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Articles in the April Magazines. Note-This is not a hastily prepared list of articles taken from the index. The articles have all been read and found to contain much that the teacher should know and can make useful. Many of our teachers, especially in rural districts, do not have the run of the magazines, but from this list can select such articles as treat of subjects in which they are interested, and if they like, ordor the magazine from the nearest dealer. Most of them are on sale at reasonable rates, and no teacher will regret buying one, who is guided by this list.-EDITOR. Scribner's Magazine—The Charm of Paris (Ida M. Tarbell).

The Kangaroo Rat (Errest Seton-Thompson). Nature Study.

John Ruskin (W. C. Brownell).
Harper's Magazine-Municipal Art (Chas. H. Caffin).

Lord Pauncefoto of Preston (Chalmers Roberts).
A Successful Colonial Experiment-Hongkong (Poultney Bigelow).
The Problem of Asia (Capt. A. T. Mahan) II.

Some Unsolved Scientific Problems (Henry Smith Williams).
Popular Science Monthly-Latest Developments with the X-Rays(John Trowbridge).

A Hundred Years of Chemistry (F. W. Clarke).
Genuine Starch Factories (Byron D. Halsted) Chemistry of Plants.
The Science of Art Form (D. Cady Eaton).

Recent Years of Egyptian Exploration (W. M. F. Petrie).
Century Magazine–The Dulce-Piji Family-A study of Marmosets(Justine Ingersoll).

Fashionable Paris (Richard Whiteing).
The Greatest Wonder in the Chinese World (Eliza R. Scidmore).
The Sculptor French (Wm. A. Coffin).
Browning in Asolo (Katherine C. Bronson).
The Kertuckian (John Gilmer Speed).
Government Telegraph in Great Britian (W. 8. Harwood).

The Industrial Rovolution of the Power-Tool (Chas. Barnard).
Cosmopolitan-Niagara in Winter (Orrin E. Dunlap).

Tbe Babies of Chinatown (Mary Davison).
How to Make a Sun-dial (Harold Jacoby).

Native Titles in the United States (Harry Thurston Peck).
The Perry Magazine (March)—The Ministry of Fictures II (G. Stanloy Hall).

Art and the Child (Irene Weir).
The Value of Pictures in Teaching English Literature (Mary P. Frye)
Interior Decoration of School-houses (Walter Gilman Page).

The Use of Geographical Pictures (Chas. P. Linnott).
Atlantic MonthlyThe Consular Service of the United States. I (Geo. F. Parker).

The Perplexity of a College President (One of the Guild).
The Forests of the Yosemite Park (John Muir).
Co-operation in the West (W. S. Harwood).

The Political Horizon II (Henry Loomis Nelson).
New England Magazine-American History and English Historians (Ed. M. Chap-

The Robin's Nest (Sarah J. Eddy) Nature Study.
The Alcotts in Harvard (Annie M. L. Clark).
The Superintendent of Schools (Ed. P. Pressey).
A Government of Boys, for Boys, by Boys (M. B. Thrasher).
New England in Baltimore (Wm. T. Brigham).
A Chapter on Norway.

Reform in Tenement Houses-Editor's table.
McClure's Magazine–The American Invasion of China (Wm. B. Parsons).

The Ice-Breaker “Ermack” (Earl Mayo).

An Arctic Day and Night (Walter Wellman).

Prof. Huxley's Start in Life (Leonard Huxley).
The Bookman–The Politician as Literary Material (Arthur B. Maurice).

Neil Munro (Jas. MacArthur).
Richard Hovey (Curtis H. Page).
The New Loaders of American Illustration III (Regina Armstrong).

Great Newspapers of Continental Europe IV (Eugene Limedorfer).
The Forum-The Need for Advanced Commercial Education (H. A. Stimson).

Literature as a Profession (Brander Matthews).
Canals from the Great Lakes to the Sea (T. W. Symons).
The Superstructure of Science (W. J. McGee).

A Tuberculosis Quarantine not Practicable (Wm. P. Munn).
Review of Reviews—"'Learning by Doing" at Hampton (Albert Shaw).

The Great Steel Makers of Pittsburg (Julius Moritzen).
Publicity: A Remedy for the Evils of Trusts (J. W. Jonks).

The Constitution and the Territories (Harry Pratt Judson).
Overland MonthlyEvolution of the Northwest (W. A. Tenney).

Sea-Cucumbers, Starfishes and Sea-Urchins of California (A. G. Maddren). North American Review - War (Emi e Zola).

The United States and Puerto Rico (Jos. B. Foraker).
The Paris Exposition (B. D. Woodward).
Characteristics of English Fiction (Geo. Moore).
Food Adulteration (W. E. Mason).
Reason and Religious Bolief-Articles by St. George Mivart, Prof. Hoffman,

and Rov. M. J. Savage. Educational Review-Status of Education at the Close of the Century (Nicholas

Murray Butler).
Bibliography of Education for 1899 (I. I. Wyer and Elizabeth E. Lorà).
Education-Arrested Development in Children as Produced by Injudicious School

Methods (Wm. T. Harris).
State Universities of the West; Their Rise and Growth (J. L. Pickard).
The Education of English Children (Lizzie F. Hussey).
The Educational Program of Foreign Missions (Jas. H. Ross).

MANUAL TRAINING IN THE NORMAL. The Chico Normal School gives fifty lessons in manual training, Los Angeles one hundred and sixty, San Jose one hundred, while San Francisco and San Diego give no time to the subject.

Teachers and leading educators believe in manual training, while parents and superintendents are opposed. One parent expressed his views as follows : “Over at my school the boys and girls have too much manual training, milking cows, raking hay, washing dishes, etc. They need to study books more ; the fad may be worked off on city children, but it won't work with farm children.” However, after hearing a paper by James E. Addicott, who emphasized the way in which manual training exercises made arithmetic and geometry of more interest to the pupils, he apologized by saying he never heard that it meant anything more than using carpenter's tools.

Work is the most trite, yet huge of words. It causes a man not only to make the most of his ability-it is the only thing on earth which can make him make the most of himselt

, which means making a higher and broader and deeper self.-R. V. Risley, in the Bookman.

California State Educational Commission.


HE Commission of seventy-five members, selected by Superintendent of Public

Instruction Thos. J. Kirk, President Benj. Ide Wheeler, of the University of
California; and President David Starr Jordan, of Stanford University, in ac-

cordance with a resolution adopted by the State Teachers' Association, December, 1899, in Sacramento, met in the rooms of the Board of Education of San Francisco, April 12, 1900, at 10 A. M.

The meeting was called to order by Superintendent of Public Instruction Thos. J. Kirk. H. Weinstock of Sacramento, was elected president; Professor Elmer E. Brown was chosen vice-president; G. W. Beattie of Berkeley was made secretary. The roll call (corrected) showed the following members present: Edward F. Adams, Wrights.

E. O. Larkins, Visalia. Alden Anderson, Suisun.

J. W. Linscott, Santa Cruz. Jas. A. Barr, Stockton.

Chas. F. Lummis, Los Angeles. G. W. Beattie, Berkeley.

C. W. Mark, San Francisco. H. M. Bland, San Jose.

W. S. Melick, Pasadena. Elmer E. Brown, Berkeley.

Frank Morton, San Francisco. John E. Budd, Stockton.

Chas. A. Murdock, San Francisco. Frederic Burk, San Francisco.

C. L. McLane, Fresno. Rev. T. F. Burnham, Vallejo.

J. W. McClymonds, Oakland.
C. W. Childs, San Jose.

J. B. McChesney, Oakland.
Ellwood P. Cubberley, Stanford University. Mayor Jas. D. Phelan, San Francisco.
Horace Davis, San Francisco.

Senator Chester A. Rowell, Fresno.
Dr. E. R. Dille, Oakland.

Arthur Rogers, San Francisco. F. E. Dunlap, Stockton.

R. M. Shackelford, Paso Robles.
Robert Furlong, San Rafael.

P. W. Smith, Auburn.
Mrs. Julia Hughes Gilbert, Stanford Uni. Judge Edward Sweeney, Redding.
Jas. W. Graham, Hanford.

John Swett, Martinez.
Will S. Green, Colusa.

George L. Sackett, Ventura. Mrs. Phæbe A. Hearst, San Francisco. R. H. Webster, San Francisco. Timothy Hopkins, San Francisco.

H. Weinstock, Sacramento.
Edward Hyatt, Riverside.

Pres. Benj. Ide Wheeler, Berkeley.
Pres. David Starr Jordan, Stanford Uni. E. B. Willis, Sacramento.
Supt. Thos. J. Kirk, Sacramento.

-Total 45.

A sub-committee of eight members, Superintendent Thos. J. Kirk, Elmer E. Brown, Ellwood P. Cubberley, J. W. McClymonds, J. W. Linscott, Robert Furlong, R. M. Shackelford, and G. W. Beattie had been appointed to outline work for the Commission, and a synopsis of their recommendations had been mailed to each member. (See April number of WESTERN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION.)

After organizing, the Commission proceeded to consider the recommedations of the sub-committee.

On behalf of said committee Superintendent Robert Furlong presented a scheme for certificating teachers, which, after amendment by the Commission, was adopted in the following form as the sense of the meeting: SUGGESTED PLAN FOR THE CERTIFICATION OF TEACHERS.

I. The public schools of California, other than those supported exclusively by State aid, shall be classed as high schools, technical schools, elementary schools (including primary and grammar grades), and kindergarten-primary schools, and no teacher shall be employed to teach in any school if the certificate held by the teacher is of a class below that of a school to be taught.

II. The State Board of Education shall name the credentials upon which persons may be certificated to teach in the bigh schools of this State. The credentials must be, in tbe judgment of said Board, the equivalent of a diploma of graduation from the University of California, with a recommendation from the faculty thereof, for a teachers' certificate of high school grade. No graduate from said University shall be thus recommended who has not taken the minimum amount of pedagogy prescribed by the State Board of Education. Said Board may also consider he cases of individual applicants, and in doing so may take cognizance of any adeguate evidence of preparation equivalent to that of recommended university graduates which the appli. cants may present

III. County Boards of Education shall be authorized to issue teachers' certificates of four classes, each valid for six years, and renewable at the option of the Board, viz:

HIGH SCHOOL CERTIFICATES entitling the holder to teach in any high schonl or elementary school above che kindergarten grade in the county where issued. High school certificates may be issued only upon the credentials named by the State Board of Education, as provided in Section 2.

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CERTIFICATES, entitling the holder thereof to teach in any elementary school in the county where issued, except kindergarten classes of primary grades. Elementary Scbool Certificates may be issued upon any of the following named credentials. viz:

(a) California State Normal School Diplomas.

(b) Normal School Diplomas from other States, (provided that the California State Board of Education has recognized the school issuing the diploma as having a course of study and training equal to that of the California State Normal Schools).

(c) Elementary school certificates from another county or city and county in California.

KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY SCHOOL CERTIFICATES, entitling the holder thereof to teach in the kindergarten department of the schools in the county where issued. The kindergartenprimary certificate may be issued only to those who hold a valid elementary or high school Certificate, and who in addition thereto hold a diploma from a kindergarten training school of good standing that has been recognized as such by the State Board of Education.

SPECIAL CERTIFICATES, entitling the holder thereof to teach such special branch of learning and in such grades as are named on said certificate; provided, that no special certificate shall be issued to teach in any school, studies other than drawing, music, physical culture, penmanship, and technical or industrial work.

Special certificates may be issued only to holders of elementary or high school certificates, who, by examination or credentials, shall satisfy the County Board of Education of their special fitness to teach one or more of the particular studies for which special certificates may be issued.

IV. The qualifications of applicants for the elementary school certificate may also be determined by examination, for which purpose the County Board of Education may conduct an examination once each year at the county seat.

Elementary school certificates shall be granted on examination to those who satisfactorily
pass the Board test in the following studies, viz:
English Grammar, Composition, Methods of Teaching, Civil Government,


Penmanship, Drawing,

Plane Geometry,

Vocal Music, Botany and Zoology, Algebra. Elementary Physics, Bookkeeping, School Law, Defining and Word Analysis, History of the United States,

English and American Literature.

V. County Boards of Education may renew certificates issued by them prior to the adoption of this law and now in force, and may grant permanent ones to the holders of certificates who shall pass satisfactory examinations in such branches as do not appear on their certificates, or in the record of the examination upon which the original Icertificate was granted (provided that no certificate shall be renewed, when, during a period of two years next preceding the date when such certificate would expire if not renewed, the holder has not been engaged in educa tional work).

All certificates and diplomas now valid in California shall continue in force and effect for the full term for which they were granted.

The State Board of Education shall discontinue the issuance of the Educational Diploma of the high school grade and of the grammar grade.

Life diplomas of these grades may be issued as follows: High school, elementary school, and kindergarten-primary school, the same to be valid certificates thruout the State when registered in the county where holder is to teach.

The State Board of Education is authorized to recognize life certificates and life diplomas from other states, fix the grade of the same, and by its approval make the same valid in this state.

The recommendations submitted by Mr. Furlong were accompanied by an explanatory paper. This was supplemented by a paper from G. W. Beattie, giving recently collected data concerning the supply of teachers the state, and the demand for the same, a statement of the tendencies in California in the matter of certificating teachers, and a discussion of the future of county boards of education.

The recommendations of the Committee on Definition of Grades was read.

The second proposed substitute for Article IX, Section 6, of the Constitution was adopted after full discussion. It reads as follows:

"The public school system shall include primary and grammar schools, and such high schools, evening schools, normal schools, and technical schools as may be established by the Legislature, or by municipal or district authority; but the entire revenue derived from the State School Fund, and the revenue derived from taxes collected for primary and grammar schools shall be applied exclusively to the report of primary and grammar schools. The revenue derived from taxes collected for high schools and technical schools shall be applied exclusively to the support of such schools."

The committees' recommendations in regard to -1. A governing board for normal schools. 2. Time of electing school trustees and teachers. 3. Compulsory education. 4. Trustees' day. 5. Concentration of rural schools and transportation of pupils. 6. Technical education, were adopted.

The recommendation that the Superintendent of Public Instruction be nominated by an educational body and not by political conventions, was referred back to the Sub-Committee without approval or disapproval.

Under the topic State Text-Books," Professor Cubberley moved that the Commission refer. to the sub-committee a suggestion looking to a free text-book system. Adopted.

A motion by President Jordan that all matters approved by the Commission be referred to the Sub-Committee, with Messrs. Dunlap and Sweeney added to the same, to be put in the form of bills, was adopted.

The Committee were instructed to submit the bills prepared by them to the Code Commis sion and were also authorized to print their recommendations.

A Finance Committee consisting of R. M. Shackelford, Mayor James D. Phelan, Senator Chester Rowell, Horace Davis and C. A. Murdock, was appointed to secure funds for printing and other expenses.

Provision was made for a committe to convey the recommendations of the Commission to the Biennial Convention of City and County Superintendents.

Messrs. Weinstock, Kirk and Melick were appointea to confer with Governor Gage in regard to the recommendations of the Commission.

The original appointing committee was authorized to appoint new members to fill any vacancies that may occur in the commission.

After adopting votes of thanks to the California School Masters' Club for its hospitality, to the San Francisco Board of Education for the use of its rooms, to the San Francisco Press for courtesies, and to Mr. H. Weinstock for his valuable services as presiding officer, the meeting adjourned subject to the call of the Superintendent of Public Instruction.

One kindly deed may turn
The fountain of thy soul
To love's sweet day-star, that shall o'er thee burn
Song as its currents rull!-Holmes.

Prudence is that virtue by which we discern what is proper to be done under the various circumstances of time and place.-Milton.

Prudence is the necessary ingredient in all the virtues, without which they degenerate into folly and excess -- Jeremy Collier.

The true test of civilization is not the census, not the size of cities, not the crops; no, but the kind of men the country turns out.-Lyman J. Gage.

The human mind has much more power of distinguishing between right and wrong, and between true and false, than of estimating with accuracy the comparative gravity of opposite evily. It is nearly always right in judging between right and wrong. It is generally wrong in estimating degrees of guilt, and the root of its error lies in the extreme difficulty of put. ting ourselves into the place of those whose characters or circumstances are radically different from our own.

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