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DEFINITION OF GRADES RELATIONS OF High ScHOOLS TO THE STATE-RELA
TIONS OF High School, GRAMMAR, AND PRIMARY GRADES TO ONE ANOTHER -CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS CONCERNING STATE SCHOOL MONEYS.
We would respectfully report that we have considered these several topics, and find them closely connected one with another. The most urgent question with reference to the gradation of our schools is the question as to where the grammar school shall end and the high school begin. The practice in the several counties varies considerably with reference to this point, but we believe a large majority of the school children in the State are to be found in districts in which the ninth grade is counted as a part of the grammar school. In this, California differs from the best usage of the country at large, which treats the ninth grade as belonging to secondary education. There is even a strong disposition in progressive communities in the East to treat the eighth grade, or even the seventh, as a part of the secondary school. It should be noted that this tendency does not represent an effort simply to give a larger place to the literary and scientific courses of the high school, but that it was so connected with the growing interest in technical training for pupils who do not go to the high school and in many instances do not complete the grammar-school course.
The disposition in California to lengthen out the grammar school unduly puts us at a disadvantage as compared with other sections of the country which are more free to adopt improvements in this stage of instruction, and it is well known that the California practice in this regard is the outcome of the clause of Article IX, Section 6, of the State Constitution, which provides that “the entire revenue derived from the State School Fund, and the State school tax, shall be applied exelusively to the support of primary and grammar schools."" Such a provision is not found in the Constitution or the statutes of other leading educational States of the Union. Its effect is to extend the term "grammar school," and the type of in-struction proper to grammar schools, as far up the scale of our grades of instruction as they can be pushed. It prevents the consideration of questions relating to these grades on educa-tional grounds, and compels the consideration of such questions instead on purely financial grounds. In order to remedy this unfortunate condition, your committee recommends that the Constitution be amended by substituting one of the following forms for Article IX, Section 6:
FIRST PROPOSED SUBSTITUTE FOR SECTION 6:
**The public-school system shall include primary and grammar schools, and such high schools , evening schools, normal schools, and technical schools as may be established by the Legislature, or by municipal or district authority.”
SECOND PROPOSED SUBSTITUTE FOR SECTION 6:
"The public-school system shall include primary and grammar schools, and such high schools, evening schools, normal schools, and technical schools as may be established by the Legislature, or by municipal or district authority; but the entire revenue derived from the State School Fund, and the revenue derived from taxes collected for primary and grammar schools shall be applied exclusively to the report of primary and grammar schools. The revenue derived from tazes collected for high schools and technical schools shall be applied exclusively to the support of such schools."
We bag leave to remind you that the whole effect of such a constitutional amendment would be to remove a limitation now placed on the action of the Legialature. Until this limitation is removed it is of no avail to recommend improvements in the gradation of our schools at this most vital point. If the people shall approve of such constitutional amendment, it will then be in place to propose whatever legislation the purely educational interests of these grades in the schools may seem to call for. It cannot be too strongly emphasized that the sole object of the amendment as proposed is to render possible an educational rather than a commercial consideration of the questions involved. Leader of Discussion
Professor ELMER E. BROWN, Berkeley.
A GOVERNING BOARD FOR NORMAL SCHOOLS, AND REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMIS
SION TO Such SCHOOLS. I. In order to remove the Normal Schoo's from political interference, they should be placed under the control of a Board of Regents, free from partisan, sectarian, or sectional bias. The members of such a Board should have a long term of office.
In view of the present constitutional provision limiting the length of term for all appointive boards a constitutional amendment is recommended providing for a Board of Regents for the Normal Schools, prescribing the manner of appointment and fixing term of office,
II. The qualifications for admission to the Normal School should be the completion of a high-school course or its equivalent. Leader of Discussion
Mr. R. M. SHACKELFORD, Paso Robles. METHOD OF SELECTING THE SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION.
Any change should be in line with the best tendencies in American education. American society does not favor different school systems for different ranks. It provides for the administration of higher institutions of learning with a view solely to their educational fauctions. Sucb institutions are made responsible to public opinion, but in an educational way only. The same principles abould control in echools of lower grade.
The election of the highest official in the State system of public schools should be taken out of party politics, and his responsibility to the public should be purely educational.
Nomination for the office of Superintendent of Public Instruction should be made by a non-partisan educational body, and not by party conventions. At the same time the present provision for nomination by popular petition should be left unchanged. Leader of Discussion
Professor ELMER E. BROWN, Berkeley. TIME OF ELECTING SCHOOL TRUSTEES AND APPOINTING TEACHERS. I. In order that harvest duties need not interfere with attendance at school elections, such elections should be in the month of April.
II. Boards of Trustees should be required to meet on or before the fifteenth day of June of each year, except in districts consisting of a city and county, and elect teachers for the ensuing year; and upon failure to do so, the teachers already employed should continue as such for the following year. Leader of DiscussionCounty Superintendent J. W. LINSCOTT, Santa Cruz.
COMPULSORY EDUCATION. The present law in Califoroia is practically incapable of enforcement. A new one should provide for the following:
1. Local option in the enforcement of the compulsory features, and the organization of truant or parental schools
2. That the expense of maintaining truarit or parental schools, other than for instruction be paid from funds other than the State or county school funds,
3. If possible, the power to commit to a truant or parental school. without the consent of parents, should rest with school officers rather than with the court, to the end that the cr.m inal idea may be eliminated as far as possible. Leader of Discussion
City Superintendent J. W. McCLYMONDS, Oakland.
ATTENDANCE OF TRUSTEES AT TEACHERS' INSTITUTE. It is recommended that one balf-day session of the County Teachers' Institute in each county be designated by law as “Trustees' Day," and that the program be so arranged that matters relating to school administration shall then be discussed. Leader of Discussion
MR. R. M. SHACKELFORD, Paso Robles,
CONCENTRATION AND SUPERVISION OF RURAL SCHOOLS AND TRANSPORTATION
OF PUPILS. The present system of school maintenance has secured to our State a most excellent system of rural schools, and has provided the means whereby spareely settled communities have been able to maintain a good school. In providing for the needs of the individual school, the eystem has tended to increase the number of small districts unduly. Many of these schools could be concentrated into one union school, provided funds for the maintenance of such schools could be retained,
Your Committee has drafted an act which, without disturbing the present system of appor. tioning funds, will permit the union of these small rural schools for the improvement of school conditions.
The proposed act which is permissive and not obligatory, also provides for transportation of pupils and for supervision of rural schoole. A fuller report on this subject will be presented by
Professor ELLWOOD CUBBERLEY, Stanford University.
TECHNICAL EDUCATION. The need of manual training in the elementary schools, and of technical schools of secondary grade, is obviously among the most urgent which the Elucational Commission can consider. It would do more harm than good to have such instruction introduced on a low level of efficiency; but technical training of t o highest dugree of excellence is extremely desirable. Without change in existing statutes, such instruction may be introduced into the schools. It is for the Commission to consider how it may be encouraged and rendered efficient.
To this end, it is proposed that the manual training departments of the State Normal Schools be fostered and strengthened; that both cities and counties be empowered to employ expert enpervisors, or deputy superintendents, to direct instruction in the manual arts; and that provision be made for State aid to county technical schools of secondary grade. Such State aid cannot, it would seem, be extended under existing constitutional provisions. This Consideration gives a dded emphasis to the recommendation already adopted by the sub-com. mittee, and previously approved by the State Teachers' Association, with reference to the amendment of article IX, section 6, of the State Constitution. Leader of Discussion
Professor ELMER E. BROWN, Berkeley.
STATE TEXTBOOKS. Io view of the constitutional provision requiring the State Board of Education to compile or cause to be compiled, a series of State school text-books, and in view of the conflicting opinions regarding the best method and plans for securing text-books, your Committee contents itself with submitting the fact that it is the opinion of the educators of this state that the present series of school text-books is not up to the high standard of excellence demanded by the needs of the teachers and the school children of California, and that we look to this Stata educational commission to suggest ways and means to solve this difficult problem,
THOMAS J. KIRK, Chairman
THE WESTERN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION succeeds to the
Subscription, $1.50 a year.
ADVERTISEMENTS-Advertisements of an unobjectionable nature will be inserted at the rate of $3.00 a month per inch.
MSS.- Articles on methods, trials of new theories, actual experiences, and school news, reports of teachers' meetings, etc., urgently solicited.
Address all communications to THE WESTERN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, 723 Market Street, San Francisco.
HARR WAGNER, Editor. TAE WHITAKER & RAY COMPANY, PUBLISHERS.
Entered at the San Francisco Postoffice as second-class matter.. The Official Organ of the Department of Public Instruction of the State of California.
The Spelling adopted by the National Educational Association is used in this Publication.
The movement for commercial education has attained national attention. The College of Commerce in our University is the centre of the movement on the Pacific Coast. The virile statements of President Wheeler on the need of professionally trained men for the commerce of the new Pacific have awakened much interest. China—the shadow on the world as a phrase—will pass from our language. The tropics and the Orient will be markets for the coastwise and ocean commerce of the world. The universities of Pennsylvania, Chicago, California and Columbia University have announced special courses of instruction along commercial lines.
* * * * The Most remarkable change that has taken place in educational circles during the past ten years is in the selection of teachers. Personal application is no longer professional. In our universities, colleges and high schools, in principals of grammar schools, and city superintendents the general rule is for officials to seek the man. In our elementary schools, however, if a teacher wants a position it is always wise to submit letters of recommendation and then to interview the entire board personally. Oakland, Los Angeles, San Diego, Riverside and a number of other cities search for the most available teacher. The Teachers' Committee of the Los Angeles Board recently elected two of the best teachers of Santa Ana and two from San Diego. The teachers had not applied. Of course it is good for Los Angeles to secure the best teachers, but it is unfortunate for the children of Santa Ana and San Diego. It is to be regretted that competition based on merit always favors the large cities—that is, the strong. There are compensations, however, the best teacher does not always leave a vacancy that is filled by a poor teacher. The trend of affairs in the selection of teachers is rapidly reducing the great surplus. The very poor teachers are being eliminated. The persistent demand of the past ten years for professionally trained teachers has deterred many from entering the profession by way of the open doors of the examination. The time is not far distant when trustees of rural districts will advertise for the kind of a teacher they want. This will not be on account of a lack of supply but in order to give the board a number of suitable applications from which to select. The School Master the most popular educational journal in England, carries over five hundred of these advertisements each issue.
ILTON BRADLEY CO., of Springfield,
Mass , the largest manufacturers of kin-
just opened a branch house at 122 McAllister St., San Francisco. It will be under the management of Mr. H. 0. Palen, who has long had charge of the company's store in Kansas City, and is thoroly familiar with all branches of the bnsiness, which is one of almost infinite detail.
The object of establishing the house in San Francisco is to supply customers in the Pacific and Mountain states with the products of the company's factory, more quickly and satisfactorily than it could be done in any other way. By carrying a large stock of the various lines of goods Mr. Palen and his assistants will be able to serve their friends in this region as promptly as those Dearer the bome office are served. Mail orders will be filled, as a usual thing, the day they are received.
The kindergarten, as an institution, is having a rapid growth thruout all parts of the country. Most of the large cities have adopted it as a part of the public school system, and private kindergarteps or free kindergartens are springing up everywhere.
H. O. PALEN. This movement is one of the most important
Manager of the new Pacific Coast Branch of the Milton
Bradley Company. educational departures of the century. Besides the direct benefit to the young children, the kindergarten spirit is so permeating the other grades of school, even to the highe-t, that a radical change for the better is going on in all educational circles. Some advanced observers believe that the kindergarten is conferring its greatest blessing in thus influencing all other departments of learning.
Mr. Milton Bradley early saw the beauties and possibilities of the kindergarten system, and his company began the manufacture of material on a gmall scale more than thirty years ago, publishing in 1863 "The Paradise of Childhood," the first illustrated kindergarten guide printed in the English language. The work was prosecuted on faith for many years, but it finally began to increase more rapid y, and now it constitutes, in itself alone, a large and flourishing busiress.
The company bave branch houses or agents in all the largest centers of popu'ation, and supply the kindergartens of New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago, Washington and many other cities. In connection with
tri-branch of their business, Milto i Bradley Co. have develope 1 a system of color instruction, which begins with the use of educational colored papers a id his its logical comile, tion in a line of water C lors, to the manufacture and sale of which the company are now giving
special attention. These colors are made in imitation of the six spectrum st:n.lards, upon wbich the Brudley color scheme is ba-ed, namely, red, orage, yellow, green, blue and violet.
This fact makes these water colors peculiarly appropriate for children who have pissed thru the kindergarten, and it is not trange that'the company are having great success in their introduction. They are made in three forms, dry, semi-moist and moist, and put up in a variety of styles.
Another department in the company's business is the man ficture of an extensive line of school aids, designed chiefly for the u-e of primary teachers. They publish, also, a goodly nusmber of excellent books for mothers, kindergartners and teachers, including one by Emilie Pouls ou, called “In the Chiid's World," one of the best bookst childre i's stories in the language
Bat the business of Milton Bradley is not confined to strictly educational lines. They have enjoyed for many years an enviable reputation as manufacturers of games, toys and home amusements.
This department is constantly increasing and includes now some of the most popular games in the market.
Another important item is a line of superior card and piper cutters, sold in large numbers in all parts of the cou try. The cntters are in five sizes, retailing from $25 down to $1.50, the small sizes being very popular for trimming photographs and other light but necessary work.
Mr. Palen is familiar with all these different departments of the basi less, and it will rea lily be seen that there is the bust opportunity in the world for the success of a San Francisco branch house of such an establishment as the Milton Bradley Co.
Send for inform tion abont the BRADLEY STANDARD WATER COLOR PAINTS; a'so for their new, complete 80 page Catalog of KINDERGARTEN SUPPLIES. Gratis: Address, MILTON BRADLEY COMPANY, 122 McAllister St., San Francisco.