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decides disputes. Our State Elementary Geography was published too long ago to benefit by the decision of this Board on Geographical names, and the authors of the Advanced Geography did not seem to know of the decisions of the Board. It would take too much time to mention all the names where the maps are faulty; or rather to hunt them all up. But there are over one hundred fairly important places which have their names not spelled in accordance with the published decisions of the Board.
Perhaps the best way will be for us to take the principal maps in the Elementary Geography and note the principal errors.
Turn to the map of the Hemispheres on pages thirty and thirty-one of the Elementary Geography. I think it was Captain Cook who named the Hawaiian Islands after the Earl of Sandwich. That old reprobate used to sit up all night and gamble, and his favorite nightly lunch was thin-sliced meat between thin slices of bread, which are yet called "sandwiches.” But no up-to-date geographer now calls the Hawaiian Islands, Sandwich.
Fiji, not Feejee is the correct spelling. It is not Paumotu Islands but Tuamotu Archipelago, Rio de la Plata (river of the silver) has been cut down to Plata River, but Rio Janeiro is properly Rio de Janiero (river of January). Babel Mandeb omits the hyphens, its name meaning "gate of tears,” which was said to have been given because of the many shipwrecks there. Cape Verde and Cape Verde Islands, not Verd, is correct. Verde means “green,” as contrasted with the desert farther north. Ob, river and gulf, not Obi, and Amur not Amoor, the latter word means "river'' as does Amu (not Amoor nor Oxus). Hoangho and Yangtse are how they now write the yellow and the blue rivers of China. In Africa they keep the word Nyanza, meaning lake, after the two lakes named after Queen Victoria and Albert, her husband. We should use K, not C, in Kongo, Malakka Strait, and Mt. Hekla. Hindustan, not Hindoostan, is right, and the native is a Hindu now. This agrees with the derivation, as Hindustan means “land of the Indus, or great river."
Now turn to the map of North America. The Spaniards called Columbus, Colon, and that is the proper name of the seaport upon the Isthmus of Panama, and not Aspinwall, after the merchant ship-owner. It is Campeche Bay, not Campeachy; Guatemala, not New Guatemala. For a few years after the destruction of the old city by the volcano of mud and hot water (if I remember right), the survivors called the new city they built Neuva Guatemala, but the New has long since been dropped. Puerto Rico (rich port) was the form adopted by the Board, and the correct form. But the treaty-makers, and later, the postal authorities, speak of Porto Rico, and so does President McKinley. So we can take our choice. I must say I do not like Habana, for Havana, very well. The latter form is too common. East Cape up on Bering Strait, has lately been changed by decree of the Czar of Russia, to Cape Deshrief, after its discoverer.
On the map of South America, besides the names heretofore mentioned, we should have Argentina (silver country), not Argentine Republic; Brazil, (dye wood) not United States of Brazil; Columbia, not United States of
Columbia; Maracaibo, not Maracaybo; Lagoa dos Patos (lake of ducks), not Lake Patos; Serra (or Serro?) do Espinhaco (mount of thorns), not Sierra; Pernambuco, not Recife; Marajo, not Marajao; Sao Paulo (the Portuguese form of St. Paul), not San Paulo; Parahiba, not Parnahyba; Vapura, not Japura; Yavari, not Yavary nor Jabary as in the Advanced Geography.
In Europe it should be Austria-Hungary, not Austro-Hungarian Empire; Germany (neighbor's land), not German Empire; Bukharest (city of enjoyment), not Bucharest; Gottenborg, not Gottenburg, for “the town on the Gotha''; Bosphorus (ox-ford), not Bosporus; Budapest, not Buda Pesth; Mt. Elbruz (peaked), not Elboorz; Skagerrack (crooked strait between promontories), not Skager Rack; Nizhni Novgorod, not Nijini; Lyon in France, not Lyons. But the Gulf of Lions (not Lyons) was not named for the town but because the storms make it roar like lions, an authority says.
On the map of Africa are about twenty errors of names, besides any amount of errors in boundaries and omissions of important late names. Somali, Sudan, Timbuktu, Transvaal (across the Vaal river), Kamerun, not Cameron, and others I note.
It is a little antiquated to miss Johannesburg (Johnstown), the largest city in South Africa, and Rhodesia after Cecil Rhodes, to say nothing of Harrysmith and Ladysmith, named after Sir Harry Smith and his wife, and the Modder or "mud" river.
On the map of Asia are at least twenty-four errors. It is Korea now, not Corea; Tibet, not Thibet; Baluchistan, not Beloochistan; Burma, not Burmah; Kabul, not Cabool; Mekka, (it looks odd !), not Mecca; Hindu Kush (great mountains), not Hindoo Koosh; Tonkin, not Tonquin; Bramaputra, not Brahmapootra (son of Brahma); Mekong river, not Cambodia; Kyoto, not Kioto; Kuril Island, not Koorel; Sakhalin, not Saghalin; Hongkong (sweet water) not Hong Kong; New Guinea, not Papua, which is but a part of the island; Sulu Sea and Archipelago, not Sooloo. Of other islands it is Samoa, not Samoan or Navigator Island; Ladrones (thieves) and not Marianas any more. Guam, our island, is usually mispelled upon the large maps.
But space forbids the mention of many of the errors. The Sia Juana is marked S. Juan on the map of California, and San Buena Ventura (now Ventura), Redwood City, Carson City, Centreville (now Centerville), Phoenix, (now Phenix), and others are now back numbers. It is now Allegheny Mountains, river, county, etc., not Alleghany.
At least one of the decisions of the Board provoked quite a pamphlet, showing a great deal of research and learning. The most beautiful mountain in the United States is what the Board and Seattle call Mt. Rainier, which Vancouver named after Rear Admiral Rainier when he saw the mountain afar off. But Tacoma people insist it shall be called Mt. Tacoma after the ancient Indian name, which means "white mountain" or "snow mountain,” a very suitable name, as half its 4,440 feet of height is always covered with snow. But so far the Board has refused to reconsider calling it Mt. Rainier, tho they go against their own rules in so calling it.
With our new possessions we need fuller maps in the small geography, as well as the larger, of Cuba, Porto Rico, Hawaiian islands, Guam, Samoa, and the Philippines.
The small geography should contain all the political geography and place names necessary for the average student. And it should have no names not important. The larger geography should be entirely physical, mathematical and sociological, and trade and commercial geography should be (this age says), the central idea. We are expanding for trade, we fight for trade, we use diplomacy for trade, and since we cannot trade with the Antarctic Continent we do not need to know there is one, hardly, says the modern expansionist. By the way, why are not lots of those islands in the Arctic Archipelago marked on our maps as ours instead of Canada's ? Even Wake Island our geography has not "waked” up to.
We must expand our geographies without any delay.
Current Thought. T IS good for young Americans to read Emerson. He is a mental tonic.
He opens new vistas; he clears the fog from the mind. For every
thought that he expresses he implies ten. Note such suggestive passages as these and think them out to their logical end; you may awake to the fact that you have an intellect, an awakening that is of immnese significance.
"A boy is in the parlor what the pit is in the playhouse; independent, irresponsible." "He feels no shame in not studying a profession for he does not postpone his life, but lives already.” “Discontent is the want of self-reliance.” Quote at random, you cannot fail to alight upon a significant line. One feels, after mastering an essay by this modern prophet, that life has become a different thing. He feels ashamed of the low ideals and petty pursuits of his past, and he resolves to seek a higher plane, to live in the true sense of the word. The words of this great, serene, pure-souled man keep ringing in his consciousness, "Trust thyself.” "Accept the place the Divine Providence has found for you." “Be it how it will, do right now.” “Life only avails, not the having lived." "Nothing can bring you peace but yourself. Nothing can bring you peace but the triumph of principles.”-F. L. Pattee in the Chautauquan.
If thy life seems to thee a useless burden, still bear it bravely, and thou shalt find at last that, like St. Christopher, thou hast carried a god across the troubled stream of time. Whosoever does what is right in a generous and brave spirit feels that he acts in harmony with eternal laws, and is, in his deep soul, conscious of Divine approval. —Bishop Spaulding.
CONDUCTED BY CHAS. H. ALLEN.
A Little Wood Lore.
man colony in northern Pennsylvania, on one of the many spurs of
the Alleghany Mountains. The colony had purchased the tract of land upon which Ole Bull, the then celebrated violinist, had attempted to found a Danish colony, and failed.
It was a rough, heavily-wooded region, the timber being beech, birch, maple, and linden, with many large tracts of pine and hemlock. The underbrush was chiefly laurel, which growing to the height of from five to eight feet, with the interlacing branches, made a somewhat difficult barrier to cut thru. In general appearance this laurel is much like our manzanita.
The country is well watered, there being many fine trout streams, finding their way into the Alleghany River. For weeks at a time we camped in these dense forests, sleeping on beds made of hemlock boughs or from thick, springy moss that we could easily remove from the fallen timber.
On some of the upper ranges there was no water, and when working here we had to rely upon the sap of the birch tree for drinking water. In the spring—and we tried to lay out our work so as to survey there in the spring-one tree would furnish abundant sap for our whole camp. It made excellent coffee, as it contained all the sugar needed.
Often during the day, as we became thirsty, the axman would "box" tree, and in a few minutes the box would be full of ice cold sap, a pleasant and refreshing drink.
The beech trees were my delight, tall, straight and smooth. They were laden, in the fall, with nuts. The beechnut is a small three-cornered nut, a little troublesome to peel--for they are peeled not cracked-but it is very toothsome.
Before the frosts open the burrs to let them fall, the bears being very fond of them, climb the trees, and with their strong arms pulling in the branches, crunch burr, nut and all. I have seen hundreds of trees having the topmost branches all broken down by bears. After the first severe frost the burrs open, and then a good wind sends the nuts to the ground, where the bears can get them with less difficulty. We were never fortunate enough to find one feeding, for our party was rather noisy, but I have often seen one. sneaking away at our approach.
The only bears in this region were the small black bears. been grizzlies we might not have felt so safe. We used often to come upon a hedgehog or a porcupine. These were large, unwieldy fellows, not a par
ticle afraid, for by rolling themselves into a ball their formidable quills afforded them ample protection. There were plenty of deer all thru the mountains, with once in a great while an elk. Gray squirrels were numerous. I remember them as being a full size larger than the California gray squirrel, and that they had a longer and more bushy tail.
One day, while lying on the bank of a fine trout stream, regretting that I had no fishing tackle with me, I noticed a singular display of knowledge, or perhaps instinct, on the part of a water-snake. He was lying stone-still on the shady side of a little pool. Suddenly, like a flash, his head pierced the water, and almost as suddenly it brought to the surface a trout, full six inches long. He had fastened his fangs into the trout on either side of the dorsal fin. The trout struggled bravely but could not break loose. When in the water it had the advantage, and it was too heavy for the snake to hold above the water, nor could he carry it up the bank, for it was very steep. I became intensly interested and wanted to know the result.
At last the snake, coiling his tail and a part of his body around a root that projected out into the water, succeeded in raising the fish clear out of water, where he held it until it ceased to struggle, and was dead. The snake now uncoiled his body, let the trout down into the water, and drifted down stream to where the bank was lower, and then swam ashore.
I suppose he would now have attempted to swallow it, but I thought it was too large, and might injure him, and besides I wanted that trout for my supper. It was, perhaps, a mean thing to do, but the snake could get more, and I could not.
Question: How did the snake know that the trout would drown out of water, while snakes may be drowned in water ?
It was a wild, free life and gave me back my health and strength, and I returned to my life work, -teaching.
When we see it written rite.
We know it is not written right,
Must not be written wright nor write,
- CHAS. H. ALLEN.
Puntuate This so As to Make it possibly True.
I saw a serpent with a fiery tail
I saw a comet shower down hail
I saw a tree crawling on the ground
I saw a house high as a moon or higher
- CHAS. H. ALLEN.