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between ethics and religion makes the association a natural one. History has countless points of contact with religion. The children cannot be led to a truly sympathetic appreciatlon of what Longfellow and Whittier and Lowell wrote unless they share the religious aspirations of these men and are acquainted with the Scriptures, the fountain from which they drew allusion and
ideal of life. Prof. Gailey, the head of the English Department in our State • University, once said in my presence that the greatest difficulty they had to
meet was the students' ignorance of the English Bible. Pictures are so attractive to children, and the best pictures are so largely Christian in subject, that picture study opens an especially fruitful line of religious teaching. The many beautiful groups of the Holy Family and the Christ before the Doctors cannot fail to enlist the interest of children. For the teacher who is in sympathy with the subject of religion and who is in sympathy with the child, there are countless opportunities for bringing the subject and the child together. If there are problems to meet, let us say, as President McKinley did at Redlands, “We have problems to face, but the American people never run away from problems. We will meet them in the fear of God.”
Already in our land the last few years have witnessed a great advance along the line of Bible study in the institutions of higher learning, so that now there are in most of our leading colleges and universities courses of Bible study, in which as thoro work is required as in other branches. Tho these 'courses are more than usually difficult, they are largely elected by young men of all shades of religious belief and unbelief. The United States Bureau of Education recommends that such thoro Bible study be included in the curriculum of every college in the country, state institutions included." The report adds that if the time has not yet come when it would be fitting to press the claims of formal Bible study upon certain state institutions, meantime there is an abundant opportunity
to include Hebrew history in ancient history, Biblical masterpieces of literature in literary courses, Biblical ethics, in general ethics, until, in entire conformity to law, the students are put in possession of a fair knowledge of Biblical facts."
THE FUNCTION OF THE FAMILY AND THE CHURCH IN
RELIGIOUS EDUCATION. Even more than the State, the Family is responsible for the religious education of the child. Neither can rightly shirk this responsibility nor wholly transfer it to the other.
“Not in entire forgetfnlness,
The mind of the little child is very susceptible to religious feeling, and great care is needed that it be wisely directed and healthfully developed. He can be taught reverence and love and a sense of dependence upon God, very early. Care is needed that dread and dishonoring fear be not mingled with his awe and reverence, and that religious feeling be kept normal and not allowed to become morbid or hysterical. It is so easy to employ the dread of God's displeasure, the fear of the "all-seeing eye” as an aid to parental discipline. The sensitive little conscience, too, may be unduly wrought upon for a like purpose. The theoretical process in religion advances, Rosenkranz says, by three stages, of which the first is religious feeling: to this the corresponding practical process is self-consecration. The utmost care is needed that the religious feeling of the little child result in the corresponding practical process in religion, self-consecration.
Family life is the type of the Christian religion. It was the Savior himself who taught us to say “Our Father which art in lieaven."
In his study of religion, Dr. Bailey, now of the University of Chicago, classes the infant's love of his mother as the beginning of religion. Froebel calls pure human, parental and filial relations the key to the relations of a genuine Christian life, and says that true living religion must come to a man in his infancy.
Then the little child from his earliest consciousness lives a Christian life. An earlier age than this, which knew less of child life, deemed necessary the turning of the soul from sin to God after years of discretion had been reached. A consciousness of conversion was regarded essential evidence that the Christian life was in the soul. But parents and teachers, representatives of the home and the pulpit, are now appreciating that the earlier the child enters upon his spiritual inheritance, the greater is his growth and the less is he subject to serious relapses. That so his life, if it have less fervor and intensity, has more of steadiness and symmetry, more of firmness and of spiritual grace.
The church, too, recognizes teaching as one of her functions. She iostills religious feeling and brings about self-consecration. She helps the child to form religious images and affords expression of religious life in confirmation or uniting with the church, in her services of worship and communion. Above all, by instructing her members in the true relation of God to man and of man to God, she trains them to cheerful reconciliation to their lot, a high ideal of Christian character. For these purposes she employs various means, some of which, as the sermon, have teaching as the chief end; in others, as in the Young People's Societies, the devotional element is uppermost, but incidentally, thru study of the Word, instruction is given.
One feature of the Church work deserves especial mention in this connection. It is the Student Young Men's and the Student Young Women's Christian Associations of the colleges and universities. These, with their large and flourishing Bible classes, intended tho they are for devotional purposes, and distinct from the Bible classes of the curriculum, are fruitful in real knowledge of the Scriptures. There are now nearly twenty thousand students of our colleges and universities thus studying the Bible.
THE SUNDAY-SCHOOL PROBLEM. The Surday school is the great educational institution of the Church for its children.
What is its problem?
It would reach all the children of the land, and it has no compulsory attendance law to support its effort.
It would instruct systematically in the most important branch of education, but attendance is irregular and many of its teachers are so untrained that they would not be trusted by the state to teach any secular branch.
It would give thoro acquaintance with the contents of the Bible and some knowledge of its geography and antiquities, and it would make the application of the truth of the Bible to the life of the children. And to do all this the Sunday school has a scanty thirty or forty minutes once a week.
How has the Sunday school met its problem?
On the knowledge side, it must be confessed that it has not succeeded well. Nicholas Murray Butler, whom I have already quoted, says that under present conditions "Religious knowledge, and with religious knowledge a good deal else which is worth saving, will go out of the life of the next generation." And Prof. De Garmo of Cornell, in comparing the system of religious instruction in our country with that of England and Germany, pronounces their system as regards intelligence in religious matters "immeasurably superior to our own," Yet he goes on to say that in matters of conduct and character the results are relatively satisfactory. England was the first home of the modern Sunday school, and it has flourished there beside the well-developed system of religious instruction in the public schools. In practice the more spiritual as well as the doctrinal part of the teaching is done by the Sunday school. So our Sunday school needs for the full and satisfactory solution of its problem the aid of the day school in giving religious instruction, especially on the side of knowledge and intelligence.
When home and school and church unite in their efforts, the children will have souls lighted by knowledge of sacred things and warmed with love of the Holy One. Thus, in accordance with the ideals of the new education, they will enter into their scientific, their literary, their aesthetic, tional, their religious inheritance. Then, with powers developed in perfect harmony, they will become men and women of whom it may truly be said that they "saw life steadily and saw it whole."
History Below the High
FRANK J. BROWNE, BERKELEY. The relative period of time covered by the history course in most of the rural schools may be illustrated by the following diagram:
B. C. 2000
B. C. 1000
A, D, 2000
About 4000 years of history are authentic, and filled with materials which may be adapted to the minds of children. Of this 4000 years, but less than 500 years follow the discovery of America by Columbus, and but 125 years are included in our National history. Of the entire growth of civilization, that of the last 125 years is scarcely sufficient to teach the growth of social principles or to trace the course of present tendencies. Tho we learn that the right to “ life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness" is at the basis of our government, we too often fail to learn that blood and treasure have been sacrificed for thousands of years for the same human rights. Our pupils pluck the ripest fruits of civilization, but can scarcely prize their blessings, because they do not relate the fruit to the branch, and trunk, and roots, and soil, and the blood of ages which nourished the tree. The life of a pupil below the high school is chiefly in feeling rather than in reason. pupil is adapted to study the men and events of the times when the race moved more from impulse than for reason. The course of study should require ancient and mediæval history as a basis for the more rational adjustment of social rights as effected by the United States. To this end something like the following could be used:
First and Second Grades.- Stories of our country and anniversary exercises. Programs should be arranged for all grades on such days as October 12th, Thanksgiving, Christmas, February 12th and 22nd, May 3oth, etc.
Third Grade.- A child acquires some historic judgment after a year or more at school, and can readily judge of motives. The deeds of primitive times will be of special interest in connection with the study of Hiawatha and Indian life as a primitive type. The Aryans will lead readily to the westward course of civilization. The Persians, with the wonders of Babylon, and the Jewish captivity, suggest a year of interesting work.
Fourth Grade. — The myths and heroes and customs of Greece constitute rich material from which to select the year's work.
Fifth Grade. - The stories of Rome furnish another year's work filled with intense interest.
Sixth Grade.- The heroes of England, such as Alfred, William the Conqueror, Henry V, Cromwell, etc., teach the great lesson of all educationthe power to achieve.
Seventh and Eighth Grades.- If the preceding matter has been adroitly taught, a pupil will take up the study of the United States with more than usual interest, because he feels in a degree what it has cost the world to establish this “government of the people.”
Each grade should be taught that history is not a list of kings, of battles, of dates; yet some relation should be established, so that even the youngest pupil will not locate Lincoln before Cæsar, Washington before Homer, London before Nineveh. The stories presented to a class should be arranged to indicate their relative times. The following will illustrate:
N. T. Stories
By this method each grade will get a glance at the subject of history as a whole, and special emphasis may be placed upon any period desired.
The teacher who desires to develop the subject in detail should study the following:
Scott's “ Organic Education,”
The development of literature with history is unavoidable. A people of sufficient consequence to hold a place in history has also been thoughtful enough to record beautiful and ennobling thoughts. It is scarcely just to a pupil that he learn of Cæsar and Hannibal and Alexander, and hear nothing of the wisdom and beauty of Virgil and Marcus Aurelius and Lucian and Homer. The growth of thought is surely interesting to young pupils, when they are able to trace the varied literary expression given to a story by the ancients, by Chaucer, by Shakespeare, by Dryden, and other writers. From this standpoint, “Literary Landmarks” is a very suggestive book.
If geography is a study of the earth in relation to human life and activities, which seems to be the accepted meaning, it becomes impossible to teach it rationally apart from history. Each type of life, every form of activity, results from some physical environment, depends upon natural resources and opportunities for suggestion and stimulation. The proper teaching of history involves so much consideration of geography - so completely assimilates it - that there is scarcely sufficient geography left to dignify it as a separate subject, unless it be reorganized into a course in science. For this end, however, the text-books in history and science are yet to be written, and the average teacher is to be imbued with more self-reliance; the school must dispel the attitude of isolation, and blend with the domestic and social and business interests of the world.
IN THE SMOKING CAR. “Here's a good one," said the man from Denver. “What's the difference between a pen and a pencil? Give it up? A pen has to be driven, but a pencil has to be lead. See ?
“The automatic bell buoy beats 'em both,” murmured a quiet little chap who had got on at Cleveland. “It rights itself.”— Philadelphia Press.