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The Western Journal of Education.

cost much less in construction, being on two floors. It is, however, far less conven ient. It may be heated by furnaces in the basement. It has but one laboratory In a small high school chemistry and physics may be taught to the two upper classes alternate years. Plan III is a much smaller high school, all on one floor. There is but one laboratory, and chemistry and physics should alternate. This building may be heated by jacketed or ventilating stoves. Plan III will accommodate one hundred students and three or four teachers. An additional class room would be secured by having a separate building for the laboratory.

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In calling for plans, issue full instructions to architects, telling what size and arrangement of rooms will be required, the material for construction, the site of the building, cost, manner in which plans are to be prepared, and all necessary imformation in regard to heat, light, and ventilation. Such instructions have just been issued by the school authorities at Stockton for a ward school.

A school house should be planned from within, out; not from without, in. Inside, the building should be arranged for school use and school hygiene. Outside, it should please the eye by good proportions, and not offend the taste by extravagent and superfluous ornamentation.

It is estimated that plan I, including heating and ventilating, may be completed in brick at the cost of from $12,000 to $16,000, according to detail and finish; in wood from $10,000 to $12,000. Plan II will cost about one-third less than plan I. Plan III will cost in wood between $5,000 and $6,000.

"The more methodical, persistent and exacting your instruction, the shorter the time required to establish the study habit in your pupils.—J. N. Patrick.

The inspiration which leads school children into studious habits is born of character, purpose and energy on the part of the school teacher –J. N. Patrick.


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or country school, because it is considered more difficult to handle in music

than a class composed of children of uniform ages and who are doing the same work in other lines.

It may seem, at first glance, that they will not concentrate or show interest in the same songs, being at the different stages of emotional development. But where interests are the same, as in the family circle, and love stimulates motives, when there is a commingling of pleasure, welfare, justice, expression and wisdom, the result is both teaching and learning.

Again, the play spirit is alive in every normal child. And, where self-consciousness can be avoided, every child within school age enjoys rhythmical movements to accompany music.

Interest in what the younger childern are doing will have a tendency to cause the older boys and girls to forget their own movements and thus none need be made conscious of their education, while all may be taken thru the first and natural steps of learning to sing.

We have a class of forty pupils, from the first grade to the eighth inclusive. The child who comes from the home of culture where he hears good music well rendered, the youngster who knows the latest “rag time” stuff, the child who has a divine right to sing but who does not understand a word that is said to him, the child who has been told by his mother "you can't sing, no use trying, music is not natural to you,” the boy who is so self-conscious that he thinks the whole world is laughing when his voice slips from him in the attempt to settle it on a tone, and there is the child whose matter of fact, and withal sensible father does not believe in "wasting time on music'' _"better learn to cipher” he tells the boy.

But none of these conditions are discouraging. Even the father who sends his children to school to learn only the "three R’s” will remove his objections to his boy learning music when the interest in school is increased and we carry out in practice the words of Professor John Dewey. “Education is not a preparation for life: it is life.”

No teacher was ever complained of for letting the children sing beautiful songs. It is sharps and flats, key notes, time language, theory of music and being “made to sing" that is the stumbling block in school music.

This class of forty pupils has an ideal teacher who "lives with the children” in the sense that Froebel intended. She shows by every act she is interested in them. She cannot sing very much and really has had very litttle musical training, but has not forgotten the days when she used “just love to sing (?) and play ‘Ring-a-rounda-rosey’and 'In and out the window?” and believes this strong sense of rhythm, wisely directed will enable her to hold the interested attention of the child. She has read Oppenheim's "The Development of the Child”; Dewey's "Educational Creed” and James "Talks to Teachers' and studied closely the meaning of "connect with these first experiences the later ideas which you wish to instill. Associate the new


The Western Journal of Education.

with the old in some natural way." She knows one cannot teach a child to love music any more than she can teach the child to love his mother, but the music hour can be made so interesting and so natural that he will enjoy the song for the pleasant emotions it calls forth. She will allow them then to sing at short intervals and informally at first.

PRACTICAL SCHOOLROOM WORK. Class is tired with close attention and sitting quietly. Teacher opens windows and without announcing a “music lesson” says, "let's have a march around the room,” herself stepping to the time as she sings and encourages all to sing "Marching Thru Georgia.” The class follow until a circle is formed round the room and many are singing. Teacher suggests to a boy on whom she can depend to whistle and marches about and in and out till all are rested. Of course no attempt is made to do individual work, no attention is called to good or bad singing. At first it may seem a little "funny" and manners may need to be corrected. After singing this way for five or ten minutes she seats the class always while interest is intense. If there is an instrument and teacher plays she sings la la and (by suggestion only) encourages children to sing as they pass to and from school-room.

On returning to the room from play or coming in at any time class chooses song, or songs before they take pencil or books, or even while they go to black board or prepare material for other work. She never crowds singing upon them and always has a shorter lesson than the most interested ones desire. The result of this first work should be to give the vocal organs freedom from restraint and self-consciousness.

The child unconscious of his education, thinks only of present enjoyment, and the training is easily begun, because of his interest. Fervency of tone without any element of barshness is more easily secured by natural doing than by over much talk even by the best music teachers.

Children are encouraged to bring songs from home and our wise teacher never comments unfavorable on any. However, she holds the class to good songs, or at least avoids using trash and sensational stuff, just in the same degree she does the literature. They are simply helping her to become acquainted with their homes and their present knowledge of music. The aim is to interest the child thru his own activity and by showing him she respects his opinion.

There is a vast difference between allowing a child to sing a song of his own choice and teaching that same song to him. One would not teach a poor perspective in drawing but might not think it wise to critisize the child on that until he had gained some other power.

For two weeks then we have allowed the class to sing songs of their own choosing (?) and to bring music from home. There are still a few self-conscious boys who do not sing. They are not excused from the recitation, but so far as possible no attention is attracted to them.

We shall now, the third week, introduce a new song. As "Pinafore” contains. music which has proven to be the choice of all children, the "Sailor's Chorus” from that is chosen, and "We Sail the Ocean Blue," "takes." Here is an opportunity to help the so-called monotones to get the tune. It is not in any sense to be classed with rag time songs and yet it appeals strongly to the rhythmical sense, and is so bright and natural that it is sung over and over in perfect time after the fashion of

Beginnings in Music.


the counting out games. A simple sh or some movement of the hand will indicate to the class that they are singing too loudly, or if voices need subduing they hum "Home, Sweet Home' or “Old Folks at Home.” No one song is sung until it is committed before another is taught, but many are under way at the same time. For three reasons, first, we are cultivating the ear and voice and the forms must change; pitch, keys and modulations vary in order not to become set in any one. Second, children get careless as soon as a tune is old to them and the freshness is worn off. Third, this lack of concentration causes them to "flat” and will very soon become a habit.

We therefore add to the "Sailors' Chorus” the song of the Captain, “My Gallant Crew," one verse only. "Sing a Song of Sixpence” is another favorite for the smalj children.

“Once I got into a boat,

Such a pretty, pretty boat" (which was published in one of the Educational Journals for primary teachers some years since) is the “best song in the whole world” say our little people. While "Tenting On the Old Camp Ground” contains a pathos and dignity that at this stage appeals to our older pupils.

Thus the first month is passed in getting ready to sing.

Their Stars. Rev. Charles Edward Locke, a bright and shining ornament of Methodism, was being shown thru Grace Church by an Episcopalian admirer. Gazing interestedly at the stars painted on the ceiling, the visitor inquired if they had any special significance.

"Oh,” was the reply, "you know what the Bible says, 'He made the stars also.'»

"Ah !" commented the Methodist parson. “Do you know the difference between your church and ours ?”

"Oh, I don't know !” said the Episcopal adherent doubtfully. “What is it?'

"You put your stars in the ceiling. We put ours in the pulpit," was the answer. -Exchange.

"Come here, you reptile," shouted the eight-year-old to his baby sister. "You wicked boy ! " exclaimed the mother. “Nuthin' wicked about it mamma. Teacher says that reptiles is animals what


A superintendent must be a brave and courageous man to battle for right and progress. If he is not exceptionally strong, in time this thing subdues him and he becomes only an accomplished compromiser.- Hon. Andrew S. Draper.

There is nothing in the universe that I fear, except that I shall not know all my duty, or shall fail to do it.- Mary Lyon.

Experience is valuable only when it is of the right kind. Experience of any kind without the inspiration of high ideals is always destructive.

Twelve million acres of land have been made fruitful by irrigation of artesian wells in the Sahara desert.


In a Sugar Bush.

BY CHAS. H. ALLEN. THINK very few children in California have ever visited a sugar bush. They know, indeed, that there is such a product as maple sugar, and most of them

have eaten what is called maple syrup, but of the manner in which it is made they have little or no knowledge.

My youthful days were spent among what are now called sugar orchards, but were then called sugar bushes. Most farms in that country had a more or less extensive wood-lot connected with them. If this lot happened to contain (as many of them did) two or three hundred hard maple trees, it was designated a sugar bush, and used accordingly.

The sap of the hard maple, as the spring is opening, is very sweet and flows quite abundantly. But little expense was required to equip the bush with what was absolutely necessary.

In those days the sap was allowed to drop into troughs made for the purpose from what was called the cucumber tree. This tree was "spalty,” that is split easily, was soft, and the troughs, holding about a bucketful each, were easily made. Usually one trough was used at a tree altho large trees often had two, and sometimes three troughs.

There had to be spouts to lead the sap to the buckets. These were made from the elder, sumach, or some other pithy wood, during the winter. Gathering buckets, a neck-yoke and two or three large kettles in which the sap was boiled down, completed the outfit. Sometimes a large storing trough was neceesary, one that would hold several barrels, for when there was a good "run" the sap accumulated so rapidly that it could not be boiled down fast enough.

Near the close of winter the work of getting ready began. The snows in the woods were deep, and ox teams were used to break the way to the bush and to most

It was no small task to distribute the troughs, get the kettles in place, the wood cut, the brush shanty built, and everything ready.

During the "run," from two to three weeks, the camp was open and the boiling continued day and night. It was a great lark for the boys to spend the night in the camp and take turns in watching the boiling kettles. After the sap had been boiled down about four or five to one it would begin to foam up in boiling, with a tendency to run over and waste the syrup.

This was prevented by dipping into the kettle a small piece of fat pork. Many an hour have I spent standing by the smoky fire, with a long, slender limb in my hand, having fastened to its tip a piece of pork the size of a walnut, dipping it into one kettle after another as they threatened to run over. One had to be ever on the alert. When the boiling had continued long enough, more and more sap being gradually added, the product became about the consistence of very thin

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