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women now enjoy, and with her bigher education, come new duties which women cannot shirk, for they are indirectly in her province - the province of home; and whatever concerns the home must be inevitably met by woman, and by the mother especially.”

The balance of Mrs. Pechin's paper was devoted to the manner of spending the annual six weeks' vacation, and will, we hope, be published at some future time.

The Relation of the Parent to the Public School from a Mother's

Standpoint.
Read at Golden Gate Mothers' Meeting

By ANNIE LITTLE BARRY.

Education in the true sense of the word is formation of character, "Character is power." How may our children best receive this education? Shall we leave the work to be done by the teacher, or shall our children's education be a part of our life work?

First, let us begin with ourselves. The average mother is a busy mother, and has little time for self-improvement, but we should so divide and arrange our time that we can progress, be it ever so little. Social duties, wifely duties, the claim of motherhood should not so monopolize our time that we do not read the daily papers and at least one good book a month, striving as we journey along thru life to learn a little every day A mother may selfishly give all her time and thought to making Mary's dresses that Mary may look well, she may fill Johnnie's stomach with goodies he were better off without, and still not do her duty to her children.

When we stop and think how much more of our children's time is spent in the school room than with the mother, we well have cause to be anxious. There is much, very much to be desired in the Public Schools. Many of us can never feel that it is right to give one teacher forty or fifty restless little beings to control and interest. We believe it is a hardship for the teacher, and an injustice to the children. We should never lose an opportunity to express ourselves everywhere and to everybody – except to our children. A parent should never criticise in the presence of the child anything pertaining to the child's school life. Let us remember that back of all principals and teachers is a school board, and that every school board is governed by very necessity and to a degree by school boards of other states. If some of us feel there is a tendency toward fads and cramming, let us be patient and hope that these errors will in time be corrected. We are very much inclined to forget conditions as they were when we were children. None of us would like to relegate our children to school methods in vogue when we were young. The world is marching on. We and our children are part of the procession. Let us keep step to the march of progress, trusting that the way may lead us to more practical, more thoro education each day.

It is the business, the privilege, the duty and the right of every parent to visit the public schools and visit them often. We should know the sanitary conditions of our school houses, should become acquainted with the principals and teachers of our children. Not every teacher in San Francisco has ability any more than every carpenter, every doctor, or every mother. One child may do good work with a teacher, another child in the same family may fail with this teacher. It is rot always justice to blame the teacher, but when a mother becomes convinced that a child cannot get on with his teacher the best plan is to ask to have him changed to another class; but first be very sure.

We cannot all expect every one of our children to stand at the very head of the class. It is not a sign of dullness of intellect if they do not, neither is it a sign of failure on the part of the teacher to do her duty. Few of the great men and women of the world distinguished themselves at school. Some children have talent in one direction, some in another. Good conscientious work is all we have a right to expect. Let us be reasonable.

Many of us chaff greatly under the rules of school, especially if we have managed our children without laying down many rules. Let us remember the diversity of temperament, the different home environment of the pupils, and urge our children to conform with school rules to the letter of the law. Remember none of us are infallible and perhaps there are a lack of rules at home. To teach our children to do right for right's sake, rather than for fear of punishment, and a consideration for others, would help the public school teachers not a little.

No class of the world's toilers have such a demand on their nerve force as teachers. Think, mothers, what a demand two or three children make on your patience; what would it be if you had forty restless little beings to contend with, to keep employed, and under restraint for five hours each day? It is the duty of every parent to speak kind words to her children's teacher, "Kind words are the music of the world." There never lived a teacher who was not deserving of some kind word. Teachers would fail less often in their duty were parents more generous with kind words.

The mother-school is after all the most important; there are lessons no one may teach our children but ourselves. The problem of childhood is the greatest problem of today. The responsibility of parents, how great. The relation of the parent to the public school should be one of helpfulness, of co operation, never fault-finding and grumbling. The more interest we parents take in public schools, the better will we be able to regulate some of the things we do not now like. Remembering interest is not interference.

And thank our wise Creator for the public school system of the United States, which helps develop character and make a great and powerful nation.

PRESIDENT WILLIAM MCKINLEY

To the Young People of Oakland, California: "There is nothing better for the United States than EDUCATED CITIZENSHIP; and, my young friends, there never was a time in all our history when knowledge was so essential to success as now. Everything requires knowledge. What we want of the young people now is exact knowledge. You want to know whatever you undertake to do a little better than any. body else. And if you will do that, then there is nothing that is not within your reach, I don't care what it is.

And what you want besides education is CHARACTER - CHARACTER! There is nothing that will serve a young man or an old man so well as good character. And did you ever think that it is just as easy to form a good habit as it is to form a bad one? and it is just as hard to break a good habit as it is to break a bad one? So get the good ones and keep them. With EDUCATION and CHARACTER you will not only achieve individual success, but will contribute largely to the progress of your country.”

A card containing the above was sent to all the schools in Oakland, Alameda County, by the County Board of Education.

MISS ELIZABETH HUGHES OF ENGLAND ON CO-EDUCATION

IN AMERICAN SCHOOLS.

"Let me suggest a principle which could be used to decide upon what should go into a curriculum. The end of education is preparation for life, and all of life is not to be taken up by the earning of a livelihood. We are not to be prepared to be only makers of wealth. There are two ways of preparation - tbe direct and indirect. It pays us in the end to make our children intelligent human beings first and then prepare them for special work. The real function of the school teacher is to give indirect preparation for life -- to teach how to spend well as to acquire wealth. Viewed in this light co-education from the curriculum side presents no difficulty because the indirect preparation can be given boys and girls together.

“Now, regarding the companionship of young people under the co-education plan. Many yourg people waste time in a foolish sort of social life while they are studying. They engage in flirtations, and it must be admitted that co education is more or less of a failure in America because of the foolish social existence of the young people at school or at college. In my opin. ion the young people could be so divided into classes that those who are strong enough to stand alone could still proceed under the co-educational plan. There is a very large class of students who in the right atmosphere could not lose anything by co-education. In England the teachers see to it that the human environment is helping and not hindering the students. During the dangerous age of adolescence it is surely the duty of the teacher to see that the boys and girls help and do not hurt one another. I do not think many American students are worn out by hard work. The kind of society you have in the American colleges is not the kind I would ex pect to find here. The social life of college men and women ought to be better than that of other people.

"Another objection raised to co-education is that it destroys the bloom of womanliness. Is my opinion the bloom of womanliness is more likely to be rubbed off if you plunge the graduate of a girl's school or of a girl's college right out into the society of boys and men with whom they have not been brought up."

Official.

STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION.

H. T. GAGE, President of the Board

Governor, Sacramento.. THOMAS J. KIRK, Secretary of the Board ..Superintendent Public Instruction, Sacramento. BENJAMIN IDE WHEELER

. President University of California, Berkeley. FLETCHER B. DRESSLAR, Prof. of Theory and Practice of Education, University of Cal., Berkeley. MORRIS ELMER DAILEY

President State Normal School, San Jose. E. T. PIERCE..

President State Normal School, Los Angeles. C. C. VAN LIEW

.... President State Normal School, Chico. SAMUEL T. BLACK

President State Normal School, San Diego. FREDERIC BURK..

President State Normal Scbool, San Francisco..

REPORT OF THE STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION.

The State Board of Education met in San Francisco on September 14,. 1901. All members of the Board, except the Governor, were present.

The following were adopted as the rules of the State Board governing the. accrediting of Normal Schools of other states, and the granting of certificates on diplomas thereof by County and City and County Boards of Education in pursu. ance of (1) (b) Section 1775 of the Political Code.

1. In determining the rank and accrediting of Normal Schools of other States, as provided by (1) (b) of Section 1775 of the Political Code, the State Board of Education will hereafter require that applications for accrediting shall be made in writing by the executive head of the Normal School making such application, and that it shall definitely set forth:

(a) The actual requirements for admission to the school;

(6) The period of instruction as may be shown in part by a certified copy of the course of study;

(c) The character of the work required and the length of time devoted to practice teaching.

2. A graduate of an accredited Normal School shall, in making application to a County or City and County Board of Education for a certificate, be required to present with his Normal School diploma a recommendation from the faculty of such Normal School, specifically stating the qualifications submitted by the student for admission to the Normal School, the number of months of actual attendance at the Normal School, the number of weeks and the number of hours per week spent in actual teaching (not observation).

3. The Secretary of the State Board of Education is hereby directed to send a copy of these rules to the State Superintendents of the different States, that thru them presidents or principals of Normal Schools of other States may have notice of the manner and method adopted in California for the accrediting of Normal Schools.

The Normal Schools mentioned below, being designated as of equal rank with the State Normal Schools of California, and having substantially complied with the foregoing rules, County or City and County Boards of Education of California may grant to graduates holding the highest diplomas from these schools the grammar school certificate of California, without examination.

Colorado State Normal School, Greeley.
Illinois State Normal Schools:

1. Northern State Normal School, Dekalb.
2. Illinois State Normal University, Normal.

3. Eastern Illinois State Normal School, Charleston.
Indiana State Normal School, Terre Haute.
Iowa State Normal School, Cedar Falls.
Kansas State Normal School, Emporia.
Massachusetts State Normal Schools:
1. Bridgeport.

5. Salem.
2. Framingham.

6. Westerfield
3. Fitchburg.

7. Worc ster.
4. Lowell.
Michigan State Normal Schools;

1. Ypsilanti.
2. Mt. Pleasant.

3. Marquett.
Minnesota State Normal Schools:

1. Mankato.
2. Moorhead.
3. St. Cloud,

4. Winona.
Missouri State Normal Schools:

I. Kirksville.

2. Warrensburg.
New Jersey State Normal School, Trenton.
New York State Normal Schools.
1. Potsdam.

7. Albany.
2. Oswego.

8. Brockport. 3. Cortland.

9. Geneseo. 4. Jamaica.

10. Fredonia.
5. Newpaltz

11. Buffalo.
6 Oneonta,
Nevada State Normal School (Normal Department Nevada University), Reno.
Rhode Island State Normal School, Providence.
Wisconsin State Normal Schools:

1. West Superior.
2. Oshkosh.

Action respecting the accrediting of other Normal Schools, and life diplomas and life certificates of other States, was deferred for further consideration and to a future meeting of the State Board.

The following named Kindergarten Training Schools were accredited by the State Board of Education and County, and City and County Boards of Education of California are authorized to grant to graduates of such institutions the kindergarten-primary certificate, as provided in (C) (3) Section 1775 of the Political Code:

Golden Gate Kindergarten Association of San Francisco, Cal.
Wylie Training School, Madison, Wisconsin.
Chicago Kindergarten Institute, Chicago, Illinois.

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The following resolutions were adopted in reference to the granting of State diplomas and documents:

WHEREAS, At almost every meeting of this Board there are several applications for diplomas and normal documents that do not comply with the requirements of the Political Code relative to the granting of the same, or with the rules adopted by the Board; therefore, be it

Resolved, That the following information be sent to the various City and County Superintendents and Boards of Education, thruout the State, for their guidance in recommending teachers for State credentials.

Resolved, That the Secretary is hereby directed to return all applications that do not fully comply with the requirements of the law and rules of the State Board of Education.

(1) Section 1521 of the Political Code requires that applicants for life diplomas must have taught successfully for forty-eight months in public schools or in regularly organized private schools of recognized standing.

(2) The certificate accompanying the application must be a valid one, granted under one or more of the provisions of Sections 1771, 1772, 1773, 1774, 1775, and 1791 of the Political Code, in full force and effect, and the applicant must have beld the same for at least one year.

(3) If the certificate has been renewed, it must show the date of renewal (not the date at which such renewal will expirė — the law fixes that). A renewal, being the act of the Board of Education and not of the Superintendent, must be attested by the seal of the Board, just as the original certificate to be valid must be attested by the seal.

(4) All applicants for high school life diplomas must show a successful experience of twenty months in the California State University, a California State Normal School, or a high school established under the laws of this State.

In all cases of application for life diplomas, according to Section 1521 of the Political Code, there must be shown a successful experience of at least twenty one months in the public schools of California.

(5) The two years' successful experience mentioned in subdivision third of Section 1503 of the Political Code, is construed by this Board to mean twenty months.

(6) All rules or regulations heretofore adopted in conflict with the foregoing resolutions are hereby repealed.

In pursuance of the provisions of subdivision 12th of Sec. 1670 of the Political Code, relative to text-books to be used in the high schools of California, the Board adopted a list of books, from which high school boards must select books for use in their respective high schools, in the following subjects : Latin, Greek, History, Economics, Physics, Chemistry, Physiology, Physical Geography, Zoology, Geology, Botany, Geometry, Trigonometry, Arithmetic, Algebra, Commercial. A list of books on additional subjects will probably be adopted at the next meeting of the Board. (The list above given is too long to be published herewith, but has been printed in pamphlet form and sent to County and City Superintendents and to the High School Boards of the State.)

Action on applications for the special high school credential, as provided for in 2 (b) section 1521 of the Political Code was deferred until the next meeting of the Board.

The Committee on Grievances reported in the matter of the charges preferred against Mr. Leslie Jones, a teacher of Humboldt County, of unprofessional conduct respecting the use of intoxicating liquors that they did not deem said charges of such gravity or character as to warrant the State Board in taking action thereon, and recommended that such charges be dismissed; and the report was adopted.

**

The following-named persons were granted diplomas and documents in accordance with the recommendation of the Committee on Credentials:

Life Diplomas of the Grammar School. Carolyn E. Atherton, Marin; Stella M. Atwood, Riverside; M. Emilie Bergen, Alameda; Edward Blackman, Tulare; Alice H. Blanchard, Contra Costa; Mitto Blevins, Mendocino; Frank August Bouelle, Los Angeles; Mrs. Frances E. Briones,

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