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specials in any sense. If they steal, whether from the inside or the outside of stores, there place is in the common jail.
The supreme test of education is good health, mental health, spiritual health, physical health. The aim of all sound education is to make health sound.
Healthy thinking banishes the nightmares of ignorance, superstition, prejudice, false perspective. Wisdom is better than knowledge. It presupposes the presence of knowledge, but means health and sanity besides. Spiritual health includes sanity in the moral judgments and sanity in the exercise of our duties toward God. Good physical health is as much a duty as any other, and every one of you should have some daily exercise, whether it be as active as athletic exercise or not. Sitting on bleachers, it is to be remembered, cannot be counted as athletic exercise.
In the regulation and choice of your college work I doubt not many of you are finding just at this time abundant difficulty, - there so many attractive courses offered, and few free hours in which to put them.
It bas not been my experience that the choice of subjects of study or of individual courses is in any wise so important as students generally think it is. The choice of teachers is vastly more important. In looking back upon their college life I think mature men generally find that the education which has shaped them has had the personal form. I think, furthermore, that I have observed that scholarship of the finest order, inspired, creative scholarship, whenever it emerges, is generally to be accounted for in training and inspiration obtained from some individual teacher.
Some college departments notably produce scholars, others, whose work looks fairer on the surface, do not. Tho it is by no means the sole purpose of a college to produce scholars in the technical sense, I should advise a student, even one who does not aim at creative scholarship, to cast in his lot with a department that is producing scholars. He will get something that is not to be got in a department of the other sort. In these things of the higher life, it is quality that counts, and he will get an impression of quality in work that will serve him well as a standard in after life, whatever he does.
One of the best things to acquire in a college course is the habit of doing day's works regularly and punctually as the days bring them around. Prepare every lesson.
Attend every lecture. Go when it rains. Go when you have a headache. Cuts and all allowances of cuts are an abomination. When you get into business, your employers will not allow you cuts. They will not tolerate a man, who when he faces a duty or is told to do a thing, estimates for a moment the possibility of choosing whether he will do or not do. Life has no such easy going elective system, and colleges ought not to have. Life wants men to do things, because they are appointed to do them, because it is there duty to do them, not because they elect to do them.
Avoid taking work, therefore, under an easy-going teacher. It involves too much risk. It relaxes the fibre of duty. The alumni lists of our universities abound in names of gilted men who are failures in life because they have not known the meaning of must.
If you find something you do not "take to," I should advise you to take it. Do not give up, beaten so early in life. Most of the talk about special adaptedness to this study or that is for youths of sixteen to twenty pure nonsense, begotten either of laziness or of intellectual s'uggishness that will ultimately come to reckoning in any market. Men as I have seen them in college classes differ more in force of will than in any mental quality. One of the chief things to aspire to in a college course is force of will. It can be acquired as a habit. It is acquired thru the concrete experiences of successful struggles, - mostly against yourself. It is good practice to take yourself diurnally by the nape of the neck and hold yourself out at arm's length, just to be assured you have the right grip. It will afford, too, a good opportunity of looking yourself over. Self-control is the best guarantee of will-power.
In your attitude toward your teachers, start out from the beginning in the unshakable faith that they are your personal friends. That is what they all are, I can assure you,—to a man. Some of us may appear more approachable than others, but that is a mere matter of manner. We all like nothing better than to know personally those we teach, and it is your duty to help make it easy for us. Do not make the mistake of going thru college without knowing some of your teachers personally and intimately. If you get into trouble, go to some one of these teachers and tell it all, precisely as it is. I am greatly mistaken if you do not find then beyond a doubt that you
have a friend, and a good one, right in the heart of the faculty. If you cannot do any better go and see the President.
Do not allow yourself under any circumstances to fall into an attitude of opposition to a teacher. He is here to help you, not to oppose you.
He can help you best if you understand each other fully. Co to him and talk the matter over, and do not take the attitude of an attorney for your own case. You may be surprised to find a warmer heart under our shining coat of mail than you dreamed existed. You will never in life find more sympathetic, even indulgent judges than these men who teach you. They all prefer to believe the best things of you, to put the best possible interpretation upon your actions. That is what in practice I find they always do. Their work is all for you. The tests they set yon are for your help and for your good.
If any one should be so lost to a sense of the relationship between himself and his teacher and so lost besides to his sense of honor as a gentleman, as to cheat, -basely to cheat in an examination, whom has he cheated?-against whom has he offended? Against his fellow students who are rated with him under the same test, — that, to be sure; but really after all, his offense, his wrong, is against himself. He has defiled his own honor, branded his own conscience, laid upon himself a horrid burden of sin and wrong that he must carry with him thru life. In after days the memory of his college course will be stained with the thought of dishonor; the very insignia of his alumpusship, which ought to testify before him to a sacred and noble relationship, will cry out against him as stolen goods, as the emblems of fraud, as the tokens of deceit, as the witnesses to a crime his youth conceived against himself. And with himself, his tainted self, he must live and commune all these days; the insignia he may hide out of sight, but the dishonor is with him as long as life lasts. He can never respect himself. Failing in an examination is a small thing, losing one's degree is a small thing, but it is no small thing if you must sit down, in all the silent hours you have to spend with that self of yours, and look upon it, if you look straight and fair, with scorn,-only with bitter scorn.
I have said enough of this. Only let me admonish you by all that is holy, all that is high, all that is good, to make of these college days an experience that shall be a joy and a blessing to your life, and an experience which in after days you can recall with clean delight, to which you can recur for help, encouragement, and uplifting. Resolve to banish from your college life all that is low and mean, and make it sacred to the noblest things and the highest ideals.
There is no better thing to be gained from an education than a faith in high ideals. An education, indeed, which does not inspire such faith is no education at all. Follow the teachers that inspire and uplift. Shun cynicism and all cynics. Revere noble things. Honor noble men and women. Shut your eyes against the words of the detractor and slanderer. Have faith in the right. Be assured it will prevail, for upon it are founded the pillars of the world. Seek unto the bighest things. Do not plan to be second rate. Make all your arrangements to do first rate work and to be a first class man. Be patient; plod along; do day's works honestly, alertly, and always first rately; the results will come. Do not be persuaded to tone down your ideals on the representation that they are too good for the average daily life among men. Beware of the men who advise you to be a little practical, when they mean for you to be a little bad.
With the death of Professor John Fiske on July 4, the most popular of American historians and one of the most widely read of American philosophers passed away. The early biography of Professor Fiske, who was born in Hartford in 1842, reads like the history of such infant prodigies as Jonathan Edwards, Cotton Mather and Macaulay. When but seven years of age he was reading Josephus, Rollins, and other historical writers much in vogue in those days. At nine he had read most of Milton, Pope and Shakespeare. And at thirteen he had read much of Livy, Cicero, Ovid, Catullus. and Juvenal, and all of Cæsar, Virgil, Horace, Tacitus, Sallust, and Suetonius. At ten came also Greek, the German, Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, Swedish, Danish and Dutch; and, at seventeen, Hebrew and Sanskrit. Mr. Scudder, in his sketch of Fiske prefixed to the latter's “War of Independence" in the Riverside Literature Series, relates that at the age of eleven the youthful scholar had filled a quarto blank book of sixty pages with a chronological table, written entirely from memory, of events between 1000 B. C. and 1820 A. D. At Harvard, where he was graduated in 1863, his favorite studies were philosophy and philology. His first piece of literary work was printed while he was still an undergraduate, and was an article entitled "Mr.
Buckle's Fallacies." His “Outlines of Cosmic Philosopby,” published in 1874, immediately attracted the notice of many of the best minds on both sides of the Atlantic. Other volumes dealing with philosophical, scientific and literary subjects followed, among them "The Unseen World," "Excursions of an Evolution,” “The Destiny of Man," "The Idea of God," and "Through Nature to God." From about the year 1880 Professor Fiske turned largely from philosophical work and devoted himself almost wholly to American history. His work in this field is represented by "The Discovery of America,” “The American Revolution," "The Critical Period of American History," and other volumes. His rule of life was “ to eat what he wanted, to drink and to smoke what he wanted, and to make no apologies to any one." As early as 1869, at the age of 27, he wrote a book called “Tobacco and Alcohol,” in which he argued that the coming man would drink, and wonld use tobacco.” Along with these various accomplishments Mr. Fiske was an excellent singer and violinist.
The New York Eveniwg Post (July 5), under the caption “John Fiske, Popularizer,” gives the following judgment of him:
"The work of the brilliant man whose life was cut short by the blind fury (the heat) yesterday is doubtless best described as that of a purveyor of knowledge to the commonalty. John Fiske's mind was powerful, but not originating. He knew what true learning was, and where it was; and it was his delight and highest function to go into the workshops of the great laborers in philosophy and in history, and come out to tell the world what they were doing. He was essentially a lecturer.
Child of an age that lectures, not creates,
said Lowell of himself, ruefully. But lecturing may be made so much of a fine art that it may almost be said to be itself creative. It was so in Fiske's hands. For mastery of his subject without dullness, for lucidity and charm and fresh enthusiasm, we probably have never had his like—at least, in the abstruser philosophical and historical subjects which it was his joy to expound and illuminate. His chosen and successful role was thus that of a popularizer of useful kuowledge. His early writings in elucidation of Herbert Spencer, for example, probably had ten readers in this country where the original works of the evolutionary philosopher bad one. The reason was that Fiske had the gift of exposition, and was able, by his style, as no man ever accused Spencer of being, to make philosophy as musical as is Apollo's lute. If Huxley was, as he boasted, the 'bulldog' of Darwin, Fiske was the mocking bird of Spencer. And to him, above all lecturers and interpreters, may rightly be applied Coleridge's famous distinction between 'popularize’and plebificate,' John Fiske was no smatterer. If it is true that other men labored and he entered into their labors, it was by no royal road. He went to the sources as well as they; he was able to check off their work, and so to escape the danger of their leading him arcund by the nose. His own industry was enor. mous, his reading of a tremendous sweep, his passion for investigation like a living fountain within him, and his curiosity ever unsated. So it was the real thing he gave out to the public - genuine scholarship, first-hand information, and not the mere echo of his authorities."
Forenoon and afternoon and night,- forenoon
- E. R. Sill.
The Age of Educational Fads.
GRANVILLE F. FOSTER, BERKELEY, CAL. According to their own opinion, most men know how to teach, whatever their acknowledged lack of information in other respects may be, and are ready to impart what they know for the enlightenment of instructors and school boards. Some, however, are modest enough to confine their efforts in tbis direction to their own local boards and local instructors, but others step boldily forth before the educational world as exponents of theories, the adoption of which they are sure is to usher in the millenium to the little world of the schoolroom. Among these, of course, are those really qualified to be worthy leaders of thought in this direction, even if occasionally their superabundance of enthusiasm may lead them into extremes. The majority of these are, however, fadists, many of whom are contented to buy a little cheap notoriety by the very ard cy with which they advocate their respective theories, cherishing therewith a vague hope of apotheosis if their theories should ever be adopted. These theories or fads, according to their advocates, are new, fresh, original; and how could they well be otherwise, since they are the results of so much study and thought on the part of their selfproclaimed creators ? But in fact the most of them are not new or fresh or original, for we find them as old as authenic history itself. From the documents from the Valley of the Nile and upon the clay-cylinders from the ruias of Nineveh, we learn that many of these were thoroly discussed by the instructors of those remote ages and abandoned as not practical, at least when carried to the extremes to which some ancient advocates would have them taken.
But what are the-e fads ? Let us examine a few and see what would result to the educational work of the schoolroom if the advocate of each one had bis way. The Sloyd fadist urges the absolute necessity of every school board expend. ing hundreds of dollars for a workshop wherein boys and girls are to be taught the noble trade of a carpenter. The polytechnic fadist would not stop at one trade, for he would introduce all, and we are constrained to ask if one trade is to be introduced, why not all ? The commercial fadist who, like the teacher of philosophy in Moliere's celebrated comedy of “Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme," exo presses his contempt of all other branches of learning, would have us believe there is nothing sublime but bookkeeping and commercial law, and that upon these two “hang all the law and the prophets.” The stenographic fadist reminds us most earnestly that there is nothing half so beautiful, half so important, half so necessary as the circles, right angles and perpendiculars which he employs as the outward signs of his inner spiritual thoughts. The musical fadist impresses us with the thought, that in soothing the turbulent passions of youth, there is nothing like the concord of sweet sounds, and that the teaching of singing in consequence should have the most important place in the curriculum of every school. The culinary fadist would have every pupil to learn "to cook his goose" in the public school oven. The calisthenic fadish would have the teachers spend hours in instructing the pupils in the noble art of swinging dumb bells, and of marching and countermarching. The military fadist who, like Molier's fencing. master, is ready to show by demonstrative evidence how any man may kill without being killed, is strenuous in urging the necessity of preparing all our youth for the conquest of the world, the manifest destiny of our native country.
Here a question (quite impertinent it may be) forces itself on our minds, and we are constrained to ask: How much time is to be devoted to the good, oldfashioned, plain, homely, useful branches of spelling, reading, writing, geography, grammar in the public schools when all these fadists have all the time allotted to them, which each demands? Will the fadists themselves, with whom wisdom dwells, kindly inform us how the human mind may be so developed that such vulgar branches as we have just named may be grasped intuitively, taken in, so to