of the origin of the college, and its progress under successive administrations, the departments of the university, and the voluntary undergraduate activities.

Next appears a “History of Princeton Univerșity,".. comprising sketches of "Princeton College,” by Professor John DeWitt, D. D., LL. D. (Princeton, '61), professor of Church History in Princeton Theological Seminary; and “Princeton University," by Jesse Lynch Williams, A. M. (Princeton, '92), author of "Princeton Stories.” “The Freshman," etc., and member of the editorial staff of Scribner's Magazine. The first of these articles starts with the beginnings of university life in America, marrates in detail the circumstances and conditions under which Princeton College was originated and founded, and records its progress and development through the suiccessive administrations of its twelve presidents down to the present time. The second is descriptive of the Princeton University of to-day—its buildings and equipment, courses of study, social system, undergraduate interests and activities,

Perhaps most interesting of all is the "History of Columbia University,” by Professor J. Howard Van Amringe, Ph. D., L. H. D., LL. D., Dean of Columbia College and Professor of Mathematics in the University, chairman of the Columbia University Alumni Council, etc.; embracing an historical sketch of King's College from the granting of the royal charter in 1754, to its reorganization and change of name to Columbia in 1784, an account of the development of Columbia College under its several presidents, its removal to 49th Street and the enlargement of its curriculum, its transformation into a university with the accession of President Low, and its final removal to the new site and magnificent buildings on Morningside Heights.

These various chapters are illustrated by nearly four hundred engravings, from photographs taken expressly for this work, including views of buildings, personages and scenes interesting in themselves or endeared by associations; the portraits of early presidents and others being photo


A new evidence of the very welcome tendency to send our students to original sources for their information is furnished in “Studies in American History," by Howard W. Caldwell, which contains tracts or leaflets illustrating by quotations from the actors in the various periods the different stages of our American history, from the founding of the colonies to the Civil War. (J. H. Miller, Lincoln, Neb.)

A historical story of the oppression of the Bohemian peasants by Maria Theresa and Joseph II of Austria is told in Caroline Svetla's "Maria Felicia."

The heroine is the daughter of one of the Emperor's most intimate friends; but unlike her father, she cares nothing for court life, her sympathy being with the poorer class. In spite of her father, and after his death, she continues her work among the oppressed, even disguising herself as a man to do so. In this way, as a wandering harpist, she becomes fully acquainted with the peasants' mode of life and their feeling toward her as their ruler.

Her pity is so aroused that she gives up home, wealth and friends, becomes the wife of Andrew, the porter's son, and when the peasants are exiled, she goes with them.

The story is cleverly told, and one's interest does not lessen from beginning to end. (A. C. McClurg & Co., Chicago, $1.00.)

“The Story of the Revolution" cannot be told too often, and it is now once again set forth in most readable fashion by Henry Cabot Lodge. No one can exceed this author in his admiration for Washington, and every heart must dilate with patriotic pride, in reading the enthusiastic appreciations of that great man's wisdom, courage, and, more than all, his patience from the time he took command of the army under the Cambridge elm, till he entered New York on the heels of the retiring British. The description of the battle of Bunker Hill is the story of a great thing, greatly told, and words could hardly contain a more forcible impression. Mr. Lodge holds the British commanders in light esteem, never missing a chance to apply contemptuous epithets to Gage, Clinton or Howe. Indeed his attitude towards England, down to the last year is far from conciliatory. But by the jumping of that nation with the author's views on expansion and imperialism, Mr. Lodge is willing to concede something in its favor. The book concludes with a merry jingoistic clang that can hardly be called legitimate history, and serves to emphasize that there are no facts, however noble, that cannot be ingeniously veneered upon prejudice. The two handsome volumes are amply illustrated, and enclosed in a substantial box.

(Charles Scribner's Sons, N. Y. $6.00.)

graphed from the oil paintings (many of them by famous masters) which hang on the walls of the university buildings. There are also full-page phototypes of Presidents Eliot of Harvard (from Hardie's painting), Dwight of Yale, Patton of Princeton, and Low of Columbia, also of Dr. Harris, United States Commissioner of Education. The engravings are finely executed and beautifully printed, but the phototypes leave much to be desired, and are the only disappointing thing in the volume. This shortcoming-and a very slight one—will doubtless be corrected in the succeeding volumes, of which the four remaining are to be issued at intervals of about three months.

Volume II will consist of biographical sketches and portraits of officials, professors, instructors, benefactors, etc.—the men who have founded, fostered and developed the institutions treated of, and thus have promoted the cause of higher education in the United States.

Other volumes will be devoted to life sketches and portraits of University Sons, compiled with the especial purpose of demonstrating, by a study of the careers of graduates, “the practical influence which the higher education of the country has upon its business, politics and literature, and in general upon the directive power of the nation.” (R. Herndon Company, Congregational House, Beacon Street, Boston. $15 per volume.)

The possible condensation of narration is well exemplified in Duruy's “General History of the World," to which Professor Grosvenor of Amherst has added but one hundred and fifty small 12mo pages to cover the last fifty years. This has not been his only share in the work, however. Naturally, France received greater attention in the original than was desirable for an American text-book. History, too, is progressive and often changes her verdicts in view of later discoveries. So where Duruy's original observations or statements may have become antiquated, Professor Grosvenor, availing himself of the best authorities, has modified them or replaced them with better-founded facts and conclusions. Some few chapters he has entirely recast, but the charm of style is not lost in them. There are many good maps and the book is most complete, up to date and satisfactory. (T. Y. Crowell & Co., Boston. $2.00.)

“Things of Northfield and Other Things" is a collection of five practical and energetic sermons by Rev. David Gregg of Brooklyn. By “Things of Northfield" he means emanations from Mr. Moody, which, starting from the Northfield summer conferences, have done much to stir up many of the churches to greater vitality. “Am I Worldly?" and "Our Duty to Our Young Men" are subjects of two of the best of these discourses. (E. B. Treat & Co., New York. 60 cents.)

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“The Heart of Denise, and Other Tales," by

The “Directory of the Charitable and BenefiS. Levett Yeates, has a foreign and supernatural

cent Organizations of Boston," of which the

fourth edition is just issued (Associated Charitouch that is very fascinating to a large class of

ties, Boston, $1.00), is a book to be welcomed readers. (Longmans, Green & Co., N. Y.

heartily, not only by philanthropists and clergy$1.25.)

men, but by all citizens.

In compact form and pleasing type it presents not merely a list of

institutions with addresses, but all essential facts It would be interesting to know what kind of

about them. It states what hours they are open, criticism Mr. E. C. Stedman would accord to

whether connected with telephone, terms of adthe tale "That Duel at Château Marsenac," in

mission, if they are in the suburbs, their distance scribed to him by its author, Walter Pulitzer. It

from street cars, etc. does not seem worth while to burden our pages

A large part of the book treats of subjects with even the quotation or two which would fur

closely related with economic questions and renish ample taste of its quality. (Funk & Wag

lief work, such as, licenses, pawnbrokers, pennalls, New York. 75 cents.)

sions, free libraries, municipal lectures, baths, playgrounds, cemeteries, etc.

A large and valuable appendix gives legal In our April issue we spoke appreciatively of Professor Grosvenor's editing and modernizing

suggestions by Hon. George S. Hale, revised by

his son. These are specially valuable to district of Duruy's “General History of the World.”

visitors. To them are subjoined a “Summary The publishers now offer it in two volumes of

of the more important Laws applying to Dwellgreater convenience to hold and at the same cost, the first being Duruy's “Ancient History" and

ings in Boston," prepared by Mr. Estabrook of

the Twentieth Century Club. These contain the second Grosvenor's “Contemporary His

laws concerning garbage, drainage, overcrowdtory,"—i. l., the last fifty years. (T. Y. Crowell

ing, building permits, etc., and make easily ac& Co., Boston. $1.00 each.)

cessible what a district visitor constantly needs

to refer to. An index completes the book, A rather concise description, historical and

which is a monument of research, painstaking

care and good sense on the part of its compilers. physical, of our recently acquired possessions and of those we hope and mean to take is Charles Morris's “Our Island Empire.” Fully a third of the book is devoted to Cuba which, our Three very unusual studies of character are to author evidently is sure, will be promptly “ab- be found in “Strong Hearts" by George W. sorbed" by the United States. Porto Rico, Ha- Cable. The first, when appearing in magazine waii and the Philippines also have due attention, form, was called “Gregory's Island,” but here but a tiresome failure to give intelligent head- bears the title of “The Solitary." It is of trelines to the pages mars it as a reference guide mendous force. A good man stumbling down which its almost entire and welcome lack of hill to a drunkard's fate, voluntarily pulled him''fine writing" otherwise fits it for. The volume self up on an uninhabited island, cut his boat in seems to combine information that, without it, pieces, resolved to conquer his degrading habit, must be sought in many distinct books. (J. B. or to die in the attempt. The descriptions of the Lippincott Company, Philadelphia. $1.50.) return of the appetite, the vain energy of de

spair, the terrible agony, are told as only a mas

ter in words can tell such things. The reader An unusually good story of the romantic must hold his breath and feel the chills run down school so popular in recent years is “Hugh his back, in the excitement of those dread hours Gwyeth, a Roundhead Cavalier,” by Beulah M. of battle. That this human tragedy result well Dix. The hero, a mere lad, runs away from his is positively necessary to the reader's comfort. grandfather's grudging care to seek a father and The second study is of "The Taxidermist,” and a career in the royal army and only returns, af- is very lovely in the simplicity and beauty of the ter he has secured both, to whip and magnani- lives portrayed The third, “The Entomologist,"






pictured, for Old South students and others, in Henry Adams's magnificent history, where the two men are brought face to face. When all is said, there was probably no man in America who could write of Washington then more impartially than Chief Justice Marshall. That he did write of him we should all be devoutly thankful; and one of the best things that we can do in this centennial year is to make ourselves more familiar with his monumental but neglected work. His summing up of Washington's character at the end is often printed and well known; but none of us can read it too often, as the judgment of one whose opportunity and right to judge were so preëminent:


"General Washington was rather above the common size, his frame was robust, and his constitution vigorous, .. capable of enduring great fatigue, and requiring a considerable degree of exercise for the preservation of his health. His exterior created in the beholder the idea of strength united with manly gracefulness. His manners were rather reserved than free, though they partook nothing of that dryness and sternness which accompany reserve when carried to an extreme; and on all proper occasions he could relax sufficiently to show how highly he was gratified by the charms of conversation and the pleasures of society. His person and whole deportment exhibited an unaffected and indescribable dignity, unmingled with haughtiness, of which all who approached him were sensible; and the attachment of those who possessed his friendship and enjoyed his intimacy was ardent, but always respectful. His temper was humane, benevolent, and conciliatory; but there was a quickness in his sensibility to anything apparently offensive, which experience had taught him to watch and to correct. In the management of his private affairs he exhibited an exact yet liberal economy. His funds were not prodigally wasted on capricious and ill-examined schemes, nor refused to beneficial though costly improvements. They remained therefore competent to that expensive establishment which his reputation, added to a hospitable temper, had in some measure imposed upon him, and to those donations which real distress has a right to claim from opulence.

He made no pretensions to that vivacity which fascinates, or to that wit which dazzles and frequently imposes on the understanding.

More solid than brilliant, judgment rather than genius constituted the most prominent feature of his character.

“As a military man, he was brave, enterprising and cautious. That malignity which has sought to strip him of all the higher qualities of a general has conceded to him personal courage, and a firmness of resolution which neither dangers nor difficulties could shake. But candor will allow him other great and valuable endowments, If his military course does not abound with splendid achievements, it exhibits series of judicious measures adapted to circumstances, which probably saved his country. Placed, without having studied the theory, or been taught in the school of experience, the practice of war, at the head of an undisciplined, ill-organized multitude which was unused to the restraints and unacquainted with the ordinary duties of a camp, without the aid of officers possessing those lights which the commander in chief was yet to acquire, it would have been a miracle indeed had his conduct been absolutely faultless. But, possessing an energetic and distinguishing mind, on which the lessons of experience were never lost, his errors, if he committed any, were quickly repaired; and those measures which the state of things rendered most advisable were seldom if ever neglected. Inferior to his adversary in the numbers, in the equipment, and in the discipline of his troops, it is evidence of real merit that no great and decisive advantages were ever obtained over him, and that the opportunity to strike an important blow never passed away unused. He has been termed the American Fabius; but those who compare his actions with his means will perceive at least as much of Marcellus as of Fabius in his character. He could not have been more enterprising without endangering the cause he defended, nor have put more to hazard without incurring justly the imputation of rashness. Not relying upon those chances which sometimes give a favorable issue to attempts apparently desperate, his conduct was regulated by calculations made upon the capacities of his army, and the real situation of his country. When called a second time to command the armies of the United States, a change of circumstances had taken place, and he meditated a corresponding change of conduct. In modelling the army of 1798, he sought for men distinguished for their boldness of execution not less than for their prudence in counsel, and contemplated a system of continued attack. 'The enemy,' said the general in his private letters, 'must never be permitted to gain foothold on our shores.'

“In his civil administration, as in his military career, were exhibited ample and

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